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Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Mikal Schlosser

Kennewick Man's DNA Solves Scientific Controversy

Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Mikal Schlosser

As the story in the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation’s Book of Legends goes, the supernatural being Coyote divided the earliest Indians into groups and settled them in different places, giving each group a different name and language. These ancients became the ancestors of all the Indian tribes.

Now the genome sequencing of Kennewick Man, who died in Washington State 8500 years ago with a spear point buried in his hip, has revealed that this ancient North American is indeed an ancestor—or at least a relative—of at least one modern tribe: the Colville, who nearly nine millennia later still live less than 200 miles from where his body was found. According to the findings, either he and the Colville shared a common ancestor, or he is a direct ancestor of theirs.

This genetic analysis, published today in the journal Nature, upends what many scientists have long thought about the controversial Kennewick Man—and could trigger a new legal battle over his remains.

A team of scientists led by Eske Willerslev of the Center for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum of Denmark analyzed DNA extracted from 200 mg of metacarpal bone taken from one of Kennewick Man’s hands. They compared it to ancient and modern DNA from both the Americas and eastern Asia, including genetic material from Polynesians and the Ainu of Japan. (Both groups had been proposed as Kennewick Man’s relatives based on cranial morphology, or the shape of his skull.) They also compared it to DNA voluntarily donated by living members of the Colville tribe. In all, the study included genetic samples from 1107 individuals.

It’s “very clear” Kennewick Man's genome shows “he was very closely related to living Native American tribes—most specifically the Colville,” Willerslev said in an press-only teleconference on June 17. He is not closely related to Asian populations.

The researchers say there are two possible explanations for the strong genetic link between Kennewick Man and the modern Colville. They both could be descended from a common ancestor who lived about 9200 years ago, or about 700 years before Kennewick Man hunted seal along the coast of the Pacific Northwest. Alternatively, Kennewick Man could be a direct ancestor of the Colville. The genetic differences between them would have been introduced later, through intermarriage with other tribes. (The Ojibwa and Algonquin are also kin to Kennewick Man.) Willerslev's team say they are leaning towards the second hypothesis.

This discovery is sure to recharge the controversy that has surrounded Kennewick Man’s remains since his skull was discovered on the banks of the Columbia River in July 1996 near Kennewick, WA, by two teenage boys trying to sneak into a boat show. Anthropologist Jim Chatters, who recovered some 300 bone fragments from river mud, first thought the man was of European descent. Later he and other scientists revised that idea, placing his origins across the Pacific based on the shape of his skull.

Five Native American tribes in the region, including the Colville, strongly disagreed with this assessment. They claimed Kennewick Man was an ancestor and asked to have his body repatriated for reburial under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), a 1990 law that provides a process for museums and federal agencies to return certain Native American cultural items—human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony—to lineal descendants. The law was meant to redress the widespread raiding of Native American graves by treasure hunters and archaeologists alike that took place across the U.S. for at least a century.

At first the Army Corps of Engineers agreed to hand Kennewick Man over. (His body had been found on federal land administered by the Corps.) Eight scientists sued the federal government, arguing that the scientific evidence pointed to his being from Asia. Any knowledge they could gain from studying his remains would be lost if he were reburied. An eight-year court battle ensued, and in 2004, the scientists won.

Since then, Kennewick Man’s remains have been studied several times. Early attempts at genomic sequencing failed, but the technology has vastly improved since then, making even highly damaged DNA like his recoverable in some circumstances.

Just last year, a 688-page, peer-reviewed book about Kennewick Man edited by the Smithsonian’s Douglas Owsley, one of the plaintiffs in the 1996 lawsuit, was published. Nearly five dozen researchers contributed to the exhaustive tome, which documents the man's life. But it was published before this latest genetic analysis.

Kennewick Man isn’t the only ancient American to have his DNA closely examined. The genes of Naia, a teenage girl who died in Mexico 13,000 years ago, were recently studied; she has Siberian ancestors. And just last year the team behind the Kennewick Man research studied the genome of a child who was ceremonially buried 12,600 years ago in Montana.

There’s a certain irony in the Kennewick Man findings, Willerslev noted. If the scientists had lost the lawsuit, Kennewick Man would have been reburied, and his genetic history would’ve been lost. But because scientists were able to study him, they were able to prove the Colville and other tribes were right in claiming him as one of their own.

It’s worth reiterating that the Colville agreed to contribute their DNA to the study. Such research collaborations suggest the potential for better alliances between archaeologists, anthropologists, and First Nations peoples. “At times there has been a very difficult relationship,” Southern Methodist University anthropologist David Meltzer, a co-author on the paper, said at the press conference. “But American archaeologists have realized they need to do a great deal more … to bring the tribes in on their research, and work collaboratively with them. Mutual respect is really critical.” Perhaps in the future, battles like the one over Kennewick Man can be avoided.

What happens to Kennewick Man’s body next is an open question. For now, his remains are housed in the Burke Museum in Washington.

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Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Take a Closer Look at the $17 Billion 'Holy Grail of Shipwrecks'

Feast your eyes on these new images of the treasure among the wreckage of the Spanish ship San José, often called the "holy grail of shipwrecks." When it sank on June 8, 1708, it was carrying gold, silver, jewels, and other precious cargo worth roughly $17 billion today. Now, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is revealing the major role it played in the 2015 expedition to find the San José.

The three-masted, 62-gun Spanish galleon exploded and sank at the hands of the British during the War of the Spanish Succession. It was carrying its riches to the Colombian city of Cartegena to finance the war. Archaeologists had been trying to find the San José for decades before it was finally located on November 27, 2015, during an expedition organized by Colombia, Maritime Archaeology Consultants (MAC), and WHOI. The multibillion-dollar treasure, which still sits nearly 2000 feet below the surface of the ocean near Cartegena, is just now being revealed.

WHOI's autonomous underwater vehicle REMUS 6000 was responsible for finding the elusive wreck. REMUS has been with the project since the beginning: The machine created the first side-scan sonar images of the site. After that, REMUS journeyed to a point 30 feet above the site and captured high-resolution photos of the ship's distinctive bronze cannons, which are engraved with dolphins. REMUS's documentation of this defining feature allowed scientists to positively identify the wreck as the fabled San José. (Thanks to whoever had the idea to put dolphins on the cannon in the first place.)

WHOI also released REMUS's photos of the wreckage, which show details of the horde, including ceramics and those famous cannons. "This constitutes one of the greatest—if not the biggest, as some say—discoveries of submerged patrimony in the history of mankind,” Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos said back when the treasure was discovered.

The San José's treasure is the subject of a legal battle for ownership between Colombia and U.S. salvage company Sea Search Armada, which helped look for the wreck. In 2011, four years before the San José was even found, the court ruled that the booty belongs to Colombia, but the dispute is ongoing. Because of the legal drama, the exact location of the wreck remains a government secret.

Below, check out the newly released pictures for a closer look at cannons, teacups, and other ceramics.

cannons from the San Jose
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

pots from the San Jose
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

teacups from the San Jose
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

REMUS 6000
REMUS 6000
Mike Purcell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution


A mosaic of images taken by the REMUS 6000 depicts the whole site.
A mosaic of images taken by the REMUS 6000 depicts the whole site.
Jeff Kaeli, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

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Kennewick Man's genome was sequenced at the GeoGenetics lab at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Researchers Accidentally Discover 128-Year-Old Shipwreck
iStock
iStock

Scientists conducting a routine survey of the waters along Australia's east coast got more than they bargained for when they accidentally discovered a 128-year-old shipwreck.

Their encounter with the sunken Carlisle, which sank in 1890, was captured on camera, and Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has released footage showing an aerial view of the wreckage, teeming with schools of fish.

The researchers were mapping the seafloor of Bass Strait, which separates mainland Australia from the island of Tasmania, to improve nautical charts for the major shipping route, according to Mashable. During a scan of the waters, the sunken ship showed up as a "blip," ABC reports.

"We just happened to go over this blip, and we noticed it, and thought, 'Oh jeez, that looks just a little too much like a shipwreck,' and so we did a little bit more investigating and looked at it digitally," CSIRO hydrographer Matt Boyd told ABC. "Then once we established that yes, it was a shipwreck, we put a drop camera down."

Volunteers from the Maritime Archaeological Association of Victoria then went to the site and confirmed that the ship was indeed the Carlisle. It most likely collided with rocks while sailing from Melbourne to Newcastle, where it was supposed to pick up coal on its way to South America. All 23 crew members survived, escaping on three life boats.

The researchers discovered two more shipwrecks during a weeklong expedition from Brisbane to Hobart, one of which was identified as the HMAS Pioneer, a ship built for the British Royal Navy in 1900 that was scuttled in 1931.

[h/t ABC]

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