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Young Turks Issue Deportation Decree

The First World War was an unprecedented catastrophe that shaped our modern world. Erik Sass is covering the events of the war exactly 100 years after they happened. This is the 184th installment in the series.

May 26-30, 1915: Young Turks Issue Deportation Decree 

In the months following the Ottoman Empire’s declaration of war against Russia in November 1914, tens of thousands of Armenian nationalists began preparing an armed uprising to help the advancing Russian Caucasian Army in eastern Anatolia, in part by disrupting Turkish lines of supply and communication behind the front. Although the exact numbers aren’t known, around 50,000 Armenian rebels may have been involved in the rebellion.

These groups represented just a few percent of the total Armenian population of two million, but the ruling Committee of Union and Progress, also known as the “Young Turks,” decided on an extreme solution: the wholesale “deportation” of all Armenians to the Syrian desert, which in reality meant mass murder. Controversy continues to this day over whether the “Young Turks” planned from the beginning to commit genocide; however considering the conditions under which the deportations were carried out – across rugged terrain in extreme heat, often with no food or water – there can have been little doubt in their minds as to the result.


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The Deportation Order

The deportations began with scattered removals in February 1915 and gathered speed in March, after the Young Turks dismissed the Ottoman Parliament, silencing a possible source of opposition to their plans. Armenian communities were uprooted on a vast scale beginning in late May with the “Tehcir Law,” or “Deportation Law,” issued as a temporary emergency decree by the Young Turks. The law was agreed on May 26, published in the press on May 27, approved by the Grand Vizier (a figurehead prime minister) on May 29, and officially enacted by the cabinet on May 30. The law was published in the government newspaper and posted in public areas (below).   

The law gave the government authority to deport the entire populations of towns, villages, and rural areas where inhabitants were suspected of engaging in espionage or sedition, if necessary by force. The task of carrying out the order was given to members of the Turkish police, called gendarmes, many of whom had been recruited especially for the job by the “Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa” or “Special Organization,” the secret police force responsible for organizing the deportations. According to contemporary accounts some of these gendarmes were hardened criminals who had been released from prison for this very reason. The secret order to murder Armenians was conveyed to provincial officials in person by “responsible secretaries,” who delivered it verbally in order to avoid leaving a paper trail.  

In many places the gendarmes began by murdering young and middle-aged Armenian men who might have tried to resist. In some cases they led the men to the outskirts of towns and killed them by shooting them or stabbing them with swords or bayonets, while in other cases they left the work to groups of Kurdish bandits. The U.S. consul in Harput, Leslie H. Davis, wrote to Ambassador Morgenthau in Constantinople: “The system that is being followed seems to be to have bands of Kurds awaiting them on the road to kill the men especially and incidentally some of the others. The entire movement seems to be the most thoroughly organized and effective massacre this country has ever seen.” 

In some places the men were separated out from the marching columns of deportees and executed in front of their female relatives. One female survivor from Konya in central Anatolia recounted witnessing her father’s execution:

They asked all the men and boys to separate from the women… As soon as they separated the men, a group of armed men came from the other side of a hill and killed all the men right in front of our eyes. They killed them with bayonets at the end of their rifles, sticking them in their stomachs. Many of the women could not take it, and they threw themselves in the River Euphrates, and they, too, died. I saw my father being killed. 

After the loss of their male protectors, women and girls were easy prey to physical abuse including rape and murder. An American missionary in Urfa, F.H. Leslie, wrote to the U.S. consul in Aleppo, J.B. Jackson, relating stories heard from deportees as well as his own eyewitness testimony:

All tell the same story and bear the same scars: their men were all killed on the first days of the march from their cities, after which the women and girls were constantly robbed of their money, bedding, clothing, and beaten, criminally abused and abducted along the way. Their guards forced them to pay even for drinking from the springs along the way… We not only were told these things but the same things occurred right here in our own city before our very eyes and openly on the streets. 

Thirst, starvation, exhaustion, and exposure to the elements further reduced the number of women and children who remained, so that typically only a small fraction of the deported population actually made it to the concentration camps in the Syrian desert. Jackson later recorded in his official report for the State Department: 

One of the most terrible sights ever seen in Aleppo was the arrival in August, 1915, of some 5,000 terribly emaciated, ragged and sick women and children, 3,000 on one day and 2,000 the following day. These people were the only survivors of the thrifty and well to do Armenian population of Sivas, carefully estimated to have originally been over 300,000 souls! 

It’s worth noting that a number of Germans left similar accounts of the actions of Germany’s ally. A German schoolteacher in Aleppo, Martin Niepage, recounted the testimony of German engineers working on the Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad for the Ottoman administration:

One of them, Herr Greif, of Aleppo, recorded corpses of violated women lying about naked in heaps on the railway embankment at Tell-Abiad and Ras-el-Ain. Another, Herr Spiecker, of Aleppo, had seen the Turks tie Armenian men together, fire several volleys of small shot with fowling pieces into the human mass, and go off laughing while their victims slowly perished in frightful convulsions… The German Consul from Mosul related, in my presence, at the German club in Aleppo that, in many places on the road from Mosul to Aleppo, he had seen children’s hands lying hacked off in such numbers that one could have paved the road with them. 

However it should also be remembered that many ordinary Turks opposed the measures taken against the Armenians, even if there was little they could do to stop it; some children who survived owed their lives to Turkish neighbors who sheltered or adopted them. One male survivor fondly recalled a wealthy Turkish landowner who raised him as part of his family for two years: 

The bey followed Islamic law to the letter and was a devout believer. He prayed five times a day and fasted one month out of the year… He was a principled and just man. He felt genuine sorrow for the Armenian massacre and considered it a sin to bring any confiscated Armenian possessions into his home. He used to condemn the Turkish government, saying, “The Armenians are a hardy, intelligent, and industrious people. If there are any guilty among them, the government can arrest and punish them instead of slaughtering a helpless and innocent people.” 

A number of Turkish provincial officials also tried to stop the deportations and murders, only to be removed from office or even murdered. The governor of Kastamonu, Valisi Reşit Paşa, refused point blank to allow the murder of Armenians, stating simply, “I will not stain my hands with blood,” and was relieved of duty soon thereafter. Another official, Hüseyin Nesimi, refused to act unless he received the order in writing and was subsequently murdered, probably by the Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa. Nesimi’s son later named at least three other Turkish officials and a journalist who were also murdered for their opposition. 

Truce at Gallipoli

Meanwhile the Allied campaign to seize the Turkish straits was looking less and less like a masterstroke, and more and more like a massive mistake. The amphibious landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula had secured toeholds at Cape Hellas, the tip of the peninsula, and further north at ANZAC cove – but a month of fighting had failed to advance Allied positions appreciably, while the Turks rushed tens of thousands of troops to bolster their defenses. 

During the night of May 18-19, 1915, against the advice of his subordinate Mustafa Kemal the German commander of the Turkish Fifth Army, Liman von Sanders, ordered a huge nighttime assault against the ANZAC position with 40,000 troops. Repeated attacks failed in the face of massed rifle fire from the ANZAC trenches, as one Turkish soldier, Memish Bayraktir, later remembered: “Countless dead, countless! It was impossible to count. Blood was flowing like water. At night we drank water from a creek and then in the morning realised that it was all blood.” Another Turkish soldier, Recep Trudal, recalled: “My God, you should have seen it! You couldn’t step on the ground, it was all bodies.”

On May 24 the two sides agreed to a temporary ceasefire to allow them to bury the dead carpeting no-man’s-land. Under a white flag of truce soldiers buried their fallen comrades and foes, while their supervising British and Turkish officers accompanied each other everywhere to make sure neither side was conducting reconnaissance. An Australian soldier, Joseph Beeston, recalled the scene: 

Midway between the trenches a line of Turkish sentries were posted. Each was in a natty blue uniform with gold braid, and top boots, and all were done “up to the nines.” Each stood by a white flag on a pole stuck in the ground. We buried all the dead on our side of this line and they performed a similar office for those on their side. Stretchers were used to carry the bodies, which were all placed in large trenches. The stench was awful, and many of our men wore handkerchiefs over their mouths in their endeavour to escape it. I counted two thousand dead Turks… The ground was absolutely covered with rifles and equipment of all kinds, shell-cases and caps, and ammunition clips… Some of the Turks were lying right on our trenches, almost in some of them. The Turkish sentries were peaceable-looking men, stolid in type and of the peasant class mostly. We fraternised with them and gave them cigarettes and tobacco. 

A British officer, Aubrey Herbert, recorded some of his conversations with Turkish officers as they surveyed the battlefield: 

The Turkish Captain with me said: “At this spectacle even the most gentle must feel savage, and the most savage must weep.” The dead fill acres of ground, mostly killed in the one big attack, but some recently. They fill the myrtle-grown gullies. One saw the result of machine-gun fire very clearly; entire companies annihilated – not wounded, but killed, their heads doubled under them with the impetus of their rush and both hands clasping their bayonets… I talked to the Turks, one of whom pointed to the graves. “That’s politics,” he said. Then he pointed to the dead bodies and said: “That’s diplomacy. God pity all of us poor soldiers.” 

By the end of May William Ewing, a chaplain with the British forces, estimated that the British expeditionary force had already suffered 38,636 casualties, including dead, wounded, missing in action and prisoners of war. The number was about to go up: Sir Ian Hamilton, the British commander, was planning a massive Allied attack for June 4, 1915. 

HMS Triumph, Majestic Sunk 

The British counted on the Royal Navy to support the Gallipoli operation with naval firepower – but in late May this too was called into question with the sinking of two battleships by a German U-boat, U-21. On May 25, 1915 U-21 sent HMS Triumph to the bottom, followed two days later by the Majestic. A total of 78 men went down with the Triumph, as hundreds more were rescued, but the impact on British morale was considerable. Herbert recalled the reaction of men on shore: “There was fury, panic, and rage on the beach and on the hill… Men were crying and cursing.” 

On May 27 Ewing witnessed the sinking of the Majestic off Cape Hellas (image below) including the actions of an oddly composed survivor: 

On the morning of the 27th about 6.30 I looked out of our tent door, and heard a loud report. Next moment there was a great explosion at the side of the battleship farthest from me. A column of water rose as high as her turrets, and I knew that a torpedo from a submarine had got her… Soon the water round her was full of struggling men… One fellow afforded a remarkable example of coolness in the midst of appalling circumstances. As the vessel heeled over he crawled up on her side. Steadying himself with difficulty, he calmly undressed and plunged into the sea as if for his morning swim. 

Fortunately just 49 men were lost in the sinking of the Majestic. However the sinkings forced Admiral de Robeck to withdraw his flotilla to the British base at the nearby island of Lemnos, meaning the ships wouldn’t be able to help the land forces with naval bombardments, at least for the time being. 

Zeppelin Raid on London

As 1915 wore on German zeppelin raids became a more frequent occurrence in Britain. At first the raids avoided London, supposedly because of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s concern about the possibility his relatives in the royal family might be affected, but on May 31, 1915 the Germans mounted their first zeppelin raid against the British capital. As night fell the airship LZ-38, the first in the enormous “P” class – 650 feet long, containing around million cubic feet of hydrogen gas – attacked the docks of the lower Thames in London’s Southend with 3,000 pounds of high explosives and incendiary bombs. A number of neighborhoods were hit include Whitechapel, leaving seven dead and 35 wounded (below, a damaged house). 

The attack intensified calls for an effective defense against the zeppelins, but in the near term there was little the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service, the two divisions of Britain’s fledgling air force, could do to stop them. During this period even the most powerful airplanes could take 45 minutes to reach the same altitude as the zeppelins – and even if they managed to catch up, machine guns firing conventional bullets made little impact on the hulking vessels. This would remain the case until 1916, when the invention of effective tracer bullets filled with burning magnesium provided a means for igniting the hydrogen inside the zeppelin gasbag.

See the previous installment or all entries.

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15 Educational Facts About Old School
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Old School starred Luke Wilson as Mitch Martin, an attorney who—after catching his girlfriend cheating, and through some real estate and bitter dean-related circumstances—becomes the leader of a not-quite-official college fraternity. Along with his fellow thirtysomething friends Bernard (Vince Vaughn) and newlywed Frank (Will Ferrell), they end up having to fight for their right to maintain their status as a party-loving frat on campus.

The film, which was released 15 years ago today, marked Vaughn’s return to major comedies and Ferrell’s first major starring role after seven years on Saturday Night Live. Here are some facts about the movie for everyone, but particularly for my boy, Blue.

1. THE IDEA ORIGINATED WITH AN AD GUY.

Writer-director Todd Phillips was talking to a friend of his from the advertising industry named Court Crandall one day. Crandall had seen and enjoyed Phillips's movie Frat House (1998) and told his director buddy, “You know what would be funny is a movie about older guys who start a fraternity of their own.” After being told by Phillips to write it, he presented Phillips with a “loose version” of the finished product.

2. SOME OF THE FRAT SHENANIGANS WERE REAL.

While Crandall received the story credit for Old School, Phillips and Scot Armstrong received the credit for writing the script. Armstrong put his own college fraternity experiences into the script. “We were in Peoria, Illinois, so it was up to us to entertain ourselves," Armstrong shared in the movie's official production notes. "A lot of ideas for Old School came from things that really happened. When it was cold, everyone would go stir crazy and it inspired some moments of brilliance. Of course, my definition of ‘brilliance' might be different from other people's.”

3. IVAN REITMAN HELPED OUT.

Ivan Reitman, director of Stripes and Ghostbusters, was an executive producer on the film. Phillips and Armstrong wrote and rewrote every day for two months at Reitman’s house, an experience Phillips described as comedy writing “boot camp.”

4. THE STUDIO DIDN’T WANT VINCE VAUGHN.

Vince Vaughn in 'Old School' (2003)
DreamWorks

It didn’t seem to make a difference to DreamWorks that Phillips and Armstrong had written the role of Bernard with Vince Vaughn in mind—the studio didn't want him. After his breakout success in Swingers, Vaughn had taken roles in dramas like the 1998 remake of Psycho. “So when Todd Phillips wanted me for Old School, the studio didn’t want me,” Vaughn told Variety in 2015. “They didn’t think I could do comedy! They said, ‘He’s a dramatic actor from smaller films.’ Todd really had to push for me.”

5. RECYCLED SHOTS OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY WERE USED.

The film was mainly shot on the Westwood campus of UCLA. The aerial shots of the fictitious Harrison University, however, were of Harvard; they had been shot for Road Trip (2000).

6. VINCE VAUGHN FANS MIGHT RECOGNIZE THE CHURCH.

In the film, Frank gets married at Westminster Presbyterian Church in Pasadena, California. Vaughn and Owen Wilson were in that same church two years later for Wedding Crashers (2005).

7. WILL FERRELL SCARED MEMBERS OF A 24-HOUR GYM.

Frank’s streaking scene was shot on a city street. As Ferrell remembered it, one of the storefronts was a 24-hour gym with Stairmasters and treadmills in the window. “I was rehearsing in a robe, and all these people are in the gym, watching me. I asked one of the production assistants, ‘Shouldn’t we tell them I’m going to be naked?’ Sure enough, I dropped my robe and there were shrieks of pure horror. After the first take, nobody was at the window anymore. I took that as a sign of approval.”

8. FERRELL REALLY WAS NAKED.

Ferrell justified it by saying it showed his character falling off the wagon. “The fact that it made sense was the reason I was really into doing it, and why I was able to commit on that level," Ferrell told the BBC. "If it was just for the sake of doing a crazy shot, then I don't think it makes sense.” Still, Ferrell needed some liquid courage, and was intimidated by the presence of Snoop Dogg.

9. ROB CORDDRY WAS NOT NAKED, BUT HE STILL HAD TO SIGN AWAY HIS NUDITY RIGHTS.

Old School marked the first major film role for Rob Corddry, who at the time was best known as a correspondent for The Daily Show. He had a jewel bag around his private parts for his nude scene, but his butt made it into the final cut. He had to sign a nudity clause, which gave the film the right to use his naked image “in any part of the universe, in any form, even that which is not devised.”

10. SNOOP DOGG AGREED TO CAMEO SO HE COULD PLAY HUGGY BEAR IN STARSKY & HUTCH.

Phillips admitted to essentially bribing the hip-hop artist/actor, using Snoop Dogg’s desire to play the street informant in the modern movie adaptation of the classic TV show (which Phillips was also directing) to his advantage. “So when I went to him I said, 'I want you to do Huggy Bear,' he was really excited. And I said, 'Oh yeah, also will you do this little thing for me in Old School a little cameo?' So he kind of had to do it I think."

11. SNOOP WANTED TO HANG OUT WITH VINCE VAUGHN ON SET, BUT NOT LUKE WILSON.

Snoop Dogg in 'Old School' (2003)
Richard Foreman, Dreamworks

Vaughn and his friends accepted an invitation to hang out in Snoop Dogg’s trailer to play video games on the last day of shooting. Vaughn recalled seeing Luke Wilson later watching the news alone in his trailer; he had not been informed of the get-together.

12. WILSON WAS TEASED BY HIS CO-STARS.

Vaughn, Wilson, and Ferrell dubbed themselves “The Wolfpack”—years before Phillips directed The Hangover—because they would always make fun of each other. A particularly stinging exchange had Ferrell refer to Legally Blonde (which Wilson had starred in) as Legally Bland. Wilson said it didn’t make him feel great. Wilson retorted by telling Ferrell that "the transition from TV to the movies isn't a very easy one, so you might just want to keep one foot back in TV just in case this whole movie thing falls through!"

13. TERRY O’QUINN SCARED HIS SONS INTO THINKING THEY WERE TRIPPING.

Terry O’Quinn (who went on to play John Locke on Lost the following year) agreed to play Goldberg, uncredited, in what was a two-day job for him. He neglected to inform his sons he was in the movie, and when they saw it, one of them called their father. “I got a call from my sons one night, and they said, ‘What were you doing in Old School? We didn’t even know you were in it!’ They said, ‘We’re sitting there, and the first time we see you, it’s, like, in a reflection in a window. And when we saw it, and we both thought we were, like, tripping or something!’”

14. THE EARMUFFS WERE IMPROVISED.

Before filming, Vaughn worked with Ferrell to figure out their characters' backstories and how they knew each other; he credited that with helping him figure out who Bernard was, which led to several ad-libbed moments. “The earmuff scene where he swears in front of the kids, and then I tell the kid to earmuff, that all is off the cuff. But that stuff is a lot easier to do when you know who you are and your circumstances, and who your characters are,” Vaughn explained.

15. FERRELL AND VAUGHN DIDN’T LOVE A SCRIPT FOR A SEQUEL.

Armstrong had written Old School Dos in 2006, which saw the frat going to Spring Break. Ferrell said that he and Vaughn read the script but felt like they would just be “kind of doing the same thing again.” Wilson, on the other hand, was excited over the new script.

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13 Fascinating Facts About Nina Simone
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Nina Simone, who would’ve celebrated her 85th birthday today, was known for using her musical platform to speak out. “I think women play a major part in opening the doors for better understanding around the world,” the “Strange Fruit” songstress once said. Though she chose to keep her personal life shrouded in secrecy, these facts grant VIP access into a life well-lived and the music that still lives on.

1. NINA SIMONE WAS HER STAGE NAME.

The singer was born as Eunice Waymon on February 21, 1933. But by age 21, the North Carolina native was going by a different name at her nightly Atlantic City gig: Nina Simone. She hoped that adopting a different name would keep her mother from finding out about her performances. “Nina” was her boyfriend’s nickname for her at the time. “Simone” was inspired by Simone Signoret, an actress that the singer admired.

2. SHE HAD HUMBLE BEGINNINGS.


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There's a reason that much of the singer's music had gospel-like sounds. Simone—the daughter of a Methodist minister and a handyman—was raised in the church and started playing the piano by ear at age 3. She got her start in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina, where she played gospel hymns and classical music at Old St. Luke’s CME, the church where her mother ministered. After Simone died on April 21, 2003, she was memorialized at the same sanctuary.

3. SHE WAS BOOK SMART...

Simone, who graduated valedictorian of her high school class, studied at the prestigious Julliard School of Music for a brief period of time before applying to Philadelphia’s Curtis Institute of Music. Unfortunately, Simone was denied admission. For years, she maintained that her race was the reason behind the rejection. But a Curtis faculty member, Vladimir Sokoloff, has gone on record to say that her skin color wasn’t a factor. “It had nothing to do with her…background,” he said in 1992. But Simone ended up getting the last laugh: Two days before her death, the school awarded her an honorary degree.

4. ... WITH DEGREES TO PROVE IT.

Simone—who preferred to be called “doctor Nina Simone”—was also awarded two other honorary degrees, from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Malcolm X College.

5. HER CAREER WAS ROOTED IN ACTIVISM.

A photo of Nina Simone circa 1969

Gerrit de Bruin

At the age of 12, Simone refused to play at a church revival because her parents had to sit at the back of the hall. From then on, Simone used her art to take a stand. Many of her songs in the '60s, including “Mississippi Goddamn,” “Why (The King of Love Is Dead),” and “Young, Gifted and Black,” addressed the rampant racial injustices of that era.

Unfortunately, her activism wasn't always welcome. Her popularity diminished; venues didn’t invite her to perform, and radio stations didn’t play her songs. But she pressed on—even after the Civil Rights Movement. In 1997, Simone told Interview Magazine that she addressed her songs to the third world. In her own words: “I’m a real rebel with a cause.”

6. ONE OF HER MOST FAMOUS SONGS WAS BANNED.

Mississippi Goddam,” her 1964 anthem, only took her 20 minutes to an hour to write, according to legend—but it made an impact that still stands the test of time. When she wrote it, Simone had been fed up with the country’s racial unrest. Medger Evers, a Mississippi-born civil rights activist, was assassinated in his home state in 1963. That same year, the Ku Klux Klan bombed a Birmingham Baptist church and as a result, four young black girls were killed. Simone took to her notebook and piano to express her sentiments.

“Alabama's gotten me so upset/Tennessee made me lose my rest/And everybody knows about Mississippi Goddam,” she sang.

Some say that the song was banned in Southern radio stations because “goddam” was in the title. But others argue that the subject matter is what caused the stations to return the records cracked in half.

7. SHE NEVER HAD A NUMBER ONE HIT.

Nina Simone released over 40 albums during her decades-spanning career including studio albums, live versions, and compilations, and scored 15 Grammy nominations. But her highest-charting (and her first) hit, “I Loves You, Porgy,” peaked at #2 on the U.S. R&B charts in 1959. Still, her music would go on to influence legendary singers like Roberta Flack and Aretha Franklin.

8. SHE USED HER STYLE TO MAKE A STATEMENT.

Head wraps, bold jewelry, and floor-skimming sheaths were all part of Simone’s stylish rotation. In 1967, she wore the same black crochet fishnet jumpsuit with flesh-colored lining for the entire year. Not only did it give off the illusion of her being naked, but “I wanted people to remember me looking a certain way,” she said. “It made it easier for me.”

9. SHE HAD MANY HOMES.

New York City, Liberia, Barbados, England, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands were all places that Simone called home. She died at her home in Southern France, and her ashes were scattered in several African countries.

10. SHE HAD A FAMOUS INNER CIRCLE.

During the late '60s, Simone and her second husband Andrew Stroud lived next to Malcolm X and his family in Mount Vernon, New York. He wasn't her only famous pal. Simone was very close with playwright Lorraine Hansberry. After Hansberry’s death, Simone penned “To Be Young, Gifted and Black” in her honor, a tribute to Hansberry's play of the same title. Simone even struck up a brief friendship with David Bowie in the mid-1970s, who called her every night for a month to offer his advice and support.

11. YOU CAN STILL VISIT SIMONE IN HER HOMETOWN.

Photo of Nina Simone
Amazing Nina Documentary Film, LLC, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

In 2010, an 8-foot sculpture of Eunice Waymon was erected in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina. Her likeness stands tall in Nina Simone Plaza, where she’s seated and playing an eternal song on a keyboard that floats in midair. Her daughter, Lisa Simone Kelly, gave sculptor Zenos Frudakis some of Simone’s ashes to weld into the sculpture’s bronze heart. "It's not something very often done, but I thought it was part of the idea of bringing her home," Frudakis said.

12. YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD HER MUSIC IN RECENT HITS.

Rihanna sang a few verses of Simone’s “Do What You Gotta Do” on Kanye West’s The Life of Pablo. He’s clearly a superfan: “Blood on the Leaves” and his duet with Jay Z, “New Day,” feature Simone samples as well, along with Lil’ Wayne’s “Dontgetit,” Common’s “Misunderstood” and a host of other tracks.

13. HER MUSIC IS STILL BEING PERFORMED.

Nina Revisited… A Tribute to Nina Simone was released along with the Netflix documentary in 2015. On the album, Lauryn Hill, Jazmine Sullivan, Usher, Alice Smith, and more paid tribute to the legend by performing covers of 16 of her most famous tracks.

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