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Mileniusz Spanowicz/WCS

Bat With Insanely Long Tongue Found in Bolivia

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Mileniusz Spanowicz/WCS

The tube-lipped nectar bat has a tongue that’s longer than its entire body. Anoura fistulata, first discovered in Ecuador in 2005 [PDF], has only been observed in rare instances, but has just been found in a new place: Bolivia. 

Designed to reach deep into flowers to suck out nectar, the bat’s tongue, at 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches), is 150 percent the size of its body. The root of the tongue, which is up to twice the length of its other Anoura brethren, begins all the way down in the bat’s rib cage. It's the longest tongue (relative to its body) of any mammal. 

The bat was found as part of an 18-month-long expedition in Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Since June, scientists have been combing the 7,300 square-mile park for new species. They’ve cataloged 500 species of vertebrates, uncovering 60 animals they didn’t know lived in the park, including what they think is an entirely new species of frog. 

[h/t: Washington Post]

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Deb Wright
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Animals
The ‘Yoda Bat’ Gets an Even Cuter Name
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Deb Wright

The fruit bat formerly known as Yoda has found its forever name. Scientists christened the happy tube-nosed fruit bat in the Records of the Australian Museum.

The genus Nyctimene comprises 18 species, all of which live in Oceania and southeast Asia. They’ve got bright fur and faces, and noticeable spots on their wings. They will do just about anything for a mushy piece of fruit.

The family tree is no stranger to memorable common names, with cousins like N. draconilla, the dragon tube-nosed bat, and N. masalai, the demonic tube-nosed bat.

But wacky names aside, it would be hard to spot the dragon or the demon amid a lineup of other Nyctimene species.

“Bat species often look similar to each other,” biologist and co-author Nancy Irwin of York University said in a statement, “but differ significantly in behavior, feeding, and history.”

The newest member of the family showed its smiling little face during a field survey of Papua New Guinea in the late 1990s. Surveyors brought the bat to Irwin, who suspected it was a separate species. For its wrinkly ears and sage but goofy smile, she nicknamed the bat Yoda.

To confirm that they did, in fact, have a new species on their hands, Irwin and her colleagues combed through the scientific literature and museum collections. They examined nearly 3000 bat specimens from 18 museums.

A happy tube-nosed fruit bat with her baby and a postage stamp featuring an illustration of an unknown tube-nosed fruit bat.
Happy tube-nosed fruit bat (L) and a postage stamp (R) showing an unknown Nyctimene species, because they all look the same.
(L) Nancy Irwin; (R) Illustration by Julie Himes.

Many years and many, many research hours later, Irwin and her colleagues can confidently say the Yoda bat is a species unto itself. But they won’t call it Yoda anymore—since, as Irwin points out, most local Papuans have never seen the Star Wars movies, and the word "Yoda" means nothing to them.

She went with Hamamas (a local word for happy) instead. Its full name is the Hamamas tube-nosed fruit bat, Nyctimene wrightae sp. nov. (new species). The species name was chosen in honor of conservationist and scientist Deb Wright, who spent two decades exploring and protecting Papua New Guinea wildlife.

“Until a species is recognized and has a name,” Irwin says, “it becomes difficult to recognize the riches of biodiversity and devise management. Fruit bats are crucial to rainforest health, pollinating and dispersing many tree species, therefore it is essential we know what is there and how we can protect it, for our own benefit.”

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SMBishop, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
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Animals
Bats Yell, Too
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SMBishop, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Imagine you’re in a noisy restaurant, trying and failing to place an order. “IT’S VERY LOUD IN HERE!” you shout to your server, who shrugs. Now imagine that same conversation conducted super-fast, at a pitch so squeaky-high that you can’t even hear it. Researchers say bats are incredibly speedy at recognizing when they need to start shouting. A report on the bats’ raised voices is forthcoming in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Humans, bats, and other animals often start our conversations at one volume, then adjust as necessary. Study co-author Ninad Kothari of Johns Hopkins University says this seemingly simple action, called the Lombard effect, has proved complicated to understand.

“Scientists have been wondering for a century—could there be a common auditory process to explain how this phenomenon happens in fish to frogs to birds to humans, species with wildly different hearing systems?” Kothari said in a statement.

Previous studies had found that the Lombard effect takes about 150 milliseconds for birds and bats, and between 150 and 175 milliseconds for people.

Human listening, like human speech, can be messy, slow, and difficult to study. But bats’ echolocation squeaks and chirps are quick and precise, which makes them excellent scientific subjects.

Kothari and his colleagues Jinhong Luo and Cynthia Moss, also of Johns Hopkins, trained big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to sit calmly on little platforms surrounded by recording equipment. The researchers set up an automated pulley system that brought insects zooming toward the bats, then listened as the bats hunted, bouncing sound off the approaching meal. Sometimes they let the bats go about their business in silence; other hunting sessions were interrupted by bursts of loud white noise.

The results suggest that earlier speed estimates had been way, way off. Just 30 milliseconds after hearing white noise, the bats got louder. That’s a “remarkably short” reaction time, the authors say.

“Typically, we breathe every three to five seconds, our heart beats once per second, and eye blinking takes one-third of a second,” Luo said in the statement. “If we believe that eye blinking is fast, the speed at which an echolocating bat responds to ambient noise is truly shocking: 10 times faster than we blink our eyes.”

Not bad, bats. Not bad.

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