istock
istock

7 Unexpected Animal Beauty Pageants

istock
istock

Most people have heard of the pampered pooches who compete at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, held every year at NYC’s Madison Square Garden. It may be more of a surprise to learn that there's a version of Westminster for tarantulas, or that cows, goats, elephants, and other furry (or feathered) friends compete in beauty pageants around the world. (So far, of course, Westminster is the only event with its own mockumentary.) These competitions range from the bitterly contested to the relatively lighthearted, but they all feature animals that we don’t usually expect to see on a judging platform.

1. British Tarantula Society Annual Competition

Like Westminster, the British Tarantula Society's annual contest features both individual categories—such as "Best Asian Arboreal" and "Best Brachypelma"—as well an overall Best in Show crown. This year, top honors went to a Phormictopus sp. "Green," an 8-inch creepy-crawly with a metallic green tint. The British Tarantula Society was founded 30 years ago by one Ann Webb (yes, really), and has been charming arachnophiles ever since. The first annual contest was held in Webb's garage, while this year's event packed about 2000 people into a Coventry stadium.

2. World’s Falcons Beauty Contest

Falconry is a big deal in the United Arab Emirates, where the bird is a national symbol featured on official crests and an inspiration for traditional music, dance, food, and Instagram-fueled rap battles. The Emirates Falconers’ Club runs the World’s Falcons Beauty Contest, which judges the “best looking and largest falcons in the world” according to their size, weight, the color and consistency of their feathers, and other characteristics. The birds are assessed in four categories, including "best gyr-peregrine hybrid bred in captivity" and "best pure gyr" (gyr and peregrines are species of falcons), while owners are judged in “The Best Stand of Falconry and Its Equipment in the Exhibition.”

3. Miss Milk Cow Pageant

iStock

Judges at the annual Miss Milk Cow pageant in Vietnam are looking for long legs and a shapely torso, but the real asset on trial is the ability to produce lots and lots of milk. The Miss Milk Cow contest is held annually in Moc Chau, a region of Vietnam known for its dairy pastures, and the contest’s stated purpose is to promote dairy farming. The most recent Miss Milk Cow, who won her title in October 2014, was a comely four-year-old capable of producing 42 kg of milk (about 92.5 pounds) per day—double the average volume.

4. Elephant Beauty Contest at the Chitwan Elephant Festival

The Chitwan Elephant Festival in southern Nepal features elephant races, elephant calf football, and an elephant picnic, plus ox- and horse-cart races. But for some, the highlight is undoubtedly the elephant beauty pageant, when freshly scrubbed and painted pachyderms appear resplendent in gowns and nail polish before a group of judges. Contestants are scored on cleanliness and intelligence, among other attributes. Five elephants competed in the most recent event, held in December 2014, although the pageant's final outcome, disappointingly, seems to have gone unreported in the English-language press.

5. Camel Beauty Pageant at the Selcuk Efes Camel Wrestling Festival

Camel wrestling goes back thousands of years in Turkey, although the Selcuk Efes Camel Wrestling Festival’s current incarnation was launched by the nation’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 1982. Spectators who might not be up for the brief-but-violent wrestling matches between spitting Tulu camels (watch out for the flying saliva and urine!) can instead take in the animals adorned with beads, sequins, pom poms, and tassels competing for the title of best-dressed in the beauty pageant.

6. National Pigeon Show

iStock

Who hasn't occasionally admired the metallic plumage of pigeons at the park? The birds at the National Pigeon Association's Grand National Pigeon Show take it to the next level, with multi-colored crimped and curled plumage that would put even Kate Middleton's tresses to shame. This year's contest, held in Los Angeles, saw 7800 pigeons in over 300 breeds and from 21 countries compete in best-of-breed and best-in-show categories. (Even noted pigeon enthusiast Mike Tyson attended.) This year's overall champion was a snowy Oriental Frill.

7. Goat Beauty Contests

iStock

You might not think of goats as being in the same league as Miss America, but goat beauty pageants are definitely a thing. In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, pedigree Najdi goats—known for their distinctive noses and silky manes—have competed to win prizes, while in Jordan, Al Shami goats (also known for their great noses) have duked it out. Both breeds can fetch tens of thousands of dollars per animal, and the contests seem mostly geared to establishing bragging rights for breeders.

Lithuania, however, has kept things a little more homegrown with a goat beauty pageant in 2010 meant to celebrate the 640th anniversary of the village of Ramygala. (A fetching cream-colored goat named Grazyolyte took home the crown.) The idea behind such contests isn’t new, by the way—in the mid-1930s, there were regular goat beauty pageants in Central Park, sponsored by a beer company seeking the mascot for their annual advertising poster. The 1934 winner, Pretzels, was described by The New York Times as possessing “magnificent swirling horns, a long, sagacious beard and a relatively sweet disposition.”

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
How Does Catnip Work?
iStock
iStock

If you have a cat, you probably keep a supply of catnip at home. Many cats are irresistibly drawn to the herb, and respond excitedly to its scent, rubbing against it, rolling around on the floor, and otherwise going nuts. There are few things that can get felines quite as riled up as a whiff of catnip—not even the most delicious treats. But why does catnip, as opposed to any other plant, have such a profound effect on our feline friends?

Catnip, or Nepeta cataria, is a member of the mint family. It contains a compound called nepetalactone, which is what causes the characteristic catnip reaction. Contrary to what you might expect, the reaction isn’t pheromone related—even though pheromones are the smelly chemicals we usually associate with a change in behavior. While pheromones bind to a set of specialized receptors in what’s known as a vomeronasal organ, located in the roof of a cat's mouth (which is why they sometimes open their mouths to detect pheromones), nepetalactone binds to olfactory receptors at the olfactory epithelium, or the tissue that lines the mucus membranes inside a cat’s nose and is linked to smell.

Scientists know the basics of the chemical structure of nepetalactone, but how it causes excitement in cats is less clear. “We don’t know the full mechanisms of how the binding of these compounds to the receptors in the nose ultimately changes their behavior,” as Bruce Kornreich, associate director of the Cornell Feline Health Center, tells Mental Floss. Sadly, sticking a bunch of cats in an MRI machine with catnip and analyzing their brain activity isn’t really feasible, either from a practical or a financial standpoint, so it’s hard to determine which parts of a cat’s brain are reacting to the chemical as they frolic and play.

Though it may look like they’re getting high, catnip doesn’t appear to be harmful or addictive to cats. The euphoric period only lasts for a short time before cats become temporarily immune to its charms, meaning that it’s hard for them to overdo it.

“Cats do seem to limit themselves," Michael Topper, president of the American Veterinary Medical Association, tells Mental Floss. "Their stimulation lasts for about 10 minutes, then it sort of goes away.” While you may not want to turn your house into a greenhouse for catnip and let your feline friend run loose, it’s a useful way to keep indoor cats—whose environment isn’t always the most thrilling—stimulated and happy. (If you need proof of just how much cats love this herb, we suggest checking out Cats on Catnip, a new book of photography from professional cat photographer Andrew Martilla featuring dozens of images of cats playing around with catnip.)

That said, not all cats respond to catnip. According to Topper, an estimated 70 percent of cats react to catnip, and it appears to have a genetic basis. Topper compares it to the genetic variation that causes some individuals to smell asparagus pee while others don’t. Even if a cat will eventually love the smell of catnip, it doesn’t come out of the womb yearning for a sniff. Young kittens don’t show any behavioral response to it, and may not develop one until several months after birth [PDF].

But some researchers contend that more cats may respond to catnip than we actually realize. In one 2017 study, a group of researchers in Mexico examined how cats might subtly respond to catnip in ways that aren’t always as obvious as rolling around on the floor with their tongue hanging out. It found that 80 percent of cats responded to catnip in a passive way, showing decreased motor activity and sitting the “sphinx” position, an indicator of a relaxed state.

There are also other plants that have similar effects on cats, some of which may appeal to a wider variety of felines than regular old catnip. In a 2017 study in the journal BMC Veterinary Research, researchers tested feline responses to not just catnip, but several other plants containing compounds similar in structure to nepetalactone, like valerian root, Tatarian honeysuckle, and silver vine. They found that 94 percent of cats responded to at least one of the plants, if not more than one. The majority of the cats that didn’t respond to catnip itself did respond to silver vine, suggesting that plant might be a potential alternative for cats that seem immune to catnip’s charms.

Despite the name, domestic cats aren’t the only species that love catnip. Many other feline species enjoy it, too, including lions and jaguars, though tigers are largely indifferent to it. The scent of the plant also attracts butterflies. (However, no matter what you’ve heard, humans can’t get high off it. When made into a tea, though, it reportedly has mild sedative effects.)

The reason Nepeta cataria releases nepetalactone doesn’t necessarily have to do with giving your cat a buzz. The fact that it gives cats that little charge of euphoria may be purely coincidental. The chemical is an insect repellant that the plant emits as a defense mechanism against pests like aphids. According to the American Chemical Society, nepetalactone attracts wasps and other insect predators that eat aphids, calling in protective reinforcements when the plant is in aphid-related distress. That it brings all the cats to the yard is just a side effect.

Because of this, catnip may have even more uses in the future beyond sending cats into a delighted frenzy. Rutgers University has spent more than a decade breeding a more potent version of catnip, called CR9, which produces more nepetalactone. It’s not just a matter of selling better cat toys; since catnip releases the compound to ward off insects, it’s also a great mosquito repellant, one that scientists hope can one day be adapted for human use. In that case, you might be as excited about catnip as your cat is.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
12 Furry Facts About Red Pandas
iStock
iStock

Red pandas have always lived in the shadow of the other, more famous panda. But now it's time to give the little guy its due.

1. THEY HAVE TWO EXTINCT RELATIVES.

Red panda in a tree.
iStock

Currently, red pandas live in the Eastern Himalayas. But the first red panda fossil was found a little bit further afield than that—in the United Kingdom. In 1888, a fossil molar and lower jaw of a cougar-sized animal called the Giant Panda (unrelated to the modern giant panda) were discovered. More fossils have been found in Spain, Eastern Europe, and even the United States. Around 5 million years ago, Tennessee was home to a giant red panda that probably went extinct with the arrival of raccoons.

2. THEY'RE VEGETARIAN CARNIVORES.

Red panda eating bamboo.
iStock

It might seem like an oxymoron, but carnivore in this case doesn't mean meat eater. Carnivore is a biological order that includes groups like bears, dogs, and cats, and while these animals are generally carnivores, some are omnivores, and some are vegetarians. Red pandas are classified as carnivores because they're descended from the same ancestors as the other carnivores, but they rarely eat anything other than bamboo and a few insects. And while giant pandas eat all of a bamboo plant, red pandas eat only the young leaves. Because this is such a nutritionally poor food source, they need to spend 13 hours a day eating and looking for food and can lose upwards of 15 percent of their body weight in winter.

3. THEY'RE SLIGHTLY BIGGER THAN A DOMESTIC CAT.

Red panda sleeping on a branch.
iStock

But their tails add as much as 18 inches to their length. Red pandas live solitary lives in trees, high up in the mountains, so they wrap those big, bushy tails around themselves to keep warm. (They also use them for balance.)

4. THEY HAVE A FALSE THUMB.

Red panda perched on a log.
iStock

This is another feature (along with diet) that red pandas and giant pandas share. Because both pandas have false thumbs—which is actually an extended wrist bone—it was thought that it must be an adaption to eating bamboo. But the red panda's more carnivorous ancestors had this feature as well. According to a 2006 study, what happened was "one of the most dramatic cases of convergence among vertebrates." Convergent evolution is when two unrelated animals faced with similar circumstances evolve to look similar. In this case, the red panda's false thumb evolved to help it climb trees, and only later became adapted for the bamboo diet, while giant pandas evolved this virtually identical feature because of their bamboo diet.

5. THEY'RE ESCAPE ARTISTS.

Red panda climbing across a tree.
iStock

Rusty the red panda had been at the Smithsonian National Zoo for just three weeks when he made a break for it in June 2013. His method of escape? A tree branch that was pushed down over his enclosure's electric fence by heavy rains. The ensuing panda hunt (and endless bad jokes about panda-monium) captivated Twitter (tweeters used the hashtag #findrusty) until he was found in a nearby neighborhood. Soon after his daring escape, Rusty became a father, forcing him to put his wild youth behind him and settle down. But it could have been worse. After a similar escape in Dresden, Germany, the authorities got another red panda down from a tree by using a fire hose to spray it with water. The panda fell 30 feet to the ground, giving it a concussion. (Ultimately, the animal was OK.)

Red pandas have also escaped from zoos in London, Birmingham, and Rotterdam. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums even warn in their official care manual "beware: red pandas are escape artists" [PDF].

6. ONE ESCAPE LED TO SOMETHING CALLED THE RED PANDA EFFECT.

Red panda peeking out from behind some tree branches.
iStock

Sadly, the red panda involved in the 1978 Rotterdam escape was found dead not long after the search for it began. But the event led to a very peculiar psychological observation. Even after the body of the panda was found, more than 100 people reported seeing it, very much alive. These sightings were clearly mistaken; there's no reason to think that multiple red pandas were loose in Rotterdam, and red pandas are distinctive enough that mistaking them for a dog or cat was unlikely. It's believed that people expected to see a red panda, so they saw one, even though there wasn't one there; researchers called it the Red Panda Effect.

7. THERE'S AN INTERNET BROWSER NAMED AFTER THEM.

The Mozilla Firefox logo.
LEON NEAL, AFP/Getty Images

Mozilla's flagship browser, Firefox, means red panda. Originally, Mozilla wanted to name the browser Firebird, but found that another open source project was using that name. Not wanting to upset anyone, they decided to go with Firefox, another name for the red panda. And in a true example of adorableness, in 2010 Mozilla adopted two baby red pandas that had been born at Tennessee's Knoxville Zoo.

8. THERE IS ONLY ONE TRUE PANDA—AND YOU CAN PROBABLY GUESS WHICH ONE IT IS.

Engraving of a parti-colored bear.
Engraving of a parti-colored bear, from The New Natural History Volume II by Richard Lydekker, 1901.

After the red panda was discovered in the 1820s, it was just called the panda (the origin of the name is controversial, but it probably comes from the Nepali word ponya, meaning "bamboo or plant eating animal"). Forty years later, Europeans found a new animal in China and called it the Parti-Colored bear—because unlike polar bears, black bears, or brown bears it was multi-colored.

9. THERE HAS BEEN A 140-YEAR TAXONOMIC MIX-UP.

A red panda walking toward the camera.
iStock

Prepare to be confused: In the late 19th century, scientists noticed that the parti-colored bear and the (red) panda were very similar. Their jaws were more like each other than they were like any other animal, they lived near each other, they both had false thumbs, and their diets were similar. The decision was made to officially consider the (red) panda as a type of bear.

By the early 20th century, that decision was reversed: Parti-colored bears were declared bears, and (red) pandas were classified as cousins of the raccoon.

Then, in the 1910s, it was decided that parti-colored bears weren't actually bears at all, but were actually large pandas, and also distant relatives of the raccoon. But because parti-colored bears weren't classed as bears anymore, they had to have a name change. They became giant pandas, while the one true panda was renamed the red or lesser panda (to quote a 1920 issue of Popular Science: "Zoologists reverently refer to this rare beast as the "giant panda." Its more popular cognomen is the 'bear-raccoon'").

10. BUT RED PANDAS ARE THEIR OWN THING.

Two red pandas touch noses.
iStock

By the 1980s, genetic evidence indicated that giant pandas actually were a type of bear, and red pandas belonged in their own family, the Ailuridae. They might seem similar, but they're not related.

All of this means that if you're the type of person who rolls their eyes when someone calls a bison a buffalo, or a koala a bear, you need to stop calling the bear a panda and instead refer to it as a "parti-colored bear," the original English name (but if you wanted to call it the bear-raccoon, no one would stop you). Giant pandas are not pandas. There is only one true panda.

11. BUT THIS DOESN'T AFFECT KUNG FU PANDA 3.

Red panda with teeth bared.
iStock

There's still a kung fu panda in the series: Shifu, a red panda.

12. THEY'RE ENDANGERED.

Red panda laying down and sticking his tongue out.
iStock

According to the World Wildlife Fund, there are fewer than 10,000 red pandas left in the wild. Habitat destruction increases the species' chances of extinction.

This story originally ran in 2015.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios