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14 Things You Might Not Know About Carmen Sandiego

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In the 1990s, the rising affordability of home computers brought about the “edutainment” trend, where companies tried to use computer games to teach kids—and to convince their parents—that technology wasn’t evil. One of the most successful of those attempts was Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?, a game where the player was a detective for the ACME Agency, chasing a rogue agent-turned-red-fedora-wearing criminal named Carmen Sandiego. Carmen and her henchmen from V.I.L.E. (Villains’ International League of Evil) hopped around the world, trying to steal landmarks like the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

As kids followed Carmen and V.I.L.E. with clues like “she’s learning Portuguese” (head to Brazil!) or “she changed her money to rubles” (next stop: Russia!), they also learned about geography and history. The games resulted in several spinoffs, including Where in the USA is Carmen Sandiego? and a PBS kids’ TV game show where real-life middle schoolers won prizes for successfully answering questions about geography. But here’s what you may not know about Carmen and all her incarnations.

1. THE SHOW WAS INSPIRED BY A STUDY SHOWING HOW LITTLE MOST AMERICANS KNEW ABOUT GEOGRAPHY.

Following the success of the Carmen Sandiego computer game, two PBS affiliates decided to make a trivia show based on the game. Part of their decision came from a recent National Geographic study showing that one in four Americans couldn’t locate the Pacific Ocean on a map.

2. CONTESTANTS WERE RECRUITED FROM NEW YORK AREA MIDDLE SCHOOLS.

Mark Trinidad appeared on an episode of Carmen Sandiego in 1992, when he was 12 years old. The show worked with a teacher at his middle school in Teaneck, New Jersey, who selected a group of the school’s top geography students. Those kids were quizzed and interviewed by producers, and then some—like Mark—were picked to be on the show, which taped on a lot in Queens, New York.

3. WINNERS RECEIVED GLOBALLY-INSPIRED PRIZES.

Although Mark won his episode of Carmen Sandiego and made it to the final round, he didn't win the grand prize: a trip. He did go home with some other swag though, including a basketball designed to look like a globe, a portable CD player, and some world music CDs. He also got to keep his contestant nametag.

4. THERE WAS ONCE A CARMEN SANDIEGO GAME SPECIFICALLY ABOUT THE STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA.

There have been multiple Carmen Sandiego games, including Where in Time… and Where in Space…, as well as editions focusing specifically on Europe and the United States. But the state of North Dakota got special permission to make a Carmen Sandiego game in honor of its 100th anniversary in 1989.

5. THE CHIEF HAS A TONY AWARD.

Actress Lynne Thigpen, who passed away in 2003, was beloved by middle-schoolers, thanks to her role as The Chief in both the Carmen Sandiego games and TV series. But her acting career had numerous other highlights, particularly on Broadway, where she won a Tony Award for An American Daughter. She was also an ensemble member in the film version of Godspell.

6. CARMEN IS AN EGOT.

In the animated TV series, Where on Earth Is Carmen Sandiego?, Carmen became a more fully fleshed-out character. We learned that she grew up in the San Francisco Bay Area (no, not San Diego) and that her middle name is Isabella. During the series, she was voiced by Rita Moreno, an EGOT (Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony) winner, whose Oscar came from playing Anita in West Side Story. Moreno was nominated for three Daytime Emmys for her voice work as Carmen, but she didn’t win.

7. THERE IS A MISSING EPISODE.

One episode of Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, “Auld Lang Gone,” never aired because the winning contestant (a.k.a. “gumshoe”) fell during the bonus round and broke her arm.

8. CARMEN HAS A CAT NAMED CARMINE.

Carmen’s cat, Carmine, is not just a companion—the ginger kitty is a villain in her own right. Her main antagonist is Stretch, the droopy-eared, crime-fighting dog owned by ACME.

9. CARMEN HAS A CONNECTION TO JIMINY CRICKET AND SLEEPING BEAUTY.

Raymond Portwood, Jr. was the principal inventor of the Carmen Sandiego concept and original computer game when he worked for California-based Broderbund Software. Before joining Broderbund, he was an animator for Disney and worked on Sleeping Beauty, Lady and the Tramp, and Peter Pan. He also assisted on drawings of Jiminy Cricket.

10. CARMEN MAY HAVE CROSSED PATHS WITH SOME OF J.D. SALINGER’S CHARACTERS.

When Carmen was a kid, she won lots of money on a quiz show called It’s a Wise Child. The winnings enabled her to develop her taste for globetrotting. The name of the show is a reference to the one the Glass children participated in in J.D. Salinger’s Franny and Zooey.

11. ROCKAPELLA KEPT ROCKING AFTER THEIR TV GIG ENDED.

Rockapella was the “rock acapella” group that served as the in-house jam band on Carmen Sandiego. Originally formed by four friends from Brown University, the lineup changed over the years. The current incarnation doesn’t feature any of the original four members, but the original Rockapellans still make music—one, Sean Altman, now performs Jewish-themed songs under the name Jewmongous.

12. A CARMEN SANDIEGO MOVIE MAY HAPPEN.

In 2011, Walden Media bought the movie rights to Carmen Sandiego, with Jennifer Lopez attached to the project as a producer. Back in the ’90s, Disney bought the rights and planned to make a live-action film starring Sandra Bullock, but the project fell apart. Walden says their vision for the Carmen Sandiego movie is “National Treasure meets The Thomas Crown Affair.” Lopez reportedly isn’t planning to star in the movie, so casting is still wide open.

13. IN 2016, CARMEN SANDIEGO'S IDENTITY WAS REVEALED.

Although the question of "Where in the world is Carmen Sandiego?" has been answered plenty of times (in video game and TV show form), the question of who is Carmen Sandiego had always been more difficult to respond to—until last year.

While some famous actresses’ names (Sandra Bullock and Jennifer Lopez, for example) have been bandied about to play Carmen in the aforementioned movie adaptation, one person has actually portrayed the character—an unidentified woman who starred as a shadowy, face-hidden version of the supervillain in the history-centric late '90s show Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego? The Huffington Post reporter Todd Van Luling was finally able to track down Janine LaManna, the woman who played Carmen, and nabbed her first-ever interview about the role.

14. A NEW ANIMATED SERIES IS IN THE WORKS.

On April 18, 2017, Variety reported that Netflix had nabbed the rights to Carmen Sandiego with the intention of producing a new animated series, with Jane the Virgin star Gina Rodriguez attached to voice the titular character. "The series will be based on the iconic educational computer game franchise that followed Sandiego as she traveled across the world stealing national treasures," wrote Joe Otterson for Variety. "It will offer an intimate look into the character’s past where viewers will not only follow her escapades but also learn who in the world is Carmen Sandiego and why she became a super thief. The series is produced by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt for Netflix and will premiere in 2019."

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The King of Kong © Jim Naughten. Courtesy of Michael Hoppen Gallery
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The Mountains of Kong: The Majestic West African Range That Never Existed
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The King of Kong © Jim Naughten. Courtesy of Michael Hoppen Gallery

If you look closely at a 19th century map of Africa, you’ll notice one major way that it differs from contemporary maps, one that has nothing to do with changing political or cartographical styles. More likely than not, it features a mountain range that no longer appears on modern maps, as WIRED explains. Because it never existed in the first place.

A 19th century map of West Africa
From Milner's Descriptive Atlas, 1850

The “Mountains of Kong” appeared on almost every major commercial map of Africa in the 1800s, stretching across the western part of the continent between the Gulf of Guinea and the Niger River. This mythical east-west mountain range is now the subject of an art exhibition at London’s Michael Hoppen Gallery.

In "Mountains of Kong," stereoscopic images by artist Jim Naughten—the same format that allowed Victorians with wanderlust to feel like they’d seen the world—reveal his view of the world of wildlife that might have existed inside the imagined mountains. As the gallery describes it, “he imagines a fictitious record made for posterity and scientific purposes during an expedition of the mountain range.” We’ve reproduced the images here, but to get the full effect, you’ll have to go to the gallery in person, where you can view them in 3D with a stereoscope (like the ones you no doubt played with as a kid).

Toucans fight a snake in two almost-identical side-by-side images.
The Toucans © Jim Naughten. Courtesy of Michael Hoppen Gallery

Naughten created the images by taking two photographs for each, and moving the camera over some 3 inches for the second photo to make a stereoscopic scene. The landscapes were created by shooting images of Scottish and Welsh mountains and dioramas in natural history museums, using Photoshop to change the hues of the images to make them seem more otherworldly. His blue-and-pink-hued images depict fearsome apes, toucans sparring with snakes, jagged peaks, and other scenes that seem both plausible and fantastical at the same time.

The Mountains of Kong appeared in several hundred maps up until the 20th century. The first, in 1798, was created by the prominent geographer James Rennell to accompany a book by Scottish explorer Mungo Park about his first journey to West Africa. In it, Park recounts gazing on a distant range, and “people informed me, that these mountains were situated in a large and powerful kingdom called Kong.” Rennell, in turn, took this brief observation and, based on his own theories about the course of the Niger River, drew a map showing the mountain range that he thought was the source of the river. Even explorers who later spent time in the area believed the mountains existed—with some even claiming that they crossed them.

Two colobuses stand in a tree on a mountaintop.
The Colobus © Jim Naughten. Courtesy of Michael Hoppen Gallery

The authority of the maps wasn’t questioned, even by those who had been to the actual territory where they were depicted as standing. Writers began to describe them as “lofty,” “barren,” and “snow-covered.” Some said they were rugged granite peaks; others described them as limestone terraces. In almost all cases, they were described as “blue.” Their elevation ranged from 2500 feet to 14,000 feet, depending on the source. Over the course of the 19th century, “there was a general southward ‘drift’ in the location,” as one pair of scholars put it.

Though geographers cast some doubt on the range’s existence as time went on, the Mountains of Kong continued to appear on maps until French explorer Louis-Gustave Binger’s Niger River expedition between 1887 and 1889, after which Binger definitively declared their nonexistence.

By 1891, the Mountains of Kong began dropping off of maps, though the name Kong still appeared as the name of the region. By the early 20th century, the mountains were gone for good, fading into the forgotten annals of cartographic history.

[h/t WIRED]

All images courtesy Michael Hoppen Gallery.

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25 Things You Should Know About Barcelona
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With its Catalonian roots and modernist architecture (much of it by the legendary Antoni Gaudí), Barcelona's charm feels timeless. Read on for more about this coastal metropolis, the former home of Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí.

1. Nobody knows exactly how the city got its name, but two legendary figures are frequently cited. According to one account, Hannibal's father, Hamilcar Barca, named the settlement "Barcino" in the 3rd century BCE after his family's surname. A different tale credits Hercules, whose ninth ship (barca nona) was said to have washed ashore in the area.

2. The Eixample section of the city is a nearly perfect grid, although the corners of each square are cut off, effectively making every block an octagon. In the 19th century, geometry-obsessed architect Ildefons Cerda designed the areas to ease traffic patterns and navigation, but also to build a community within each block, which featured a communal garden in the middle. As a bonus, the setup also maximized sunlight and the ventilation of the surrounding homes.

3. One of Barcelona's most popular arteries is the three-quarter-mile road called La Rambla. During the Middle Ages, it was the site of a polluted stream outside the city walls affectionately known as Cagalell, or "stream of shit." Today, the road is divided into five sections—Canaletes, Estudis, Sant Josep, Caputxins, and Santa Mònica—which is why it's often referred to in the plural as Las Ramblas.

4. During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), more than 1000 underground bomb shelters were built to offer Barcelonians refuge from enemy attack. You can experience the claustrophobic atmosphere of one of the subterranean structures, Shelter 307, a massive bunker with specialized rooms (toilets, a children's room, an infirmary, and more) linked by 400 meters of tunnels. The Museu d'Historia de Barcelona manages the site and offers public tours.

5. The annual Sant Jordi festival (which took place this year on April 23) toasts Catalonia's patron saint, Saint George. As part of the celebration, men traditionally give their loved ones a rose. But it's also the anniversary of both William Shakespeare and Miguel de Cervantes's deaths, so women give a book in return.

6. A 200-foot-tall monument of Christopher Columbus is located at the end of La Rambla, near the harbor. Completed in 1888 by sculptor Rafael Atche, the towering column honors the explorer who returned to Barcelona from the Americas and reported his findings to his patrons, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. In his left hand, he holds a scroll, and with his right, he supposedly points toward the New World.

7. Construction on Antoni Gaudí's masterpiece cathedral, La Sagrada Familia, began in 1882 … and is still going. The Gothic- and Byzantine-influenced design reached its final stage in November 2015, but projections still target 2026 as the completion date. By then, it will have 18 towers and reach a height of 564 feet, making it the tallest religious building in Europe. Despite not being finished, it's still Spain's most-visited monument.

8. A modernist masterpiece, Park Güell is a complex of public parks designed by Gaudí and a local industrialist, Count Eusebi Güell. Originally, in 1900, Güell had envisioned the complex as a housing development interspersed with green spaces, but only two homes were ever built and few buyers showed interest. The residential project was abandoned in 1914 and the city later converted the rest of the area into municipal parks with roads, walkways, a plaza, and gatehouses designed by Gaudí. Today it's one of seven properties in UNESCO's Works of Antoni Gaudí world heritage site.

9. Another site in the UNESCO group is Casa Milà, an apartment building designed by Gaudí and nicknamed La Pedrera, or stone quarry. It took six years to build and was completed in 1912 in the Catalan Art Nouveau style. With 48,438 square feet of space for visitors to explore, its most recognizable feature is the roof terrace with its winding paths of ventilation towers, chimneys, and stairs.

10. Spain's most powerful supercomputer, MareNostrum, is housed in the 19th-century Chapel Torre Girona on the campus of Barcelona's Polytechnic University of Catalonia. A team of researchers uses the MareNostrum for mapping the human genome, detecting complex weather patterns, and other massive projects using huge amounts of data.

11. The first boycott-free Olympics since 1972 was held in Barcelona in 1992. The summer games took place amid global political shifts—South Africa had outlawed Apartheid, the fall of the Berlin Wall had reunited East and West Germany, and 15 former Soviet countries competed as a "unified" team. More than 9000 athletes (6652 men and 2704 women) competed in 257 events—including baseball, badminton, and women's judo, which all made their official Olympic debuts that year.

12. The coastal city's beloved beaches are actually man-made. To prepare for the 1992 Olympics, industrial waterfront buildings were torn down and palm trees were imported from Malaga, resulting in two miles of idyllic waterfront space. Today, there are more than four miles of beach.

13. Singer José Carreras, who was born in Barcelona on December 5, 1946, sang the part of Tony on 1984's West Side Story recording with Leonard Bernstein. He later joined forces with Luciano Pavarotti and Plácido Domingo in 1990 to form the powerhouse combo The Three Tenors. Their first live album (recorded at their debut concert in Rome) went multiplatinum that year—and won a Grammy for best classical vocal performance.

14. In 2004, Barcelona-based candy shop Papabubble started making hard candies completely by hand. Today there are more than 40 locations around the globe, in cities including Beirut, Dubai, Lima, New York, Paris, Sao Paolo, Taipei, Toronto, and Zhengzhou.

15. Built for the 1929 International Exhibition by Carles Buigas, the Montjuïc Magic Fountain features a dancing water show with more than 50 shades of colors coordinated to music. Located at the end of Avinguda Reina Maria Cristina, it was restored for the 1992 Olympics and also hosts an annual Piromusical show, synchronized with fireworks, for the city's La Mercè festival.

16. For a panoramic view of Barcelona, hop on the scenic Montjuïc cable car, which travels up a hillside for 277 feet, with stops at Parc Montjuïc, Montjuïc castle (built in 1640), and the Mirador de l'Alcalde. From the upper terminal, board the Montjuïc funicular to ascend to more cultural attractions, including the Fundacio Joan Miro and Barcelona’s ethnological museum.

17. Barcelona's local cuisine combines the hallmarks of the coastal Mediterranean palate—fish and shellfish, legumes, tomatoes, peppers, other fresh vegetables, fruits, and wheat—with the rustic fare of the mountainous interior. Pork (especially Serrano ham) and wild boar, sausages called botifarras, wild mushrooms, cheeses, and wines add heartiness to the Catalan table.

18. Pablo Picasso's family moved to Barcelona in 1895, and he lived there on and off through 1904. "There is where it all began … there is where I understood how far I could go," he said of the city. Barcelona’s Museu Picasso, founded in 1963, houses 4251 of his works in its permanent collection, including early self-portraits in the figurative style, Cubist works, studies of harlequins and horses, and later sculptures.

19. Catalonia’s artistic legacy wouldn’t be complete without Surrealist master Salvador Dalí, who was born in Figueres, a small town about an hour northeast of Barcelona. He spent the last decades of his life creating a museum in his hometown to preserve his work. "I want my museum to be like a single block, a maze, a great surrealist object. It will be an absolutely theatrical museum. People who come to see it will leave with the feeling of having had a theatrical dream,” Dalí once said. The Dalí Theatre-Museum’s collection includes more than 4000 Dalí works, 11,300 photographs, and 537 manuscripts.

20. Barcelona’s most visited museum is dedicated to the city’s beloved football (that is, soccer) team, FC Barcelona. Within the team’s stadium, dubbed Camp Nou, is a collection of multimedia exhibits, memorabilia, and trophies from the team’s 22 league titles, four Champions League victories, and many more. Visitors can also take a tour of the locker rooms, the players’ tunnel leading to the field, and other hallowed spaces. In 2013, more than 1,530,400 fans passed through the doors, more than the Dalí Theatre Museum in nearby Figueres and the Museu Picasso.

21. The Mercat de Sant Josep de la Boqueria is the city’s main market for food and drink. The current market was established in 1840, but the site has been a well-trodden spot for farmers to trade their produce and city dwellers to buy fresh food since the 13th century. Today third- and fourth-generation sellers offer fresh and salted fish, poultry and eggs, meats of every description, breads, pasta, wine, fruits and vegetables, and even frozen foods.

22. The old Sant Agustí monastery now houses the Museu de la Xocolata ("Museum of Chocolate” in the Catalan language), showcasing a sweet part of Barcelona's history. In the 15th century, shipments of chocolate from far-flung regions arrived in Barcelona and were distributed throughout Europe. Exhibits focus on the chocolate-making process, historical roots of the product, and even chocolate-themed works of art.

23. Barcelona’s Avinguda del Portal de L'Angel is Spain’s most expensive retail street. As of 2015, commercial real estate on the street sold for $335 per square foot.

24. The au courant clothing chain Mango was founded in Barcelona in 1984. Now, the brand has 2415 stores in 107 countries and operates Europe’s largest fashion design hub, the Hangar Design Centre.

25. The Royal Institute of British Architecture's highest honor, the Royal Gold Medal, has always be awarded to a person—except in 1999, when it was given to the city of Barcelona. Citing the city’s widespread revitalization after the 1992 Olympics, the organization announced, "Barcelona is now more whole in every way, its fabric healed yet threaded through with new open spaces, its historic buildings refurbished, yet its facilities expanded and brought up-to-the-minute.”

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