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15 Mold-Breaking Heiresses You Should Know

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wikimedia commons // public domain

Movies and reality shows tend to show heiresses as scandal-attracting airhead socialites living the high life without a care. But for the historical heiresses below, growing up in luxury did not squelch their thirst for adventure, advocacy, or shattering the glass ceiling.

1. Helen Miller Gould Shepard // Spinster Turned Romantic Heroine

Helen Miller Gould was a generous philanthropist, and the first female vice-president of the American Bible Society. But perhaps the most extraordinary element of Helen's life was her meet-cute with future husband Finley Johnson Shepard. Still single at 44, she had long been written off as an old maid when the couple met at a trainwreck. Yes, a trainwreck.

While traveling to Chicago with some gal pals in 1912, a freight train in front of them crashed, tossing cars onto the track—which Gould's train then collided with. According to the New York Times, “the middle cars buckled upward  ... the private car in which Miss Gould was riding was ... wrenched and twisted.” As her story is told today at the Lyndhurst estate that she'd long preserved, Helen refused to flee to safety. Instead, she dove into the rescue effort, along with Mr. Shepard. In the midst of peril, the pair found love, and wed the next year in Helen's auspicious home.

2. Peggy Guggenheim // The Queen of Modern Art

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Peggy Guggenheim's passion for life and art was said to be insatiable. When her father went down with the Titanic, the 13-year-old New Yorker became an instant millionaire, and used her wealth to travel, take lovers at will (she was rumored to have thousands), view all forms of art, and make a long list of famous friends from Man Ray to Samuel Beckett and Piet Mondrian to Marcel Duchamp. But Peggy's true legacy became the art she brought into the spotlight.

Whether home in New York or abroad in London, Paris, and Venice, Peggy would create exhibitions and waves everywhere she went. Through her shows, encouragement, and patronage, she launched the careers of Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, Robert Motherwell, and Jackson Pollock. Her "Art of This Century" gallery celebrated Cubism, Surrealism, and American Abstract Expressionism. In her own acquisitions, she took risks, buying the unsellable pieces ahead of their time or beyond description. Today, the Peggy Guggenheim Museum is one of the most popular destinations in Venice. And her impact on Modern Art as we know is incalculable.

3. Altina Schinasi // Mother of Harlequin

Artist and activist Altina Schinasi opposed McCarthyism and earned an Oscar nomination in 1960 in the Best Documentary Short Subject category. Yet this American heiress is most often remembered for how she forever changed the way we look at eyewear.

Having heard the Dorothy Parker verse "Men seldom make passes /At girls who wear glasses," Altina sought out to make eyeglasses glamorous. Pulling inspiration from Venetian masquerades, she created the Harlequin frame out of paper, and took the concept to companies like American Optical, Bausch + Lomb, and Ray-Ban, only to be rebuffed with comments like, "Well, when we're ready to sell glasses to lunatics, we'll let you know." Undeterred, Altina found a small company that took a risk, which paid off big. The Harlequin frame became a sensation in the 1930s, and is still quite popular today—though now it's known as the cat eye.

4. Tennessee Claflin // The First Woman Of Wall Street

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Tennessee and her sister Victoria Claflin Woodhull were not born into wealth, but instead served as eager apprentices to their snake oil salesman father. They got into the family business by promoting themselves as faith healers, drawing the attentions of the superstitious Cornelius “Commodore” Vanderbilt. Though 50 years her senior, the Commodore fell for Tennie, who he called, "my little sparrow." She called him "the old goat," and so blossomed a relationship both personal and professional: He became silent partner to her and Victoria's stock brokerage firm, the first of its kind, run by women.

Their opening in 1870 was a massive draw. Men rushed in to see how "Lady Bankers" did business, while the papers made sure to note that the owners of Woodhull, Claflin & Co. favored short hair and skirts short enough to show their boots! Their business thrived, and allowed for a safe space for women to take control of their own money. Next, the sisters began their own paper, Woodhull & Claflin’s Weekly, where they stoked the flames of their fame by promoting such taboo topics as sex education for young people, gender equality, and fair work conditions. Tennessee's 1885 marriage to Francis Cook, Viscount of Montserrat, is almost a footnote to her tale, falling far behind her stories of ambition and advocacy.

5. Pannonica de Koenigswarter // The Jazz Baroness

Born in 1913 London at the height of her family's influence, Pannonica Rothschild went on to marry a baron and fight as part of Charles de Gaulle's Free French Army in the Congo during World War II. But what has defined this baroness's legacy is her contribution to bebop through her patronage of jazz legend Thelonius Monk. Enchanted by his 3-minute record "Round Midnight," she traveled to New York City to meet him. Though the pair weren't fated to meet for years, Pannonica made a big impression on the Jazz Scene in her long, white Rolls-Royce, luxuriously lengthy cigarette holder perched in slender fingers, and ocelot coat draped around her shoulders.

When she finally did find Monk, they became fast friends. Some have speculated they were lovers, but no proof of such a romance has ever surfaced. As his patron, she devoted herself to Monk's well-being, even taking the rap for a marijuana possession charge in 1958 and allowing him to move into her home in his later years, when he was plagued by mental health issues. But more than patron, Nica—as she was lovingly nicknamed—was a source of inspiration to scads of musicians. Monk remembered her with his song "Pannonica." And this is one of many named for her, like Sonny Clark's "Nica," Kenny Dorham's "To Nica," Tommy Flanagan's "Thelonica," Gigi Gryce's "Nica's Tempo," and Freddie Red's "Nica Steps Out."

6. Lady Hazel Lavery // The Embodiment of Mother Ireland

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Described as "The Most Beautiful Girl in the Midwest," this industrialist's daughter would grow up to become such a major part of Irish history that she'd be portrayed on the nation's money. After she wed Irish painter John Lavery, Hazel befriended revolutionary Michael Collins, and became so involved in Ireland's politics that the negotiations of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 were held within her palatial home.

Though Hazel took Collins's 1922 assassination quite hard, she continued to fight for what she felt was best for her adopted homeland. In 1928, her husband was commissioned to paint a portrait for a new series of banknotes. When choosing who he felt might best embody the virtues of Ireland, Lavery chose his favorite model: his American wife. She appeared on Irish banknotes for almost 50 years.

7. Louise Boyd // The Girl Who Tamed the Arctic

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Born on the sunny coast of California, this heiress to the Bodie Gold Bonanza of 1877 made her name exploring the glaciers of the Arctic. Not long after a trip to Norway's North Cape gave her a taste for the chilly region, Louise arranged her first expedition in the summer of 1926, returning with thousands of feet of film and hundreds of photographs. Two years later, she set forth once more to join the rescue effort of lost pilot Umberto Nobile. Though unsuccessful in his recovery (Nobile was eventually rescued by the Swedes, but it’s a long story), her four-month effort earned Louise a medal of honor from the King of Norway.

Later scientific expeditions led to an area of Greenland being named in her honor (Louise Boyd Land). Her acquired knowledge of the Arctic's glaciers, fiords, and magnetic/radio phenomena drew the attention of the U.S. Department of the Army, who contacted her during World War II. At 68, Louise embarked on her last great Arctic adventure, becoming the first woman to fly across the North Pole. After that, she retired from expeditions, but continued to promote others as a board member of American Geographical Society.

For more tales of female explorers, click here.

8. Nancy Astor // Groundbreaking Parliament member

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Her father was an American railroad tycoon. Her husband was from one of the richest families in America. And to this heiress, great wealth came with great responsibility. Sometimes her charity was haphazard, like the time she plucked up a "lady tramp" from the side of the road and gave her a cottage to live in for the rest of her days. But by 1919, Nancy made it more than her mission to care for those in need—she made it her political platform in her adopted home of Plymouth Sutton.

Running for the seat formerly occupied by her husband, Nancy appealed to women who'd only recently been granted the right to vote, saying, "I think that women had better put a woman in the House of Commons. Much as I love you, Gentlemen, you have made a terrible muddle of the world without us." At 40, she became first woman representative in the United Kingdom's House of Commons, where she served for nearly 25 years. However, her legacy is a mixed one: She was praised for her promotion of women's issues, but scorned for her support of the Nazis before World War II began.

9. Gracia Mendes-Nasi // Sephardic Savior

One of the wealthiest Jewish women of Renaissance Europe, Gracia (a.k.a. Beatriz de Luna) used her great wealth to protect her fellow Jews from persecution. Her husband's death in January 1538 bestowed upon the 26-year-old a grand fortune. But when the pope began to push for a Portuguese Inquisition in the vein of the bloody Spanish one, Gracia fled with her surviving family, leaving much of her money behind. She'd long been a converso, masquerading outwardly as Catholic while secretly carrying on the religious traditions of her Jewish ancestors.

After years of fleeing persecution, Gracia was imprisoned in Venice, her wealth confiscated. Two years of negotiations earned her release. Establishing a new home in Constantinople, she and her daughter shed their Catholic façade and lived openly as Jews. A savvy businesswoman, Gracia grew her wealth, then used it to help conversos and Jews throughout the world. She bribed corrupt anti-Semitic officials for releases. She built synagogues, yeshivas, and libraries, funded Hebrew book printings, and gave money to countless conversos so they might rebuild their lives in friendlier lands. Today, her reputation is so great that the Sephardic community embraces her as "Our Angel."

10. Madame Barbe-Nicole Clicquot // Grand Dame of Champagne

Having narrowly survived the French Revolution's assault on the bourgeoisie, two neighboring textile merchants decided to merge their businesses through the marriage of their children. And so, Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin became Mrs. (or Madame) Francois Clicquot. Though their marriage was arranged, the two shared a passion for business and bubbly. Together they took over the Clicquots' small wine operation, learning the ins and outs of it together. But when Francois died abruptly from typhoid six years into their marriage, it was up to Barbe-Nicole to keep it going when her father-in-law lost faith.

Barbe-Nicole lived by the words she'd later write to her grandchild: "The world is in perpetual motion, and we must invent the things of tomorrow. One must go before others, be determined and exacting, and let your intelligence direct your life. Act with audacity.”

She staked her inheritance on saving the business, and concocted a timesaving fermentation process called "riddling," which is still employed by modern champagne makers today. It wasn't easy, but this businesswoman believed that her atypically sweet champagne would be a hit with the Russians. Nearing bankruptcy, she smuggled her goods to Russia's border, and waited out the end of the conflict. The war ended in the nick of time. Tsar Alexander I proclaimed Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin was the only champagne he'd drink. As he went, so did the world. Thus, Barbe-Nicole built an empire that continues to thrive today.

11. Frances Glessner Lee // Dollhouse Homicide Detective

The Chicago-born heiress, who is said to be the inspiration for Murder She Wrote's Jessica Fletcher, only began pursuing the career for which she's known in her 60s. While other women of her station were hosting galas for society's elite, Frances hosted elaborate dinner parties for medical examiners and homicide detectives, who were encouraged to share every grisly detail of a case. Through these, Frances became a student of forensics and investigation. Understanding how crucial physical elements of a case can be to solving it, this home-schooled amateur sleuth created the diorama series “The Nutshell Studies of Unexplained Death” through the 1940s and '50s, which were presented at week-long conferences for cops.

Built to scale with an intense eye to detail, every dollhouse presented a scene complete with corpse, blood spatter, and potential clues. Each was based on a real crime scene, built in miniature so detectives could observe and educate themselves on deductive reasoning and assessing a scene. Her studies revolutionized the way American investigators operate, and are still used to teach forensic investigation today.

12. Katharine McCormick // Mother of The Pill

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An outspoken advocate for women's rights as well as a biologist, this American heiress managed to dovetail these interests in her later days to win one of feminism's most important victories. Once this suffragette had seen women earn the right to vote, she focused on bringing birth control to America. Her early efforts in the 1920s involved seemingly breezy trips to and from Europe, which were actually smuggling operations to get much-needed diaphragms stateside. But as the second woman to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Katharine believed the real key to effective change for women needed to be in pill form.

She actively sought researchers who would dare tackle this topic despite the societal taboos. It wasn't until 1950 that science could even truly conceive of such a thing, and that’s when Katharine found her partner, biologist Gregory Pincus, who'd had success controlling the hormone levels of test rabbits. Funded by Katharine, Pincus moved on to human testing under the guise of "fertility treatments" in 1954. By 1960, the Food and Drug Administration had approved the pill, and so began a new wave of feminism thanks to one of its fierce foremothers.

13. Caterina Sforza // Tigress of Forli

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Perhaps the most infamous woman of Renaissance Italy, Caterina earned her nickname when her husband (Girolamo Riario, the Lord of Forli) was killed by rebels in 1488. After smooth talking her way through these foes into the safety of an ally's fortress, she took to the top of its barricades and hurled obscenities at the rebels she'd tricked. Incensed, they threatened to murder her children, held hostage. The Tigress responded by pulling up her skirts, exposing her genitals and callously proclaiming, "Kill them. I can make more."

While this (remarkably) did not lead to the death of her children, it did mark her rise as a notorious warlord. But for all the murders, torture, and destruction she wrought, Caterina's most outrageous crime was when she allegedly tried to kill Pope Alexander VI (a.k.a. Rodrigo Borgia). In 1499, she sent the pontiff a curious package of letters, swaddled in a scarlet cloth. How this was meant to kill the pope is a matter of debate. Some suggest that Caterina's interest in alchemy inspired her to employ a poison that should have been absorbed through the skin. But others suggest that the Tigris had attempted early germ warfare by wrapping the letters in the clothes of a bubonic plague victim. More shocking might be that this warlord met no violent end. Though briefly imprisoned, she was released after the pope's natural death, and spent the rest of her days dabbling in alchemy.

14. Katharine Drexel // Actual Saint

While many wealthy women (and men) have given money to charity, few have gone as far as this 19th century heiress to a J.P. Morgan financier's fortune. By age 33, Katharine had become a nun, and as Sister Katharine she used her great wealth to build schools for the underserved populations of Native Americans and African Americans she had met in her cross-country travels. She founded and funded the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People. Known today as the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament, this group has opened 145 missions, 49 elementary schools, and 12 high schools.

For her faith, missionary work, and donating an estimated $20 million to charity before her passing at the age of 96, she was canonized as Saint Katharine Drexel in 2000. Her feast day is March 3rd.

15. Krystyna Skarbek // "The Very First Bond Girl"

Also known as Christine Granville, this Polish heiress's heroics in World War II inspired author Ian Fleming's Casino Royale character Vesper Lynd. Though raised in luxury, Krystyna knew how to get down and dirty when it came to battling Nazi forces. While being interrogated by the Gestapo, she bit her tongue so hard she was able to cough up blood and feign tuberculosis, winning a release. Another time, she scared off a troop of would-be German captors by raising her arms—in seeming surrender—to reveal a pair of live grenades.

When WWII broke out, she volunteered herself to the British government as a spy, even offering a plan to disrupt Nazi influence in Hungary through pamphlets, using skis as transport. The British Special Operations Executive said yes, leading to her fateful meeting with Andrzej Kowerski, who'd become her partner professionally and romantically. Their missions sent them again and again into enemy territory, and her successes earned her the honor of being called Churchill's favorite spy. This wily woman's reputation has understandably become legendary. British ambassador Sir Owen O'Malley once declared, "(Krystyna is) the bravest person I ever knew. She could do anything with dynamite—except eat it."

25 Unheralded African-American Pioneers and Trailblazers You Should Know

As we celebrate Black History Month, it's important to look back at the brave men and women who faced off against prejudice and bigotry in order to share their unique talents with the world. Whether they were involved in Civil Rights, politics, science, technology, sports, or music, African-American history is full of innovators, though they don't always get their due. Here are 25 unheralded African-American pioneers and trailblazers you should know.


When Jesse LeRoy Brown was a teenager, he wrote a letter to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to express his disappointment that African Americans weren't flying in the military. While that changed in the Air Force in the early '40s with the Tuskegee Airmen, it would be Brown himself that would break that barrier for the Navy in 1947. By 1949 he was an officer, and in 1950, the United States was at war in Korea and he was in the action. Brown and his unit were soon airborne, completing dangerous missions to take out targets and protect troops on the ground.

On December 4, 1950, while on a mission to provide cover for a Marine regiment, Brown's plane was struck—leaking fuel, he crash-landed on a slope but was still alive. His wingman, Thomas Hudner, crash landed his own plane to reach Brown in order to help. Though Brown died shortly after due to his wounds from the crash, both men were honored by the United States—Brown received a posthumous Flying Cross medal for bravery, while Hudner, who survived the ordeal, was presented with the Medal of Honor. A Naval frigate, the USS Jesse L. Brown, was also built and operated in the '60s and '70s.

At a gathering to commemorate Brown and Hudner's rescue attempt, NAS Jacksonville Commanding Officer Capt. Jeffrey Maclay remarked: "When Brown risked his life to help a Marine regiment that day, he didn't consider their race. And when his fellow pilots saw him in danger, they did not think about the color of their skin. They only knew he was an American in trouble."


Picture of a Rosa Parks replica bus
A replica of the type of bus Rosa Parks rode on and that Jo Ann Robinson organized a boycott against.
Justin Sullivan, Getty Images

Jo Ann Robinson is an often-overlooked part of the Civil Rights Movement, but her contributions were crucial. Born in Georgia in 1912, Robinson focused her early life on education. She began by graduating college in 1934, and later became a public school teacher in Macon, Georgia. After receiving her master’s degree, she took a job as a college professor in Alabama and began becoming more socially active, eventually being named president of the Women's Political Council (WPC) in 1950.

Seeing how African Americans were being treated in the Montgomery, Alabama area, Robinson used her position at the WPC to try to pressure the city's mayor, William A. Gale, to desegregate public buses, to no avail. After Rosa Parks was arrested on December 1, 1955, Robinson and a group of activists distributed tens of thousands of pamphlets urging a one-day boycott of the bus system. It was a success, and the now-famous boycott of the Montgomery bus system soon ballooned, lasting for months with the help of Robinson.

Though the boycotts were eventually successful, Robinson faced severe harassment and intimidation from local police throughout—including having rocks thrown through her windows and acid poured on her car. Eventually, state police were ordered to protect her. Once the boycotts ended and buses desegregated, Robinson moved from Alabama to teach in California.


An old IMB personal computer.
Steve Petrucelli, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

For many in the '80s, IBM computers were likely their first experience with the technology that would define the future. And a big part of what made the company so successful is thanks to Mark Dean, an engineer whose work helped create the company's ISA bus. This hardware add-on allowed peripheral accessories like printers, disk drives, and keyboards to be plugged directly into the computer. Amazingly, he holds three of IBM's original nine PC patents.

His later breakthroughs included work that led to the creation of the color PC monitor and the first gigahertz chip, which allows a machine to compute a billion calculations per second and is instrumental in everything from computer systems to gaming consoles today.

He's still in the industry today, telling Engadget that he's currently "looking to develop an alternative computing architecture leveraging what we know about neuroscience and brain structures."


Photo of Madam C.J. Walker products
Craig Barritt, Getty Images for Essence

Known as "the first black woman millionaire in America," Madam C.J. Walker—born Sarah Breedlove—broke the bank with her own line of hair products that she developed while trying to find a cure for her own hair loss. After experimenting with products by an African-American businesswoman named Annie Malone, Breedlove decided to strike out on her own with a method called the "Walker System." This basically boiled down to scalp prep, lotions, and an iron comb specifically designed for black hair care.

To drum up publicity and mystique, the name Madam C.J. Walker was crafted, and she soon began selling her products around the country to an African-American clientele that was often ignored by mainstream marketing. Perhaps her most long-standing accomplishment is the fact that her beauty empire helped employ others looking to make a living by selling the Walker System. Estimates put the number of employees somewhere around 40,000 at a time when holding a job as a black woman wasn't necessarily common.

With her success came a responsibility to her community, and Walker was also involved in regular donations to black charities like the NAACP and Tuskegee Institute. For a woman who was both a poor orphan and widow at 20, the Madam C.J. Walker empire is a true success story.


A laundry operation circa 1925.
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

Thomas L. Jennings is known as the first African American to receive a patent in the United States for his invention of an early form of dry cleaning called "dry scouring." The patent was given in 1821 but was first met with resistance on the grounds that, at the time, all slaveowners legally own the "fruits of the labor of the slave both manual and intellectual." Jennings was a free man, though, and set a precedent for all other free African Americans after him. He could now make money from his own innovations.

The money earned from his invention went toward freeing other members of his family from slavery, as well as going into various abolitionist causes.


The road from the pop rock acts of the '50s and '60s to the punk rock of the late '70s and '80s was bridged by what's now known as the proto-punk movement. This loose fraternity of raw, underproduced garage rock bands was prepping listeners for what was to come in the music industry. This was a genre that replaced the slick, polished tunes of the previous decades with the abrasive rhythms of anger, alienation, and attitude. But even music aficionados with a deep back catalog of the proto-punk scene might not know of a little band called Death.

Death is made up of the Hackney brothers—David, Bobby, and Dannis—and had a sound that would fit right at home next to bands like The Stooges, The Modern Lovers, and MC5. They were denied success in the '70s when Clive Davis, president of Columbia Records, pulled financial support after the band refused to change its name. This stopped the band in its tracks, and they soon fizzled after their self-financed record, Politicians in my Eyes, failed to sell.

Only a few songs from Death were ever recorded, but they had amassed a cult following over the years, leading to subsequent re-releases of their material and a documentary about the band, produced in 2013. They're just now being recognized as one of the early shots fired in the punk movement.


Bessie Coleman's stamp
John Flannery, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

When Bessie Coleman was denied the right to learn to fly in the United States, she decided to go to school, learn French, and travel overseas to France to get her pilot's license. In seven months, she got her license and returned to the States in 1921, where she created a media stir as the nation's first black female pilot.

Coleman soon began performing at air shows and doing stunts for waves of spectators, all while making sure to use her celebrity to raise awareness of racial inequality and encourage women of any skin color to fly. Unfortunately, just a few years later in 1926, while prepping for a stunt in Jacksonville, Florida, a wrench became stuck in the gears of her plane, which went into an unexpected nosedive and spin. Coleman wasn't wearing a seatbelt and was thrown from the plane. She died on impact.


A picture of the Fairchild Channel F
A picture of the Fairchild Channel F, complete with the system's innovative cartridges.
Michael Dunn, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Remember those video game cartridges you had growing up? The ones you'd swap in and out of your console and occasionally have to blow into to make them work? That technology was made possible with the help of Jerry Lawson, the chief hardware engineer at Fairchild Semiconductor’s game division. Lawson began his life cobbling electronics together as a child and making his own radio station in his housing complex. That interest in electronics led him to Fairchild and its burgeoning video games branch.

Lawson’s most high-profile assignment was designing the electronics behind the Fairchild Channel F video game console in 1976. This system was interesting for a lot of reasons—the first of which was that players could now play against the computer, rather than needing another participant to work the game.

More important, though, is the fact that he and his team had devised the first video game cartridge that would allow players to switch out to different games instead of needing them to be hardwired into the system. The technology already existed in a rough state and was licensed to Fairchild, but Lawson and his team perfected it, making video game cartridges an omnipresent part of the industry from the '70s all the way through to today's micro-cartridges seen on the Nintendo Switch.

Need more proof that Lawson was an early Silicon Valley pioneer? He was in the same homebrew computer club as Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs in the '70s and '80s (though he apparently wasn't too impressed with either of them).


Stack of comic books

Longtime comic book fans may know the name Christopher Priest from writing Black Panther in the late '90s and early 2000s, and even older ones may know the name he went by earlier in his career, Jim Owsley. What most don’t know is just how groundbreaking his career has been, despite not always getting his due.

Priest came on to the Marvel scene as an intern in the late '70s and became a writer in the early '80s, working on characters like Spider-Man, Iron Fist, and Falcon. He then moved on to become the first African-American editor for a mainstream publication when he was given the job handling the company’s Spider-Man line while still in his early twenties.

During his career, he’s dipped in and out of high-profile gigs, writing stories for characters like Deadpool, Batman, Conan the Barbarian, and so many others. And while personal reasons forced him out early, he was also one of the original architects behind Milestone Comics, a company founded by black creators looking to give a diverse voice to the industry. When work slowed down or he needed to take a break from the politics of the comic book industry, he retreated from the business, at one point becoming a bus driver in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Fans curious about Priest are in luck, though. After falling out of the mainstream comics spotlight for years, he recently spearheaded DC Comics' relaunched Deathstroke title and had a stint on the main Justice League comic as well as Marvel's Inhumans: Once and Future Kings.


Picture of a security camera

All Marie Van Brittan Brown wanted to do was feel safe at night, and along the way she reshaped how people all over the world secure their homes. Brown lived in Jamaica, Queens at a time when the crime rate in New York City was on a steady ascent, and police were often unable to respond to every emergency. To help ensure the family's safety, Brown, a nurse, and her husband, Albert, an electronics technician, created a security system made up of peepholes, monitors, microphones, remote door locks, and an emergency alarm button that could contact police.

This is credited as the first modern home security system, and the invention was patented in 1966. Many of these features would become standard in the home security systems of the next decade into today.


Steven Towns, Fritz Pollard's grandson, standing next to Pollard's Pro Football Hall of Fame bust in 2005.
Steven Towns, Fritz Pollard's grandson, standing next to Pollard's Pro Football Hall of Fame bust in 2005.
Jonathan Daniel, Getty Images

Standing at only 5 feet 9 inches, Fritz Pollard didn't have the type of size that was typical for gridiron success, but he still managed to break down football's color barrier multiple times. Before making it to the pros, Pollard was a standout in college, becoming the first black player to play in the Rose Bowl while attending Brown.

After school, he served a stint in the army before joining the Akron Pros of the American Professional Football League (later the NFL) in 1920. In 1921, he was named coach of the team, while also still playing. The APFA became the NFL in 1922 while Pollard was still a coach at Akron, which makes him the NFL's first African-American coach. He continued until 1926, when the NFL segregated and got rid of all black coaches and athletes.

Before retiring from the sport, Pollard would attempt to create all-black teams to play against NFL squads but was never successful. Despite his unfortunate departure from the game, Pollard was posthumously inducted in the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2005.


Picture of an old film projector.

Oscar Micheaux is credited with being the first African American to make a feature film and is one of the more successful black filmmakers of the early years of the movie industry. Micheaux worked as a porter for years before homesteading a farm in South Dakota and getting to work as a writer. One of his books, The Homesteader, was of interest to the country's first black film production company, the Lincoln Motion Picture Company.

However, instead of taking the film company's offer, Micheaux decided to produce it himself independently to have more control over the project. In his career, he produced more than 40 movies, with many of them garnering controversy from black audiences, white audiences, and oftentimes both. And though he never won much praise from contemporaries or film historians, Micheaux's story is an outlier during a time when black filmmakers were basically unheard of.


Picture of the front of an FDNY firetruck

Before the FDNY was even established, the city of New York had its first female firefighter in Molly Williams, who also happened to be a slave at the time. She belonged to Benjamin Aymar at 42 Greenwich St. in the early 19th century, and she soon found herself a part of Oceanus Engine Co. 11 where Aymar served as a volunteer.

Williams was well known around the fire house, with records indicating that she was either a cook or a personal helper to Aymar during this time. In March 1818, though, the city was struck by two calamities: a historic blizzard crippled the streets and a wave of flu incapacitated many of the volunteer firefighters. So, of course, this is exactly when a fire call would come in.

According to legend, Molly was the only one physically capable of answering the call, and the image of the lone woman hauling the water pumper out in the snowy streets has since become a sort of folklore. She was reportedly adopted as an unofficial volunteer of the fire house afterwards, given the distinction Volunteer No. 11.


Picture of a wrestling ring

Luther Lindsay predated the days of superstar African-American pro-wrestlers like Ernie Ladd, Bobo Brazil, and the Junkyard Dog, but his trailblazing career helped open the doors for all of them. Noted as a superb athlete, Lindsay pulled off the rare feat of making the renowned Stu Hart tap out in the Hart Dungeon (his wrestling school)—an accomplishment which earned Hart's respect enough that he apparently kept a photo of Lindsay in his wallet until his death.

Inside the ring, Lindsay was a technician, but culturally he is best known for two barrier-breaking moments. He was the first black wrestler to go against a white wrestler in the South, when he was pitted against Ron White in Texas. And while the National Guard was brought in to fend off any riots, the crowd was overwhelmingly in favor for Lindsay that night. White even stated, "We had riots down there, but instead of killing Luther Lindsay they was trying to kill me."

His next cultural achievement came when he was given the honor of being the first black wrestler to challenge for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship when he went up against the legendary Lou Thesz in 1953. Lindsay battled the champ to a time-limit draw.

Lindsay died of a heart attack during a match in 1972, but his pioneering career helped countless black wrestlers achieve stardom over the years.


Picture of Earl Lloyd
Staff Sgt. Marc Ayalin, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

In 1950, the first three black players in NBA history were drafted by the league, but through a quirk in the schedule (not every team began the season on the same night), Earl Lloyd of the Washington Capitols earned the distinction as the first African-American to play in an NBA game. The other two players were Chuck Cooper of the Boston Celtics and Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton with the New York Knicks.

The stint didn't last long, as Lloyd was drafted to fight in Korea after just seven games. He would play for the Syracuse Nationals and the Detroit Pistons upon his return, and he later served as a scout and assistant coach for the Pistons (a first for the NBA). He would later be named the team’s head coach—the fourth black head coach in league history but the first that was not also a player simultaneously.


Photo of Dr. Shirley Jackson and President Barack Obama

Much of the technology behind how we communicate today was made easier by advancements that Dr. Shirley Jackson helped create. While working at AT&T Bell Laboratories, she worked on—and helped invent—the technologies that would go into everything from fiber optics cables to fax machines, and even Caller ID. It's no surprise that Jackson was able to accomplish all of this in her career—as a student, she became the first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D in physics and the first to earn her doctorate in any subject from MIT.


Picture of chess champion Maurice Ashley
Tomo Saito, Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

Maurice Ashley was born in Jamaica and moved to the Brownsville section of Brooklyn when he was 12. It would be another two years before he would discover the game that would earn him a unique place in history: chess. Though his first game wasn't anything close to a success, Ashley would learn from his mistakes and study the ins and outs of his new craft, eventually becoming the first African American to be named a chess Grandmaster and the first black player ever in the U.S. Chess Hall of Fame.

Despite chess being a spirited, respectful game, Ashley has heard his share of slurs over the years, though he would always keep forging ahead. He told the Chicago Tribune that's exactly why he likes the game, because with chess, "Your moves do the talking."


Open research book

During the 1940s, anthropologist Dr. William Allison Davis was coming out with brilliant, pointed, and perceptive studies on race that helped illuminate the African-American struggle in the United States. In his studies, Davis would state that race and class worked as "interlocking systems of oppression" and helped point out the ineffectiveness of tools such as standardized intelligence tests when it came to assessing children of lower class.

Davis wrote numerous books on these subjects along with his wife and fellow anthropologist, Elizabeth Stubbs Davis. In the case of the I.Q. tests, Davis led groups that helped cities discard their standard formats, which he proved to be biased.


A half-eaten Oreo

Though writer Fran Ross doesn't have a prolific body of work, what does exist of her all-too-short career is a glimpse into someone far ahead of her time. Her lone novel, Oreo, published in 1974, takes a hard-edged, satirical look at race as it centers on the titular Oreo, a young African-American girl who goes on a quest to New York City to find her white, Jewish father.

Ross combined timely themes, absurd humor, and shades of the mythological Greek story of Theseus to craft a story that stood out from the other, more conventional socially conscious novels of the time. Oreo didn't necessarily find success in the '70s, but it has gained something of a cult following since.

Ross's writing career didn't end there; she also contributed to magazines like Essence and Playboy, and even briefly wrote comedy for Richard Pryor. Her voice was different from the authors writing about race at the time, but that doesn't mean what Fran Ross had to say was any less profound.


Musician playing the saxophone

There are a lot of "firsts" to check off on the resume of Wilbur C. Sweatman. He is reportedly the first musician to record a take on Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" and among the first to join the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). Most notably, though, he was also the first African American to receive a long-term record contract and possibly to record jazz in general.


An incandescent light bulb

Lewis Latimer was born in 1848 to parents who had fled to Massachusetts after escaping slavery. After serving in the Civil War, Latimer taught himself technical drawing, which led to him designing a number of inventions, including a take on an air conditioner unit and a new style of bathroom for rail cars. He soon began working with Alexander Graham Bell, helping him with the drawings that would eventually be part of Bell's patent for the telephone.

Most notably, though, was Latimer's own patent for a carbon filament. Before this, Thomas Edison's light bulbs were powered with a filament made of paper, which would burn out quickly. This carbon filament would last far longer and helped popularize the bulb for average users. The patent was sold, and Latimer then patented the process to efficiently produce the filament on a large scale. His electrical and engineering know-how led to him supervising the installation of public lights throughout major cities like New York, Philadelphia, and London.


Sign of remembrance for Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Sean_Marshall, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

Mary Ann Shadd Cary can sometimes get lost among the names of African-American social activists of the 19th century, but her impact is as important as anyone's. She was born in Wilmington, Delaware to a free African-American family. Her father worked for a newspaper called The Liberator, which was run by William Lloyd Garrison, a noted abolitionist who also supported the later women's suffrage movement.

In the years before the Civil War, Cary was an ardent abolitionist and eventually moved with her brother to Canada after the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act. She founded a newspaper there called The Provincial Freeman, making her the first black newspaper editor in North America.

She moved back to the United States during the war and became a recruiting officer for the Union in Indiana. And Cary eventually attended Harvard where she got her law degree, making her the second black woman in the country ever to do so.


You might not know the name Lonnie Johnson, but if you've ever been around a group of kids on a hot summer day, you've definitely (and probably unwillingly) felt his influence. Johnson, a former engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the man behind the infamous Super Soaker squirt gun.

The idea came to him in 1982 when he shot some pressurized streams of water across a room when he was working on a new heat pump for refrigerators. Realizing this could make for a fun squirt gun, and a new feather in his cap as a prospective inventor, Johnson said he "put the hard science stuff behind and start[ed] working on some really fun stuff."

After winning a lawsuit in 2013, Johnson was awarded underpaid royalties for his invention, netting him more than $72 million from Hasbro. Johnson's work also includes contributions to NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Cassini probe, which studied Saturn.


Portrait of Alexander Miles
Duluth Public Library archives, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Before Alexander Miles invented a system for elevator doors to open and close automatically, it was up to people—either the riders themselves or an operator—to make sure the car and shaft doors were secure. And guess what? People would forget, and accidents ensued.

Miles saw the potential for danger when riding in an elevator with his young daughter, so he devised a system wherein an elevator's doors could open and close on their own, eliminating the hazard of human error. His design made it so the cage of the elevator car would trigger a mechanism that would close the door to the shaft on its own.

And, after moving to Chicago in 1899, he founded The United Brotherhood, a life insurance company that catered to an African-American population that wasn't always guaranteed coverage by other companies in the market.


Picture of Shirley Chisholm
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

Shirley Chisholm never faced a barrier she wasn't willing to break. An educator from Brooklyn, Chisholm became the first African-American woman to serve on the United States Congress, remaining in office from 1969 to 1983. While representing New York's 12th Congressional District, she founded the Congressional Black Caucus and the National Women's Political Caucus, and served on the Education and Labor Committee, all while exclusively staffing her office with women.

And while that's enough of a career for any successful politician, Chisholm's most high-profile work came when she decided to be the first woman to run for president as a Democrat in 1972.

On January 25, 1972, she made a speech outside of the U.S. Capitol, proclaiming:

"I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud. I'm not the candidate of the women's movement of this country, although I am a woman, and I'm equally proud of that. I am not the candidate of any political bosses or fat cats or special interests.

"I stand here now without endorsements from many big-name politicians or celebrities or any kind of prop. I do not intend to offer to you the tired and glib cliches which have for too long been an accepted part of our political life. I am the candidate of the people, and my presence before you now symbolizes a new era in American political history."

Dodo: © Oxford University, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Background: iStock
Head Case: What the Only Soft Tissue Dodo Head in Existence Is Teaching Scientists About These Extinct Birds
Dodo: © Oxford University, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Background: iStock
Dodo: © Oxford University, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Background: iStock

Of all the recently extinct animals, none seems to excite the imagination quite like the dodo—a fact Mark Carnall has experienced firsthand. As one of two Life Collections Managers at the UK's Oxford University Museum of Natural History, he’s responsible for nearly 150,000 specimens, “basically all the dead animals excluding insects and fossils,” he tells Mental Floss via email. And that includes the only known soft tissue dodo head in existence.

“In the two and a bit years that I’ve been here, there’s been a steady flow of queries about the dodo from researchers, artists, the public, and the media,” he says. “This is the third interview about the dodo this week! It’s definitely one of the most popular specimens I look after.”

The dodo, or Raphus cucullatus, lived only on the island of Mauritius (and surrounding islets) in the Indian Ocean. First described by Vice Admiral Wybrand van Warwijck in 1598, it was extinct less than 100 years later (sailors' tales of the bird, coupled with its rapid extinction, made many doubt that the dodo was a real creature). Historians still debate the extent that humans ate them, but the flightless birds were easy prey for the predators, including rats and pigs, that sailors introduced to the isolated island of Mauritius. Because the dodo went extinct in the 1600s (the actual date is still widely debated), museum specimens are very, very rare. In fact, with the exception of subfossils—the dark skeletons on display at many museums—there are only three other known specimens, according to Carnall, “and one of those is missing.” (The fully feathered dodos you might have seen in museums? They're models, not actual zoological specimens.)

A man standing with a Dodo skeleton and a reconstructed model of the extinct bird
A subfossil (bone that has not been fully fossilized) Dodo skeleton and a reconstructed model of the extinct bird in a museum in Wales circa 1938.
Becker, Fox Photos/Getty Images

Since its extinction was confirmed in the 1800s, Raphus cucullatus has been an object of fascination: It’s been painted and drawn, written about and scientifically studied, and unfairly become synonymous with stupidity. Even now, more than 300 years since the last dodo walked the Earth, there’s still so much we don’t know about the bird—and Oxford’s specimen might be our greatest opportunity to unlock the mysteries surrounding how it behaved, how it lived, how it evolved, and how it died.


To put into context how old the dodo head is, consider this: From the rule of Oliver Cromwell to the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, it has been around—and it’s likely even older than that. Initially an entire bird (how exactly it was preserved is unclear), the specimen belonged to Elias Ashmole, who used his collections to found Oxford’s Ashmolean Museum in 1677. Before that, it belonged to John Tradescant the Elder and his son; a description of the collection from 1656 notes the specimen as “Dodar, from the Island Mauritius; it is not able to flie being so big.”

And that’s where the dodo’s provenance ends—beyond that, no one knows where or when the specimen came from. “Where the Tradescants got the dodo from has been the subject of some speculation,” Carnall says. “A number of live animals were brought back from Mauritius, but it’s not clear if this is one of [those animals].”

Initially, the specimen was just another one of many in the museum’s collections, and in 1755, most of the body was disposed of because of rot. But in the 19th century, when the extinction of the dodo was confirmed, there was suddenly renewed interest in what remained. Carnall writes on the museum’s blog that John Duncan, then the Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, had a number of casts of the head made, which were sent to scientists and institutions like the British Museum and Royal College of Surgeons. Today, those casts—and casts of those casts—can be found around the world. (Carnall is actively trying to track them all down.)

The Oxford University Dodo head with scoleric bone and the skin on one side removed.
The Oxford University Dodo head with skin and sclerotic ring.
© Oxford University, Oxford University Museum of Natural History // Used with permission

In the 1840s, Sir Henry Acland, a doctor and teacher, dissected one side of the head to expose its skeleton, leaving the skin attached on the other side, for a book about the bird by Alexander Gordon Melville and H.E. Strickland called The dodo and its kindred; or, The history, affinities, and osteology of the dodo, solitaire, and other extinct birds of the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and Bourbon. Published in 1848, “[It] brought together all the known accounts and depictions of the dodo,” Carnall says. The Dodo and its kindred further raised the dodo’s profile, and may have been what spurred schoolteacher George Clark to take a team to Mauritius, where they found the subfossil dodo remains that can be seen in many museums today.

Melville and Strickland described Oxford’s specimen—which they believed to be female—as being “in tolerable preservation ... The eyes still remain dried within the sockets, but the corneous extremity of the beak has perished, so that it scarcely exhibits that strongly hooked termination so conspicuous in all the original portraits. The deep transverse grooves are also visible, though less developed than in the paintings.”

Today, the specimen includes the head as well as the sclerotic ring (a bony feature found in the eyes of birds and lizards), a feather (which is mounted on a microscope slide), tissue samples, the foot skeleton, and scales from the foot. “Considering it’s been on display in collections and museums, pest eaten, dissected, sampled and handled by scientists for over 350 years,” Carnall says, “it’s in surprisingly good condition.”


There’s still much we don’t know about the dodo, and therefore a lot to learn. As the only soft tissue of a dodo known to exist, the head has been studied for centuries, and not always in ways that we would approve of today. “There was quite some consideration about dissecting the skin off of the head by Sir Henry Acland,” Carnall says. “Sadly there have also been some questionable permissions given, such as when [Melville] soaked the head in water to manipulate the skin and feel the bony structure. Excessive handling over the years has no doubt added to the wear of the specimen.”

Today, scientists who want to examine the head have to follow a standard protocol. “The first step is to get in touch with the museum with details about access requirements ... We deal with enquiries about our collections every single day,” Carnall says. “Depending on the study required, we try to mitigate damage and risk to specimens. For destructive sampling—where a tissue sample or bone sample is needed to be removed from the specimen and then destroyed for analysis—we weigh up the potential importance of the research and how it will be shared with the wider community.”

In other words: Do the potential scientific gains outweigh the risk to the specimen? “This,” Carnall says, “can be a tough decision to make.”

The head, which has been examined by evolutionary biologist Beth Shapiro and extinction expert Samuel Turvey as well as dodo experts Julian Hume and Jolyon Parish, has been key in many recent discoveries about the bird. “[It] has been used to understand what the dodo would have looked like, what it may have eaten, where it fits in with the bird evolutionary tree, island biogeography and of course, extinction,” Carnall says. In 2011, scientists took measurements from dodo remains—including the Oxford specimen—and revised the size of the bird from the iconic 50 pounder seen in paintings to an animal “similar to that of a large wild turkey.” DNA taken from specimen’s leg bone has shed light on how the dodo came to Mauritius and how it was related to other dodo-like birds on neighboring islands [PDF]. That DNA also revealed that the dodo’s closest living relative is the Nicobar pigeon [PDF].

A nicobar pigeon perched on a bowl of food.
A nicobar pigeon.

Even with those questions answered, there are a million more that scientists would like to answer about the dodo. “Were there other species—plants, parasites—that depended on the dodo?” Carnall asks. “What was the soft tissue like? ... How and when did the dodo and the related and also extinct Rodrigues solitaire colonize the Mascarene Islands? What were their brains like?”


Though it’s a rare specimen, and priceless by scientific standards, the dodo head is, in many ways, just like all the rest of the specimens in the museum’s collections. It’s stored in a standard archival quality box with acid-free tissue paper that’s changed regularly. (The box is getting upgraded to something that Carnall says is “slightly schmancier” because “it gets quite a bit of use, more so than the rest of the collection.”) “As for the specific storage, we store it in vault 249 and obviously turn the lasers off during the day,” Carnall jokes. “The passcode for the vault safe is 1234ABCD …”

According to Carnall, even though there are many scientific and cultural reasons why the dodo head is considered important, to him, it isn’t necessarily more important than any of the other 149,999 specimens he’s responsible for.

“Full disclosure: All museum specimens are equally important to collections managers,” he says. “It is a huge honor and a privilege to be responsible for this one particular specimen, but each and every specimen in the collection also has the power to contribute towards our knowledge of the natural world ... This week I was teaching about a species of Greek woodlouse and the molluscs of Oxfordshire. We know next to nothing about these animals—where they live, what they eat, the threats to them, and the predators that rely on them. The same is true of most living species, sadly. But on the upside, there’s so much work to be done!”


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