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5 Inventions That Use Literal Horse Power

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This weekend at the Belmont Stakes, American Pharaoh will try to become just the 12th horse in history to win the triple crown. What a successful horse!

But did you know that horses have been used for things other than high-stakes horse-on-horse racing? For centuries, humans have tried to harness the power of these animals for products of our inventive and imperfect spirit, with varying degrees of success.

1. Horse-Powered Boat.

Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

These vessels were used in the early-to-mid 19th century before steam power replaced equine energy. The Experiment was perhaps the most famous of these boats, as its ambition, technology, and size outmatched its predecessors’.

Invented in the early 1800s by Rhode Island engineer David Wilkinson, this wooden ship was propelled by a giant in-water screw that was itself powered by eight horses walking along an onboard treadmill. It never surpassed its name, however, and the Experiment only made one voyage before running aground and being scrapped for good.

2. Horse-drawn Vacuum.

In the late 19th century, St. Louis inventor John S. Therman patented the “pneumatic carpet-renovator,” a precursor to the modern vacuum cleaner. Hubert Cecil Booth improved upon his idea and created "Puffing Billy," a carpet cleaning device that was a little bigger than a dirt devil—it was about the size of a carriage cabin. Puffing Billy had to be attached to a horse and pulled from home to home for demonstrations and use.

Coincidentally, William Henry Hoover bought the patent to a more portable vacuum cleaner in 1908 as a new business idea because his leather manufacturing company was faltering in part because of the falling demand for leather horse harnesses after the advent of motor power. Thus, the Hoover vacuum empire was born.

3. Horse-powered Horse.

This recent invention is described in its patent application as “a system and method for increasing the velocity of an animal on a mechanical device using gravity and natural animal movement.” According to the illustrations, the horse is strapped into an elliptical-looking device with wheels, becoming a high-speed carnival beast that has broken free of its merry-go-round's iron fetters.

Or, it is essentially the equine equivalent of this:

4. Horse-Powered Generator.

If your electricity goes out, don't fret: Just hook Secretariat up to this generator and you'll be microwaving pizza bagels in no time.

5. Horse-Powered Sawmill.

The above video shows a fully operational sawmill in Belize that is powered wholly by a team of horses. Woodworkers who don't have as many horses will have to settle for the economy model wood-splitter instead:

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10 Relics From the Horse-Powered City Hiding in Plain Sight
Library of Congress
Library of Congress

The commerce and transportation of modern cities initially relied on the horse. While there are still places where they serve a vital role, on the whole the horse has disappeared from the urban environment as cars, trains, subways, and other hoofless transportation took over in the 20th century. Look closely enough, though, and you can still find reminders of this equine past in our infrastructure.

1. STABLES

Wally Gobetz, Flickr // CC by 2.0

A city powered by horses needs shelters for them to rest and sleep. Stables and carriage houses thus once lined the streets, their arched doorways still recognizable even when converted into homes and businesses. Mews all over London still have rows of stables, often dating to the 17th and 18th centuries, which are almost entirely now housing. According to the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, in just New York City, there were around 4500 stables by the beginning of the 20th century.

Artists were sometimes the first to take over stables after the horses had gone, appreciating their roomy floorplans. MacDougal Alley in Manhattan, for example, changed over from horses to sculptor and painter residents in the Gilded Age. Elsewhere, sculptures of horse heads still crane their necks from former stable façades, such as on 19th century stables in Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia, and the 1906 stable for Schlitz brewery in Chicago. 

2. HORSE WALK

Some carriage houses incorporated "horse walks": interior passageways that allowed a horse to walk from the street to a stable. Dense urban areas like New York City still have evidence of these discrete entrances, such as at 7 Leroy Street in Greenwich Village, constructed in 1831, and 336 West 12th Street in the West Village, from the 1850s. Often they just appear as a door alongside the main entrance to the home, wide and tall enough for a horse to slip through.

3. EQUESTRIAN STAIRCASES

Riders' Staircase, Old Royal Palace, Prague. Image credit:Richard Mortel via Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Equestrian staircases are most often found in old European cities, built into or alongside castles and other complexes as sloping steps for horses to access upper floors. A 16th century example in Vladislav Hall at Prague Castle, for instance, has a "rider's staircase" so knights didn't have to dismount to enter. In Bologna, the town hall contains a huge staircase designed by Renaissance architect Donato Bramante to accommodate carriages.

4. TROUGHS

Horses have to drink, but urban settings rarely have convenient streams with clean water. Organizations concerned with animal welfare—like the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association, formed in 1859 in London—spearheaded the construction of troughs with freely available water. Henry Bergh with the ASPCA was particularly involved with installing troughs with fresh water around New York City, and a few are still visible, including a low granite one by the carriage horses that still give tourists rides in Central Park. The trough in Grand Army Plaza is one of the many funded by local Edith Bowdoin, and was rededicated in 2001 at its current site. The troughs weren’t the ASPCA’s only initiative for Manhattan steeds, however: They also offered free showers on the streets and gave out eye-shading straw hats for horses with specially designed ear holes. 

5. FOUNTAINS

Like troughs, horse fountains offered water for city stallions, but fountains were often incredibly elaborate. One with a clock and Shakespeare quotes from the 1880s can still be seen in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The 1919 Gumbel Memorial Fountain in New Orleans is adorned with a dramatic sculpture by Isidore Konti, and the Temperance Fountain in Washington, D.C. has water flowing from the mouths of dolphins, the overflow of which was collected for horse drinking. As that one’s name suggests, many of these doubled as temperance fountains, built to encourage humans to drink water instead of beer. Others were simply donated by animal-loving philanthropists, like advertising agent John Hooper, who died in 1889 and left $10,000 for two fountains "whereat man and beast can drink." The 1894 Hooper Fountain in Manhattan has a monumental column topped with a lantern, with a broad basin below fit for horse muzzles. 

6. AUCTION HOUSES

Horses did not come into the cities through spontaneous generation. Auction houses were a common sight for the horse trade, with large entryways similar in structure to private stables. The grand Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway in Manhattan, for instance, was erected in 1896 as the American Horse Exchange. Artists later converted these as well, including the Beaux-Arts 1904 Van Tassel and Kearney Horse Auction Mart at 126-128 East 13th Street in New York City. After it ceased sales in the 1920s, it was a candy factory and school before artist Frank Stella purchased it in 1978. He moved out in 2005, and it’s now a dance center.

7. HORSE BLOCKS 

Jochen Wolters, Flickr // CC by 2.0

To give carriage passengers and horseback riders a boost, mounting blocks were installed in locations of regular use. Basically just a block of stone or a tiny staircase, a few are still preserved in the sidewalks. London’s Waterloo Place has one from 1830, which, according to its plaque, was placed “by the desire of the Duke of Wellington” (see above). Another of these upping stones is inscribed with the initials "WW" in Camden, New Jersey, just outside the house of none other than poet Walt Whitman.

8. HITCHING POSTS 

Phil Roeder, Flickr // CC by 2.0

Hitching posts weren’t just a Western fantasy for cowboys in saloons—all cities with horses needed convenient tethering points to keep the animals from straying. Often just a pole with a ring, others were more elaborate, like the horse-shaped ones in Brooklyn’s 19th century Green-Wood Cemetery, and in the historic French Quarter of New Orleans. You can even find a combo version in Homer, New York, that’s both a hitching post and a mounting step.

9. TETHERING RINGS

iStock

More integrated into the infrastructure than hitching posts but basically serving the same purpose, tethering rings are discreet metal loops embedded in walls, sidewalks, and curbs. They are sometimes ornate, like the one shaped like a dragon in Florence, Italy, that doubles as a sconce (above), but on the whole they are plain. Now mostly obsolete, some have found an unusual afterlife in Portland, Oregon, where they host ephemeral art installations, including tiny horses

10. HORSECAR TRACKS 

Wikimedia // Public Domain

Before there were trolleys and then buses, aboveground transportation often involved the horsecar. Omnibuses were pulled by horses on rails, and these tracks would often transition over to be used by electric cars. The horsecar tracks in Portland, Oregon changed over to electricity in the late 1800s, while the former horsecar tracks in Charlotte, North Carolina were turned electric and began operation in 1891. During the turn of the last century, horses and trolleys would sometimes be riding side-by-side. A photographer in Manhattan caught one of the last horsecars riding the rails in 1917, while the electric trolley raced alongside, and presumably overtook, the fading fixture of transportation.

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See the Future of Equine Medicine: A CT Scanner for Horses

To the average non-veterinarian, a CT scanner for horses may seem kind of silly—but the average non-veterinarian has never tried to get a horse into a traditional CT scanner. It’s a laborious, stressful process for everyone involved, especially the horse. In the future, it might not be necessary, thanks to a new immersive imaging system.

Rather than pushing a passed-out horse into a tube, Equimagine technology surrounds a standing, conscious horse with mobile robotic cameras. This does away with the need for anesthetizing the horse, which can be risky. Imaging an upright horse also provides more useful perspective, since they spend most of their lives standing up.

The University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine is the first site to test one of the new scanners. “The reason this is so revolutionary is that the robots can easily move around the horse in any orientation,” medical director Barbara Dallap Schaer said in a press statement. “We can do the imaging in a patient that is standing and awake. From a clinical standpoint, we will see elements of the horse’s anatomy that we’ve never seen before.”

According to Dean Richardson, chief of large animal surgery at Penn Vet’s New Bolton Center, the veterinary school will use the equipment for teaching and as a diagnostic tool for its many equine patients. “One of the most important diseases of Thoroughbred racehorses is that they develop certain types of stress fractures that are very difficult to diagnose and characterize,” he said. “This technology has the potential to help diagnose those early enough that we can manage them and help prevent the horse from suffering a catastrophic breakdown on the race track.”

The future of this technology goes well beyond horses. People don’t exactly enjoy the traditional CT scan experience, either. Kids, much like horses, may need to be sedated in order to get them to lie still long enough for the cameras to do their work. In the future, says Dallap Schaer, “instead of a child having to be anesthetized, they could sit there on their iPad and talk to their parents and have the image prepared in 30 seconds.”

Header image from YouTube // Futurism

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