Original image
Christian Schirm/Public Domain

The Art of Schrodinger’s Cat

Original image
Christian Schirm/Public Domain

Erwin Schrödinger posited a thought experiment in 1935 that became known as Schrodinger’s Cat. You put a cat in a box with some equipment and shut it up. Inside, there is a radioactive element that has a 50% chance of decaying in an hour. Any decay will register on a Geiger counter, which trips a device that breaks a poison vial and kills the cat. But the box is closed. At the end of that hour, is the cat dead or alive? You cannot know until you open the box. Therefore, until you observe the cat, he exists as both dead and alive.

ADA&Neagoe via Wikimedia Commons // GFDL

To the layman, that seems ridiculous. Schrodinger’s experiment is about quantum mechanics, but it's like philosophy and metaphysics as well. If a tree falls in the forest, and no one is there to hear it, does it make any sound? Of course it does, because believing that nothing exists outside our perception of it is extreme hubris.

Be that as it may, the experiment seems unnecessarily cruel as well as absurd. Schrodinger was a smart man, but that's no excuse to kill a cat. Despite the fact that it was just a thought experiment, Schrodinger's reputation took a hit from both cat lovers and slightly-less-sharp scientists, as you can see in this T-shirt designed by Mike Jacobsen.

Another Dimension

The explanation for those somewhat familiar with quantum mechanics reveals that Schrodinger was just trying to make a point among physicists. But the thought experiment lingered on, because we love cats, and would hate to see harm come to one. And the idea of a cat being both dead and alive bends our brains. It’s like a trip into another dimension.

A T-shirt from Wear Viral entitled Schrodinger’s Portal puts the cat into the physics-bending world of the game Portal.

F. Gwynplaine MacIntyre created this illustration for his short story "Schrödinger's Cat-Sitter.” The cat is simultaneously in front of and behind the impossible object, which makes about as much sense as the cat being both dead and alive at once.

Artist Jie Qi saw that the two states of the cat, alive and dead at the same time, were impossible. He illustrated that as an illusion, putting the cat inside an impossible box as well. This drawing is from 2006. He followed that up with two more iterations of the same subject you can see here, and you’ll find the original version from 2004 here

How can a cat be both dead and alive? DeviantART member Evilkitten3 saw that as a condition that could be desired, even if it’s not possible.

It’s quite a difficult concept, especially when you first hear it. A group of giant robots learn about the Schrodinger’s Cat experiment and decided to investigate the results for themselves, in this Robot Republic video.  

Comic artist Hannah Blumenreich considered the entire idea silly, because a cat will let you know when he doesn’t want to be in the box anymore. If he is alive, that is.

Half Dead, Half Alive

Some interpret “both dead and alive” to mean half dead and half alive, because that’s the only way the phrase makes any sense. DeviantART member atoji saw that as a literal way to illustrate the cat. Maybe he's only mostly dead.

DeviantART member RaggedyAnarchist used the same idea, with the cat split down the middle and the “dead” side still holding the poison that killed him. Or half of him. The other side is celebrating life!

When Cecil Adams of The Straight Dope received a rhyming letter asking him to explain Schrodinger’s Cat many years ago, he replied with an epic poem that didn’t clear up anything at all, but it rhymed well. Here the poem appears with Scott Adams’ Dilbert comics featuring Schrodinger’s cat. I have no idea whether Cecil Adams is related to Scott Adams.  

The Zombie Cat

But there’s another way to be both dead and alive, as we’ve seen in some George Romero films and the TV series The Walking Dead. The cat could be a zombie! Alive, meaning animated, and dead, meaning he died in the box. DeviantART member pixelat3dLtd illustrated Schrodinger’s zombie cat, who seems to be looking for the one who caused his current state of being.

Taking that idea a step further, DeviantART member Zaleho made Schrodinger’s cat a zombie with one side “deader” than the other, sporting saber-teeth as well!

The Cat’s Revenge

How does the cat feel about being treated in this way? Not happy, as illustrated by Matthew Inman of The Oatmeal. The cat is justified in wanting to turn the tables on the scientist who thought up the experiment.  

Animator Chavdar Yordanov tackled the subject in 2012 with a video exploring the wrath of the formerly adorable cat who is subjected to such an inhuman experiment. The mayhem inflicted by the ghost of the wronged feline is rather satisfying.

But we all know how the experiment really would have turned out. The cat is, of course, alive, because cats have nine lives!

See also: The Buttered Cat Paradox

Original image
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.406E
New Smithsonian Exhibit Explains Why Felines Were the Cat's Meow in Ancient Egypt
Original image
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.406E

From bi-coastal cat cafes to celebrity pets like Lil Bub, felines are currently enjoying a peak moment in popular culture. That’s part of the reason why curators at the Smithsonian’s Arthur M. Sackler Gallery—which will re-open to visitors on Saturday, October 14, following a 3-month closure—decided to dedicate a new exhibition to ancient Egypt’s relationship with the animals.

Divine Felines: Cats of Ancient Egypt” looks at the cultural and religious importance of cats, which the Egyptians appreciated long before YouTube was a thing and #caturday was a hashtag. It's based on a traveling exhibition that began at the Brooklyn Museum in New York City. On view until January 15, 2018, it's one of several exhibits that will kick off the grand reopening of the Smithsonian’s Freer and Sackler galleries, the conjoined national museums of Asian and Middle Eastern Art.

The Freer has been closed since January 2016 for major renovations, and the Sackler since July 2016 for minor ones. The upgraded institutions will make their public debut on October 14, and be feted by a free two-day festival on the National Mall.

Featuring 80 artworks and relics, ranging from figurines of leonine deities to the tiny coffins of beloved pets, "Divine Felines" even has a cat mummy on loan from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. These objects span from the Middle Kingdom (2008 to 1630 BCE) to the Byzantine period (395 to 642 CE).

An ancient Egyptian metal weight shaped like a cat, dating back to 305 to 30 BCE, on view at the Smithsonian’s Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
Weight in Form of a Cat, 305 to 30 BCE, Bronze, silver, lead
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 36.114

The term “cat” is used loosely, as the Egyptians celebrated domestic mousers and fearsome predators alike.

“The Egyptians were close observers of nature, so they were observing cat behaviors,” Antonietta Catanzariti, the exhibition's in-house curator, tells Mental Floss. “They noticed that cats and lions— in general, felines—have aggressive and protective aspects, so they associated those attributes to deities.”

The ancient Egyptians viewed their gods as humans, animals, or mixed forms. Several of these pantheon members were both associated with and depicted as cats, including Bastet, the goddess of motherhood, fertility, and protection; and Sakhmet, the goddess of war and—when appeased—healing. She typically has a lion head, but in some myths she appears as a pacified cat.

A limestone sculptor's model of a walking lion, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Sculptor's Model of a Walking Lion, ca. 664 to 630 BCE, limestone
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 33.190

While Bastet was a nurturer, Sakhmet—whose name means “The Powerful One”—could use her mighty force to either slay or safeguard humanity. These characterizations are typical of the ancient Egyptian worldview, which perceived the universe in dualistic terms. “There’s always a positive and a negative,” Catanzariti explains.

Contrary to popular belief, however, ancient Egyptians did not view cats themselves as gods. “The goddess Sakhmet does have the features as a lion, or in some cases as a cat, but that doesn’t mean that the Egyptians were worshipping cats or lions,” Catanzariti says. Instead, they were simply noting and admiring her feline traits. This practice, to an extent, also extended to royalty. Kings were associated with lions and other large cats, as they were the powerful protectors of ancient Egypt’s borders.

These myriad associations prompted Egyptians to adorn palaces, temples, protective amulets, ceremonial vessels, and accessories with cat images. Depending on their context, these renderings symbolized everything from protection and power to beauty and sexuality. A king’s throne might have a lion-shaped support, for example, whereas a woman’s cosmetics case might be emblazoned with a cat-headed female goddess of motherhood and fertility.

An ancient Egyptian figurine of a standing lion-headed goddess, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Figurine of a Standing Lion-Headed Goddess, 664 to 630 BCE, Faience
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.943E

While cats were linked with heavenly figures and kings, they were also popular domestic pets. Their ability to catch vermin made them an important addition to households, and owners loved and anthropomorphized their pets just like we do today.

Egyptians often named, or nicknamed, their children after animals; Miit (cat) was a popular moniker for girls. It's said that entire households shaved their eyebrows in mourning if a house cat died a natural death. Some also believe that cats received special legal protection. (Not all cats were this lucky, however, as some temples bred kittens specifically to offer their mummified forms to the gods.) If a favorite cat died, the Egyptians would bury them in special decorated coffins, containers, and boxes. King Tutankhamen, for example, had a stone sarcophagus constructed just for his pet feline.

An ancient Egyptian bronze cat head adorned with gold jewelry, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Cat's Head, 30 BCE. to third century CE, bronze, gold
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 36.114

“Divine Felines” breaks down these facts, and more, into five thematic sections, including “Cats and Kings"; “Cats and Gods”; “Cats and Death”; “Cats and Protection”; and “Dogs as Guardians and Hunters.” Yes, there’s also an exhibition section for dog lovers—“a small one,” Catanzariti laughs, that explains why canines were associated with figures like Anubis, the jackal-headed god of mummification and the afterlife.

Did the ancient Egyptians prefer cats to dogs? “I would say that both of them had different roles,” Catanzariti says, as dogs were valued as hunters, scavengers, and guards. “They were appreciated in different ways for their ability to protect or be useful for the Egyptian culture.” In this way, "Divine Felines" is targeted to ailurophiles and canophiliacs alike, even if it's packaged with pointed ears and whiskers.

An ancient Egyptian cat coffin, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Coffin for a Cat, 664 to 332 BCE, or later, Wood, gesso, paint, animal remains
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.1944Ea-b
Here's the First-Ever Video of Sand Cat Kittens Playing in the Wild

Sand cats are as elusive as they are adorable. Native to the isolated deserts of Asia and Africa, the nocturnal felines are adapted to desert life, and can go for long periods without water. They’re stealthy predators of venomous snakes and small rodents, and escape detection thanks to their pale sandy coats and furry paws, the latter of which make their tracks nearly invisible. These reasons, among others, are why sand kittens have never been captured on video—until now.

As The Independent reports, researchers from Panthera France, a wild cat conservation group, recently found and filmed three sand cat kittens in Morocco. Thought to be around two months old, they were hiding among vegetation as they waited for their mother to return.

Led by biologists Alexander Sliwa and Grégory Breton, the managing director of Panthera France, the researchers first embarked on their quest to locate and study the wild cat in 2013. Over the course of multiple expeditions, they encountered adults, but no offspring.

In April 2017, during their fifth expedition, Sliwa and Breton were heading back to camp at night when they spotted three pairs of gleaming eyes in the darkness. "They belonged to young sand cats, yellowish, small wild cats with broader faces and larger ears than domestic cats," Breton recounted on Panthera France's blog. Astonished, the scientists managed to record the kittens and identify and radio-collar their mother.

Experts think this is the first time that sand cat (Felis margarita) kittens have been documented in their African range. Until Sliwa and Breton locate even more baby cats for us to ogle, you can enjoy their video footage below.

[h/t The Independent]


More from mental floss studios