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iStock (computer); Erin McCarthy (Pearl Wolfie)
iStock (computer); Erin McCarthy (Pearl Wolfie)

Watching Cat Videos Boosts Energy, According to Science

iStock (computer); Erin McCarthy (Pearl Wolfie)
iStock (computer); Erin McCarthy (Pearl Wolfie)

The next time your boss busts you for watching a cat video during work hours, tell him you’re doing it for your well being. A new study, published in the latest issue of Computers in Human Behavior, has found that viewing a video of an adorable feline boosts the viewer’s positive emotions, gives them an energy bump, and decreases negative feelings.

It’s no secret that cat videos are numerous and popular. As of 2014, more than 2 million cat videos had been posted on YouTube, garnering nearly 26 billion total views—an average of 12,000 views per video. It's those kinds of numbers that inspired Jessica Gall Myrick, an assistant professor at Indiana University Bloomington’s Media School, to look into why people can't get enough of feline flicks. One particular week she saw a lot of cat-related media—“not just videos but also news stories about celebrity cats and cat festivals,” she tells mental_floss. “It struck me how much of this type of media people must be consuming to turn this into such a phenomenon. As someone who studies media effects for a living, I was curious how watching so many cat videos might impact people.”

After looking for research in scholarly databases and coming up empty-handed, Myrick decided to do her own study. “My research focuses on the role of emotions in media effects on audiences, so I knew from the beginning I wanted to measure how Internet users respond emotionally to this content,” she says. “I also wanted to figure out if there were any personality traits or background factors, like real cat ownership, that might be related to viewing online cat-related media.”

She created a survey, which was distributed on social media with a little help from Bloomington resident Mike Bridavsky, owner of Internet phenom and mental_floss magazine guest editor and interviewee Lil Bub, who tweeted out a link. (Myrick also donated 10 cents per participant to Lil Bub’s Big Fund for the ASPCA, raising $700.)

Nearly 7000 people took the survey, answering not just questions about how watching cat videos made them feel, but also past and present about feline ownership, whether or not they’d fostered cats, how often they posted photos and videos of their own kitties, and what other animal-related media they watched. “Because this was an exploratory study,” Myrick says, “I wanted to measure as many variables as possible that might help explain why cat videos are all over the Internet and who was driving such high viewership of cat-related Internet content.”

Extreme grooming happening right now. #pearlwolfie #ollywobbles

A video posted by erincmccarthy (@erincmccarthy) on Jun 7, 2015 at 12:39pm PDT


Myrick found that people who watched cat videos “tend to have real cats, are active in animal-related charities, somewhat shy, and are agreeable,” she says. “There was also a very small, but statistically significant, relationship between low levels of emotional stability and higher frequency of viewing cat videos or photos online.”

Participants said they often watched cat videos at work or when they were studying, and typically felt more energetic and more positive after watching the videos. They also had fewer negative emotions, including sadness and anxiety. “Some people did feel guilty if they watched cat videos as a way to procrastinate,” Myrick says. “[But] even if they did feel guilty for procrastinating, if the cat videos they viewed also made them feel happy, then that positive emotion seemed to override the guilt and [they] still reported enjoying the videos.”

But it wasn’t all fun and Nyan-cat rainbows: If participants were watching the videos to procrastinate and the videos didn’t make them feel happy, then they didn’t have an enjoyable experience. “Emotions are complex, and we can simultaneously experience positive and negative emotions, but often one type might dominate the other, as was the case for some cat-video-watching procrastinators,” Myrick says. “I think these results suggest that the motivations people bring with them to media matter for determining how that media will affect the user.”

Myrick’s study shows that watching cat videos online isn’t a waste of time, but is instead “a way we subconsciously regulate our emotions and try to get a little boost,” she says. It's likely that cat videos elicit positive feelings because most of them are funny or cute. “I also think [they're] sort of a positive emotional oasis, so to say, between a lot of our other social media content, [which] may be depressing or annoying, even if it’s important, Myrick says. But a short cat video can give someone the energy to maybe attend to more important news or tasks afterward.”

Myrick—who, for the record, owns a pug (she’s allergic to cats)—thinks dog lovers would probably respond similarly to dog videos. And that makes her think that pet videos might have applications beyond just energy-producing procrastination: “There might be a way to use pet videos as some form of low-cost, readily available digital pet therapy,” she says, noting that we'll need more research to be sure.

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Penn Vet Working Dog Center
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
New Program Trains Dogs to Sniff Out Art Smugglers
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

Soon, the dogs you see sniffing out contraband at airports may not be searching for drugs or smuggled Spanish ham. They might be looking for stolen treasures.

K-9 Artifact Finders, a new collaboration between New Hampshire-based cultural heritage law firm Red Arch and the University of Pennsylvania, is training dogs to root out stolen antiquities looted from archaeological sites and museums. The dogs would be stopping them at borders before the items can be sold elsewhere on the black market.

The illegal antiquities trade nets more than $3 billion per year around the world, and trafficking hits countries dealing with ongoing conflict, like Syria and Iraq today, particularly hard. By one estimate, around half a million artifacts were stolen from museums and archaeological sites throughout Iraq between 2003 and 2005 alone. (Famously, the craft-supply chain Hobby Lobby was fined $3 million in 2017 for buying thousands of ancient artifacts looted from Iraq.) In Syria, the Islamic State has been known to loot and sell ancient artifacts including statues, jewelry, and art to fund its operations.

But the problem spans across the world. Between 2007 and 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Control discovered more than 7800 cultural artifacts in the U.S. looted from 30 different countries.

A yellow Lab sniffs a metal cage designed to train dogs on scent detection.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

K-9 Artifact Finders is the brainchild of Rick St. Hilaire, the executive director of Red Arch. His non-profit firm researches cultural heritage property law and preservation policy, including studying archaeological site looting and antiquities trafficking. Back in 2015, St. Hilaire was reading an article about a working dog trained to sniff out electronics that was able to find USB drives, SD cards, and other data storage devices. He wondered, if dogs could be trained to identify the scents of inorganic materials that make up electronics, could they be trained to sniff out ancient pottery?

To find out, St. Hilaire tells Mental Floss, he contacted the Penn Vet Working Dog Center, a research and training center for detection dogs. In December 2017, Red Arch, the Working Dog Center, and the Penn Museum (which is providing the artifacts to train the dogs) launched K-9 Artifact Finders, and in late January 2018, the five dogs selected for the project began their training, starting with learning the distinct smell of ancient pottery.

“Our theory is, it is a porous material that’s going to have a lot more odor than, say, a metal,” says Cindy Otto, the executive director of the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the project’s principal investigator.

As you might imagine, museum curators may not be keen on exposing fragile ancient materials to four Labrador retrievers and a German shepherd, and the Working Dog Center didn’t want to take any risks with the Penn Museum’s priceless artifacts. So instead of letting the dogs have free rein to sniff the materials themselves, the project is using cotton balls. The researchers seal the artifacts (broken shards of Syrian pottery) in airtight bags with a cotton ball for 72 hours, then ask the dogs to find the cotton balls in the lab. They’re being trained to disregard the smell of the cotton ball itself, the smell of the bag it was stored in, and ideally, the smell of modern-day pottery, eventually being able to zero in on the smell that distinguishes ancient pottery specifically.

A dog looks out over the metal "pinhweel" training mechanism.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

“The dogs are responding well,” Otto tells Mental Floss, explaining that the training program is at the stage of "exposing them to the odor and having them recognize it.”

The dogs involved in the project were chosen for their calm-but-curious demeanors and sensitive noses (one also works as a drug-detection dog when she’s not training on pottery). They had to be motivated enough to want to hunt down the cotton balls, but not aggressive or easily distracted.

Right now, the dogs train three days a week, and will continue to work on their pottery-detection skills for the first stage of the project, which the researchers expect will last for the next nine months. Depending on how the first phase of the training goes, the researchers hope to be able to then take the dogs out into the field to see if they can find the odor of ancient pottery in real-life situations, like in suitcases, rather than in a laboratory setting. Eventually, they also hope to train the dogs on other types of objects, and perhaps even pinpoint the chemical signatures that make artifacts smell distinct.

Pottery-sniffing dogs won’t be showing up at airport customs or on shipping docks soon, but one day, they could be as common as drug-sniffing canines. If dogs can detect low blood sugar or find a tiny USB drive hidden in a house, surely they can figure out if you’re smuggling a sculpture made thousands of years ago in your suitcase.

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Animals
15 Confusing Plant and Animal Misnomers
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iStock

People have always given names to the plants and animals around us. But as our study of the natural world has developed, we've realized that many of these names are wildly inaccurate. In fact, they often have less to say about nature than about the people who did the naming. Here’s a batch of these befuddling names.

1. COMMON NIGHTHAWK

There are two problems with this bird’s name. First, the common nighthawk doesn’t fly at night—it’s active at dawn and dusk. Second, it’s not a hawk. Native to North and South America, it belongs to a group of birds with an even stranger name: Goatsuckers. People used to think that these birds flew into barns at night and drank from the teats of goats. (In fact, they eat insects.)

2. IRISH MOSS

It’s not a moss—it’s a red alga that lives along the rocky shores of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Irish moss and other red algae give us carrageenan, a cheap food thickener that you may have eaten in gummy candies, soy milk, ice cream, veggie hot dogs, and more.

3. FISHER-CAT

Native to North America, the fisher-cat isn’t a cat at all: It’s a cousin of the weasel. It also doesn’t fish. Nobody’s sure where the fisher cat’s name came from. One possibility is that early naturalists confused it with the sea mink, a similar-looking creature that was an expert fisher. But the fisher-cat prefers to eat land animals. In fact, it’s one of the few creatures that can tackle a porcupine.

4. AMERICAN BLUE-EYED GRASS

American blue-eyed grass doesn’t have eyes (which is good, because that would be super creepy). Its blue “eyes” are flowers that peek up at you from a meadow. It’s also not a grass—it’s a member of the iris family.

5. MUDPUPPY

The mudpuppy isn’t a cute, fluffy puppy that scampered into some mud. It’s a big, mucus-covered salamander that spends all of its life underwater. (It’s still adorable, though.) The mudpuppy isn’t the only aquatic salamander with a weird name—there are many more, including the greater siren, the Alabama waterdog, and the world’s most metal amphibian, the hellbender.

6. WINGED DRAGONFISH

This weird creature has other fantastic and inaccurate names: brick seamoth, long-tailed dragonfish, and more. It’s really just a cool-looking fish. Found in the waters off of Asia, it has wing-like fins, and spends its time on the muddy seafloor.

7. NAVAL SHIPWORM

The naval shipworm is not a worm. It’s something much, much weirder: a kind of clam with a long, wormlike body that doesn’t fit in its tiny shell. It uses this modified shell to dig into wood, which it eats. The naval shipworm, and other shipworms, burrow through all sorts of submerged wood—including wooden ships.

8. WHIP SPIDERS

These leggy creatures are not spiders; they’re in a separate scientific family. They also don’t whip anything. Whip spiders have two long legs that look whip-like, but that are used as sense organs—sort of like an insect’s antennae. Despite their intimidating appearance, whip spiders are harmless to humans.

9. VELVET ANTS

A photograph of a velvet ant
Craig Pemberton, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

There are thousands of species of velvet ants … and all are wasps, not ants. These insects have a fuzzy, velvety look. Don’t pat them, though—velvet ants aren’t aggressive, but the females pack a powerful sting.

10. SLOW WORM

The slow worm is not a worm. It’s a legless reptile that lives in parts of Europe and Asia. Though it looks like a snake, it became legless through a totally separate evolutionary path from the one snakes took. It has many traits in common with lizards, such as eyelids and external ear holes.

11. TRAVELER'S PALM

This beautiful tree from Madagascar has been planted in tropical gardens all around the world. It’s not actually a palm, but belongs to a family that includes the bird of paradise flower. In its native home, the traveler’s palm reproduces with the help of lemurs that guzzle its nectar and spread pollen from tree to tree.

12. VAMPIRE SQUID

Drawing of a vampire squid
Carl Chun, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

This deep-sea critter isn’t a squid. It’s the only surviving member of a scientific order that has characteristics of both octopuses and squids. And don’t let the word “vampire” scare you; it only eats bits of falling marine debris (dead stuff, poop, and so on), and it’s only about 11 inches long.

13. MALE FERN & LADY FERN

Early botanists thought that these two ferns belonged to the same species. They figured that the male fern was the male of the species because of its coarse appearance. The lady fern, on the other hand, has lacy fronds and seemed more ladylike. Gender stereotypes aside, male and lady Ferns belong to entirely separate species, and almost all ferns can make both male and female reproductive cells. If ferns start looking manly or womanly to you, maybe you should take a break from botany.

14. TENNESSEE WARBLER

You will never find a single Tennessee warbler nest in Tennessee. This bird breeds mostly in Canada, and spends the winter in Mexico and more southern places. But early ornithologist Alexander Wilson shot one in 1811 in Tennessee during its migration, and the name stuck.

15. CANADA THISTLE

Though it’s found across much of Canada, this spiky plant comes from Europe and Asia. Early European settlers brought Canada thistle seeds to the New World, possibly as accidental hitchhikers in grain shipments. A tough weed, the plant soon spread across the continent, taking root in fields and pushing aside crops. So why does it have this inaccurate name? Americans may have been looking for someone to blame for this plant—so they blamed Canada.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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