15 Huge Facts About Big

Big is hardly the only age-changing movie that has ever been made. But even today, it remains one of the sub-genre's most enduring entries. Tom Hanks and director Penny Marshall were the two main reasons for the film's success, even though they only became involved in the project after other, bigger names (in 1988 anyway) backed out. Isn't that always the way?

1. HARRISON FORD WAS GOING TO STAR AS JOSH BASKIN, AND STEVEN SPIELBERG WAS GOING TO DIRECT.

Anne Spielberg, Steven’s sister, wrote the Big script with Gary Ross with the idea that Ford would star and the elder Spielberg would direct. When they dropped out, producer James L. Brooks presented the script to Penny Marshall.

2. THERE WERE A LOT OF MAJOR STARS BEING CONSIDERED FOR THE LEAD.

Tom Hanks was the first choice, but he was busy with other projects at the time. Marshall asked Kevin Costner, Warren Beatty, and Dennis Quaid, who all said no. Albert Brooks gave her the same answer, saying he didn’t want to play a kid. John Travolta really wanted to do it, but the studio didn't want Travolta ("at the time he was box office poison," Marshall wrote in her memoir). Sean Penn was deemed too young by Marshall. Gary Busey auditioned, but Marshall didn’t think he could pull off playing an adult.

3. ROBERT DE NIRO AGREED TO PLAY JOSH.

Wanting to make a family-friendly commercial film, De Niro at first accepted Marshall’s offer. De Niro and Jared Rushton, who played Josh’s childhood friend Billy, even hung out in Marshall’s driveway skateboarding and shooting hoops. However, De Niro’s $6 million price tag was ultimately too expensive, and after declining Marshall’s offer to pay him with her own salary, De Niro dropped out. But his short-lived attachment helped to raise the project's profile in Hollywood, so when approached about starring for a second time, Hanks said yes.

4. DEBRA WINGER TRIED TO CONVINCE MARSHALL TO CHANGE JOSH INTO A WOMAN.

The actress kept asking her director friend if the gender could be switched for the protagonist, but Marshall explained to Winger that she couldn’t see a way to make a 35-year-old man in a relationship with a 12-year-old girl not be “something from Penthouse or Hustler.”

5. IT WAS THE FIFTH AGE-CHANGE COMEDY TO COME OUT WITHIN ONE YEAR.

On October 2, 1987, the trend started with Like Father Like Son, the movie that swapped Dudley Moore and Kirk Cameron’s personalities. On December 23 in Italy, Da grande told the story of a nine-year-old boy having his wish to become an adult overnight come true (so that he could romance his teacher). On March 11, 1988, Judge Reinhold and Fred Savage unwittingly had their minds switched in Vice Versa. Three weeks later, 81-year-old George Burns’ age was inversed after a car crash in 18 Again! (A veteran producer said it was all a big coincidence.) Marshall didn’t know when she took the directing assignment that Big was not going to be an original idea on its June 3, 1988 release. She admitted that she read the scripts for Like Father Like Son and Vice Versa, and determined that their tones were different than Big’s.

6. HANKS AND ELIZABETH PERKINS HAD DOUBTS ABOUT THE MOVIE.

Because of the glut of similar movies that were beating them to the punch while they were shooting the movie, Perkins said that she and Hanks “looked at each other at one point like, ugh—this is going straight to video.”

7. YOU CAN FIND A ZOLTAR MACHINE AT RYE PLAYLAND. BUT NOT THAT ZOLTAR.

The scene at the end of the movie, where Josh finds the Zoltar machine again, was filmed at New York’s Rye Playland, but the machine was just a movie prop. In fact, if you went to the very spot where the machine was in the film today, you would find an Aquafina vending machine. But the park does have a Zoltar machine, albeit one that is notably different from the movie version—and located in a hut by the Dragon Coaster.

8. HANKS AND ROBERT LOGGIA DID THEIR OWN PIANO DANCING.

Robert Loggia portrayed MacMillan, who was modeled after then-FAO Schwarz CEO Peter L. Harris. After Loggia and Hanks spent months at home practicing the routine on huge cardboard piano keys, the two showed up for shooting and noticed dancers on standby. Motivated by the perceived slight, Loggia remembered telling the stunt men to “take a hike,” and performing the sequence with Hanks in “just about one take.”

9. THE CREATOR OF THE "WALKING PIANO" BUILT A BIGGER VERSION OF IT JUST FOR THE MOVIE.

Remo Saraceni built a 16-foot long, full three-octave piano so that Josh and MacMillan could play “Heart and Soul,” something that the six-and-a-half-foot long, one-octave "Walking Piano" on display at FAO Schwarz couldn’t accommodate. After the movie's success, Saraceni began selling the 16-foot version—for $15,000.

10. HANKS GOT TO SEE HOW A KID WOULD ACTUALLY BEHAVE IN HIS SCENES.

Penny Marshall videotaped David Moscow, the actor who played kid Josh, acting out all of the adult Josh scenes so that Hanks could study his mannerisms in each situation.

11. HANKS AND MOSCOW BOTH HAD TO CHANGE THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO PLAY THE SAME PERSON.

Moscow dyed his hair black and wore green contact lenses to look like a younger version of Hanks. Because his feet were growing at a rapid pace and he consequently wore ill-fitting shoes, Moscow had a weird duck-like gait, which led Hanks to ask for oversized shoes so that he could mimic Moscow's walk.

12. YOUNG JOSH HAD THE TIME OF HIS LIFE ON SET.

David Moscow got to stay up all night for the first time in his life when they shot the carnival scenes. He was able to ride all of the rides and eat a lot of cotton candy. Later, after shooting, Moscow and Jared Rushton became buddies in Los Angeles, surprising many L.A. onlookers who saw the two Big child stars hanging out together in real life.

13. JON LOVITZ GOT SICK DURING FILMING.

Lovitz, who played Josh's co-worker Scotty Brennen, came down with the flu in the midst of production. After a week of convalescence, Lovitz considered calling Marshall to say he was good to come back and finish filming before deciding that it was a “nothing” role. Once Big became a big hit, he felt like an “idiot.”

14. IN THE SCRIPT, SUSAN KISSES JOSH GOODBYE ON THE LIPS.

Since it was at the end of the film, after Susan discovers Josh’s real age, Marshall insisted that Elizabeth Perkins kiss him on the forehead instead.

15. PENNY MARSHALL MADE MOVIE HISTORY.

In her second movie directing assignment, Marshall became the first female director to ever direct a film that made more than $100 million at the box office.

11 Facts About Eleanor of Aquitaine

A drawing of what Eleanor of Aquitaine might have looked like circa 1150
A drawing of what Eleanor of Aquitaine might have looked like circa 1150
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Eleanor of Aquitaine was among the most powerful women of the 12th century. She controlled an extensive estate, became Queen of France and then England, and gave birth to one of England's most famed rulers, Richard the Lionheart. While her biography is now tangled up with myths and legends—even her date and place of birth are difficult to pin down—much of her legacy and influence survives. Here are 11 facts about Eleanor of Aquitaine.

1. Young Eleanor of Aquitaine was Europe’s most eligible bachelorette.

Born around 1122 or 1124 possibly in today’s southern France, Eleanor was named for her mother, the Duchess Aénor de Châtellerault. She was the eldest of three children. Her father—William X, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou—presided over one of the biggest holdings of land in France. It’s thought that from an early age she was educated in Latin, philosophy, and horseback riding. And when her younger brother died in 1130, Eleanor became the heir to a formidable amount of land and power.

When William X died in 1137 while on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain, the teenaged Eleanor suddenly became the Duchess of Aquitaine, a woman of major wealth—and a very eligible match. There was little time for her to mourn. As soon as news of her father’s death reached France, her marriage to Louis VII, son of the King of France, was arranged. The king dispatched 500 men to transport Eleanor to Paris for the wedding. Not long after their summer ceremony, the king fell ill and then died. By the end of the year his son was on the throne, and Eleanor was crowned Queen of France.

2. Her beauty was celebrated, but her appearance is a mystery.

It’s not hard to find contemporary accounts of Eleanor’s good looks. The French medieval poet Bernard de Ventadour declared her "gracious, lovely, the embodiment of charm," while Matthew Paris remarked on her "admirable beauty." Curiously, though, in all these celebrations of her fine features, not one person wrote down what she actually looked like. Her hair color, eye color, height, and face all remain a mystery. No art that has been definitively linked to her survives other than the effigy on her tomb—and the degree to which that resembles Eleanor's looks is unclear.

3. She didn't stay home during the Crusades.

When Louis VII answered the pope’s call for a Second Crusade to defend Jerusalem against the Muslims, Eleanor did not stay behind in France. Between 1147 and 1149, she traveled with her husband's party to Constantinople and then Jerusalem. (According to legend, she took along 300 ladies-in-waiting dressed as Amazons—but those tales have been debunked.)

Unfortunately, this was no romantic adventure for the royal couple. Louis and his headstrong queen were mismatched, and the strain between them culminated at the court of her uncle, Raymond of Poitiers at Antioch. Rumors of an incestuous infidelity between Eleanor of Aquitaine and her uncle, whose luxurious court thrilled her with its charms, darkened her reputation. She also made waves with her defiant support of her uncle’s plans for the crusade; he advised attacking Aleppo, while Louis preferred to continue to Jerusalem. Soon, Louis would force Eleanor to continue with him.

Ultimately, the Second Crusade was a debacle, culminating with the disastrous Siege of Damascus in 1148, which ended in a Muslim victory. Louis VII and the crusader army were sent home packing.

4. Her first marriage was annulled.

The royal marriage didn’t last much longer, its tensions furthered by the fact that Eleanor had yet to give birth to a male heir. The marriage was finally annulled in 1152. (The pair were granted the annulment on the grounds of consanguinity—the fact that they were technically related.) Eleanor kept her lands and was single again, but not for long. In May of that same year, she married Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. Two years later they were crowned the King and Queen of England.

5. She was a powerful Queen of England.

Eleanor was no less strong-willed as the Queen of England than she had been as the Queen of France. She refused to stay home and idle away her hours. She traveled extensively to protect the kingdom that was then being consolidated by Henry, giving the monarchy a presence across its newly united cultures. When her husband was away, she helped direct government and ecclesiastical affairs. And in contrast to her listless marriage to Louis VII—with whom she had two daughters—she secured her position by having eight children, including five sons and three daughters.

6. She had a historically bad break-up.

However, relations between Eleanor and Henry soured after years of his open adultery and frequent absences. They separated in 1167, and she moved to her lands in Poitiers. The distance didn’t change her opinion of Henry; when their sons revolted against him in 1173, she didn't waver in choosing sides, backing her children over her husband. When the revolt failed, it had catastrophic consequences for her freedom, with Henry making her his prisoner.

7. She spent over a decade under house arrest.

After supporting her sons in their revolt, Eleanor was captured while attempting to find safety in France. She spent between 15 and 16 years under house arrest in various English castles, and was almost entirely absent from the country's activity (although there were rumors that she had a hand in the death of Rosamund, King Henry's beloved mistress). On special occasions like Christmas, Henry would allow her to show her face, but otherwise she was kept invisible and powerless. Only in 1189, when Henry died, was she fully freed.

8. She was most powerful as a widow.

Her son Richard, who became king following Henry's death, was the one who freed his mother. After her years of house arrest, she did not come out ready for retirement. Instead, she threw herself into preparing for the coronation of her son, who would be known as Richard the Lionheart. Before he was crowned King of England, she journeyed all over his future kingdom to forge alliances and foster goodwill. When Richard set out on the Third Crusade, Eleanor took charge as regent, fending off her power-hungry son John. She even paid Richard's ransom when he was imprisoned by the duke of Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor, traveling there herself to bring him home to England.

Richard then died in 1199, leaving John to become king. Eleanor, then in her seventies, kept at her commitment to the kingdom’s stability, including going to Spain to arrange a pivotal marriage for her granddaughter Blanche of Castile to the heir to the French throne. She also gave John crucial support against a rebellion led by her grandson Arthur.

9. A vase she owned still survives.

A vase that once belonged to Eleanor of Aquitaine
A vase that once belonged to Eleanor of Aquitaine
tnchanse ~ Tom Hansen, Flickr // CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (cropped)

Out of all the tokens of wealth and royalty that touched her life, only one artifact that once belonged to Eleanor of Aquitaine survives. She received an elegant rock crystal vessel from her grandfather William IX Duke of Aquitaine, who had likely been given it by the ruler of Imad al-dawla of Saragossa. In 1137, she gave it as a wedding gift to her future husband, Louis VII. The king’s advisor Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis then convinced Louis VII to add it to his abbey’s treasury (thus keeping it in French royal possession after their brief marriage). Now visitors to the Louvre in Paris can view the rare object, where, despite its series of owners, it’s still known as the “Eleanor” vase.

10. She has an extensive legacy in pop culture.

Eleanor of Aquitaine has hardly faded from the public eye. Alternately depicted as a temptress, warrior, protective mother, and powerful queen, interpretations of Eleanor reflect how her history has been retold over time. In Shakespeare's 16th-century The Life and Death of King John, she is an aged but sharp and sometimes sultry force. She recurs in screen versions of Robin Hood (2010) and the Ivanhoe series. Katharine Hepburn bristled with fiery energy in the role of Eleanor in the 1968 film The Lion in Winter, based on the play by James Goldman. She even has a seat at a major work of feminist art—there's a place set for her in Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party, now at the Brooklyn Museum.

11. Her bones are gone, but her tomb survives.

Tombs of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England in the church at Fontevraud Abbey
Tombs of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England in the church at Fontevraud Abbey
Martin Cooper, Flickr // CC BY-2.0 (cropped)

Having outlived all of her husbands and most of her children, Eleanor ended her days at Fontevraud Abbey in France. She died there in 1204 in her eighties. Remarkably, her 13th-century effigy tomb survives, depicting Eleanor reclining on a bed, a crown upon her head and a devotional book in her hands. She seems to be studiously ignoring the effigies of her husband Henry II and son Richard the Lionheart on either side of her.

Her bones were once interred in the abbey's crypt. But like many of the country’s churches during the French Revolution, the abbey was deconsecrated. The crypt's bones were exhumed, dispersed, and never recovered.

11 Gifts for the Hygge Enthusiast

iStock
iStock

Hygge is still having a moment. In October 2017, the Danish term—which is used to convey a kind of warm coziness, and has no English equivalent—was one of Dictionary.com’s top 10 most searched words. But it’s a lifestyle that’s best understood when experienced firsthand. To help that special peace-seeking someone in your life find the ultimate level of relaxation, might we suggest one of these goodies?

1. The Little Book Of Hygge: Danish Secrets T0 Happy Living

The first rule of hygge is to learn everything you can about hygge—like how it’s pronounced for starters (it’s hoo-ga). That’s just one of the gems serenity-seekers will find in The Little Book of Hygge: Danish Secrets to Happy Living, which offers a history of the philosophy and tons of tips for how to easily integrate the concept into your life. Plus, it’s written by Meik Wiking, CEO of Copenhagen’s Happiness Research Institute, so a brighter mood is practically guaranteed.

Find It at Amazon for $14 and also at these other retailers:

2. Electric Fireplace

wall-mounted fireplace
Amazon

Whether reading a book or chatting with friends, there are few snugger places to do so in the wintertime than in front of a flickering fireplace. But if your giftee isn't lucky enough to have a home with a fireplace, there’s a simple workaround: They can mount an electric one to the wall, just as they would a plasma TV. They’re sleek, smokeless, and add instant ambiance.

Find It at Amazon for $250.

3. French Vanilla Yankee Candle

A fireplace isn’t the only thing that flickers in a hygge-happy home: Candles are a simple way to dazzle the eyes and indulge olfactory senses. While a handful of tea lights are a quick and inexpensive way to create the effect, a richly scented candle—in a natural flavor like vanilla or cinnamon stick—can take anyone's cozy quarters to the next level.

Find It at these retailers:

4. EDDIE BAUER QUEST FLEECE THROW; $55

With or without a fire to keep them warm, your loved one is also going to want a blanket—and a soft and cozy one at that. Eddie Bauer’s fleece blanket is lightweight, so easy to carry from room to room or on the go. And its bold buffalo check style screams comfort.

Find It at Amazon for $36.

5. Faux Fur Blanket

If your giftee is partial to more natural design schemes and materials, a faux fur blanket is the perfect way to bring a bit of the outdoors inside—and keep extra warm all at once. West Elm carries a full line of different styles and colors to satisfy even the pickiest faux fur-lover.

Find It at West Elm for $50 and up.

6. Acorn Slipper Sock

Slippers or socks? The ACORN Slipper Sock offers the best of both worlds. It’s essentially a big, warm, woolly sock with serious traction. Perfect for both lounging on the couch and padding into the kitchen to get a refill on that hot chocolate.

Find It at Amazon for $30 and up and also at these other retailers:

7. Glerups Open Heel Slippers

If your favorite hygge enthusiast's quiet contemplation tends to attract a few interruptions—like taking the dog for a walk—these rubber-soled Glerups slippers are tough enough to handle the outside elements, while keeping feet warm.

Find It at Amazon for $130 and up.

8. WISSOTZKY Tea Magic Tea Chest

A hot cup of something is an essential part of any hygge environment. While coffee and cocoa are all well and good (and delicious), a cup of tea can offer additional healing properties. To find out just what kind of tea fits your giftee's personality best, why not allow them to sample as many as they can with this giant box of black, green, fruit, and herbal teas.

Find It at Amazon for $35.

9. Mountain Hardwear PackDown Vest

When your loved one does have to head outdoors, there’s no reason they can’t keep that cozy vibe going—especially when wrapped up in a down vest.

Find It at Amazon for $105 and up and also at these other retailers:

10. Wool Irish Springweight Aran Sweater

Whether they’re taking a walk in the snow or hunkered down with a book, nothing says cold-weather comfort like a soon-to-be-favorite sweater. This Irish knit sweater, made by West End Knitwear, comes in a variety of sizes and colors and is unisex, so perfect for sharing.

Find It at Amazon for $60 and up.

11. WEMO Insight Smart Plug

Though smart technology might seem to fly in the face of everything that hygge stands for, the environment that one surrounds oneself with—from the temperature to the lighting—is all a key part of creating the perfect setting. This smart plug from Wemo, which works with both Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant, allows the user to control those things right from a smartphone—no climbing out from under the blanket required.

Find It at Amazon for $33 and also at these other retailers:

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