Why Do Goats Have Such Weird Eyes?

iStock
iStock

Even with their yelling and fainting competing for your attention, it’s hard not to notice a goat’s eyes. Their horizontal, rectangular pupils seem alien compared to the round pupils of people and dogs and the vertical slits of cats. Why do goats’ eyes look like that? And for that matter, why do cats’ eyes look the way they do? In a new study, vision scientist Martin Banks has found that the shape of an animal’s pupils is a clue to its place in the food chain.

Banks and his team looked at the eyes of 214 different species of land animals, and found a clear relationship between the shape of their pupils and their ecological role. Predatory animals that ambush their prey tend to have vertical slit pupils, while herbivores that are prey for other animals usually have horizontal pupils.

The predator-prey divide in pupil shape suggests that the hunters and the hunted gain some advantage from having a specific type of pupil. To find out what those advantages might be, the researchers analyzed the abilities of the two pupil shapes and how they could serve the different visual requirements of predators and prey.

Goats and other grazing animals (like deer, cattle and moose) that are hunted by predators have a pretty simple strategy for not being eaten: look out for danger and run away if they see it. Their eyes need to be able to do two things to support that strategy. “On the one hand, these animals must see panoramically to detect predators that could approach from various directions,” the researchers write. “On the other hand, they must see sufficiently clearly in the forward direction to guide rapid locomotion over potentially rough terrain.”

Horizontal pupils help here, the team found, because their shape creates a sharp panoramic view that’s wider and shorter than what you’d get with a round or vertical pupil and lets the animal see nearly all around itself. A long horizontal pupil also enhances the image quality of objects ahead of and behind the animal, and helps the eye capture more light along the ground and less dazzling overhead light.

Of course, those benefits don’t apply if the pupil stays oriented the same way and becomes vertically aligned when the animal tilts its head to graze. After watching grazing animals at the zoo, though, the researchers found that their eyes rotate to stay horizontally aligned with the ground whether their heads are upright or face down in the grass.

For a land animal that’s in danger of being eaten by something else and has few options besides being aware of its surroundings and running away, the researchers say that a long horizontal pupil seems to be ideal. In other words, goats have weird eyes because they help keep goats alive.

Meanwhile, the team found that vertical, slit-shaped pupils help small ambush predators like cats and snakes judge the distance of prey and other objects so they know how far they have to pounce.

A New DNA Test Will Break Down Your Cat's Breed

Basepaws
Basepaws

Modern DNA testing kits can reveal a lot of information about you just by sending your spit off to a lab for analysis. As a result, it's easier than ever to learn about your personal ancestry and health risks. And now, the same goes for your cat, too.

Basepaws is now offering what it calls the "world's first DNA test for cats," which can tell you which breeds your beloved fur baby likely descended from, in addition to other information about their characteristics. The CatKit will reveal whether your little Simba is more similar to an American Shorthair, Abyssinian, or one of the other 30 breeds on record, as well as determining which of the "big cats" (think lions) your kitty has the most in common with.

Here's how it works: After receiving your kit in the mail, you will be asked to collect a DNA sample from your feline friend. The current kit includes adhesives for collecting cat hair, but Basepaws will soon roll out new kits that call for saliva samples instead. (This will provide a more consistent DNA sample, while also allowing staff to process more samples at once, according to a company spokesperson. It also will make it easier to collect samples from hairless cats like Sphinxes.)

A cat DNA test result
Basepaws

Once you collect the sample, just mail it in and wait eight to 12 weeks for your report. Basepaws uses sequencing machines to "read" your kitty's genetic code, comparing it to the sequences of other cats in its network. "More than 99 percent of your cat's genetic sequence will be similar to every other cat; it's the small differences that make your cat unique," Basepaws writes on its website.

In the future, Basepaws will also be able to determine your cat's predisposition for certain diseases, as well as their personality and physical traits. The company holds on to your cat's genetic data, allowing it to provide updates about your cat as the Basepaws database continues to grow.

Order a kit on the Basepaws website for $95. Enter the code "MEOWRCH-I5W3RH" at the checkout for a 10 percent discount.

And don't feel left out if you're a dog lover rather than a cat person—Wisdom Panel offers a similar service for canine companions. Its kit is available for $73 on Amazon.

A Nubian Goat Named Lincoln Was Just Sworn in as the Mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont

iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia
iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia

Lincoln the goat may not be housebroken, but she had no problem winning the race for mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont. The new mayor was officially sworn in on Tuesday, March 12, and before signing the oath of office with her hoof print, she marked the occasion by defecating on the town hall floor, the Boston Globe reports.

Prior to getting into politics, Lincoln the droopy-eared Nubian goat lived a simple life. A local family looking for a way to maintain the unruly vegetation on their property had purchased her two years ago when she was 1 year old. At age 3, Lincoln transitioned from munching grass full-time to running for public office.

Though Lincoln's win is impressive, her election didn't involve beating any human candidates. Town Manager Joseph Gunter came up with the idea to hold an election for honorary pet mayor of Fair Haven as way to raise money for a new playground. For a $5 fee, local kids were allowed to nominate the pet of their choice to be town mayor. Lincoln bested more than a dozen candidates, including a gerbil named Crystal and a pacifier-sucking dog named Stella, for the position.

The stunt didn't raise much money—the town came away with just $100 for the playground—but it did earn Fair Haven international attention. In order to go down in history as world's longest-serving animal mayor, Lincoln has to stick around for a while; Stubbs the cat was mayor of Talkeetna, Alaska for 20 years.

[h/t Boston Globe]

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