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Who Exactly Was D.B. Cooper?

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Just before Thanksgiving 1971, a man identifying himself as Dan Cooper bought a $20 one-way ticket on Northwest Airlines flight 305 from Portland to Seattle. He was said to be nondescript—just a businessman with a briefcase in his mid-40s who ordered a bourbon and soda and smoked a cigarette.

Once in the air, Cooper passed the flight attendant a note written in all caps, which read "I HAVE A BOMB IN MY BRIEFCASE. I WILL USE IT IF NECESSARY. I WANT YOU TO SIT NEXT TO ME. YOU ARE BEING HIJACKED." He had the stewardess tell the captain that he wanted $200,000 in $20 bills and four parachutes. The FBI consented to this, and allowed the money and parachutes to be exchanged for the 36 passengers once the plane landed in Seattle.

Cooper’s next demand was for the plane to fly to Mexico at an altitude of under 10,000 feet. The two pilots and flight attendant on that flight were told to stay in the cockpit, and less than an hour into the flight, Cooper jumped out of the back of the plane somewhere over the Cascade mountains. It was raining and pitch-black, and he has never been seen since.

The FBI immediately began searching for Cooper, and at one point police questioned an Oregon man named D.B. Cooper who had a minor record. He was quickly dismissed as a suspect, but a wire agency error had the United Press print "D.B. Cooper" as the hijacker’s pseudonym, and soon, the world knew the jumper by that name.

Somehow, Cooper disappeared without a trace. Officials combed the woods, but no trace of a body, or of the parachute or other personal items, was found. Nine years later, an 8-year-old boy was digging in the sand along the Columbia River near Vancouver, Wash., and found $5800 worth of $20 bills, still packaged and serialized as they were when they were handed over to Cooper. More than 40 years later, these bills are still the only evidence that has been found regarding Cooper or his possible fate.

In 2007, the FBI reopened the case, saying that with new technologies—such as DNA testing—they hoped to catch their man. They haven’t, though they did share their vault information and reveal that they’d considered more than 800 suspects in the years immediately following the hijacking. A paleontologist and scientific illustrator even came on board, and in 2011 they posited the theory that Cooper took his alias from a French-language comic book about a Canadian Air Force pilot. The FBI even said they had their "most promising lead" yet. But nothing seems to have come of it.

Over the years, Cooper has become a myth and a pop culture point of interest. His name has been mentioned or his story alluded to in everything from local folk songs like Todd Snider's "D.B. Cooper," to mainstream rock-rap like Kid Rock's "Bawitdaba." He's been a subplot or punchline on shows like Archer, Numb3rs, Leverage30 Rock, and Breaking Bad. One of the $20 bills that was found in 1980 even wound up on an episode of Pawn Stars (it sold for $1600). The latest cultural tie-in? The current theory that Mad Men's Don Draper will reinvent himself once again in the series finale—this time as the perhaps not-so-far-fetched polite, well-dressed businessman ordering a bourbon and passing the flight attendant a note. 

D.B. Cooper’s case remains the only unsolved commercial airplane hijacking in U.S. history.

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Mythical Yetis are Actually Bears, According to DNA Analysis
Walkabout Films via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
Walkabout Films via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

In 1959, the U.S. government advised hunters that they were permitted to kill a Yeti only in self-defense. The decree was prompted by findings from earlier expeditions—huge footprints, hides, and bones from a large, unidentified creature native to the Himalayas—which explorers thought could be from the mythical hominid that local Sherpas called the Yeti, or "wild man."

But now, researchers at the State University of New York in Buffalo and their colleagues have concluded that folklore about abominable snowmen in the Himalayas was just that. After testing evidence collected from the Tibetan Plateau and from museum collections, they found the biological root of the Yeti legends to be local bears.

In the new study, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, researchers analyzed 24 hair, bone, tooth, skin, and scat samples. Nine of the samples were purported to be from Yetis, while the rest were gathered recently from the Tibetan brown bear, Himalayan brown bear, and Himalayan black bear. The team assembled complete mitochondrial genomes for the Himalayan brown bear and black bear for the first time, then analyzed and compared all of the samples. Of the nine allegedly from Yetis, eight were actually from Asian bears. One was from a dog.

While these particular findings suggest that the Yeti stories probably emerged from humans' encounters with bears, the study provides valuable genetic data that could shed light on how the bears evolved. The mitochondrial genomes—which are based on the genetic information passed down only through females—could reveal when the rare subspecies and more common bear species last shared a maternal ancestor, and how genetically dissimilar they are today, Science notes.

The genomic analysis showed that Tibetan brown bears share a close ancestry with North American and Eurasian brown bears. But the Himalayan brown bears branched off from their common ancestral tree about 650,000 years ago, when glaciers expanded over the Tibetan Plateau—which may have separated those bears from the larger gene pool. Understanding how the subspecies evolved could illuminate the environmental history of the region, said Charlotte Lindqvist, an associate professor of biological sciences at SUNY Buffalo and the study's lead scientist, in a statement. The genetic data may assist conservation of these vulnerable and endangered animals.

Lindqvist said that their technique could also be a useful tool for exploring the roots of folklore about large cryptids—as well as real beasts.

"Our findings strongly suggest that the biological underpinnings of the Yeti legend can be found in local bears," she said. "Our study demonstrates that genetics should be able to unravel other, similar mysteries."

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7 Myths About Bats
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iStock

Though in China bats are said to bring good luck, and ancient Egyptians believed they could cure an array of diseases, our feelings about bats are often negative. Perhaps these rumors started because bats are so mysterious—with their nocturnal flying and dank, dark habitats, they’re hard to study! But the world’s only flying mammal isn’t nearly as bad as our fears make it out to be. Keep reading for seven misconceptions, as well as explanations of what really goes on in the batcave.

1. BATS ARE TOTALLY BLIND.

Though we love to talk about things being "blind as a bat," bigger bats can see up to three times better than humans, according to Rob Mies, executive director of the Organization for Bat Conservation. Bat vision varies across species, but none are actually blind. In addition to working peepers, bats also use echolocation (emitting sound to navigate)—which means they probably have a better idea of where they’re going than many of us.

2. BATS ARE FLYING RATS.

Bats belong to the order Chiroptera, not Rodentia; they’re actually more closely related to primates than they are to rodents. They also don’t share behavior with rodents. For example, bats don’t chew on wood, metal, or plastic, and usually aren’t nuisances. In fact, bats eat pests, which brings us to ...

3. BATS ARE ANNOYING PESTS.

Bat flying in a forest at night
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Quite the opposite! According to National Geographic, bats can eat up to a thousand insects in an evening. Their bug-eating prowess is so notable it carries economic importance. A recent study showed that bats provide “nontoxic pest-control services totalling $3.7 billion to $53 billion per year”! Bats also pollinate plants and distribute seeds, and their droppings—called guano—are used as fertilizer.

4. BATS WANT TO DRINK YOUR BLOOD.

Only three of the roughly 1200 existing bat species are vampire bats, and none of them live in the United States or Canada. Vampire bats don’t even really drink blood—Mies says the feeding process is more like that of a mosquito. While mosquitos will take blood from humans, though, vampire bats primarily feed on cattle. Fun fact: a medication called draculin is currently being developed from bats’ saliva, which has unique anti-blood-clotting properties.

5. BATS WILL FLY INTO YOUR HAIR AND BUILD A NEST.

An old myth claims that bats fly into hair, get stuck, and build nests. While it’s possible this rumor started to deter young women from going out at night, bats do sometimes swoop around people’s heads. The reason isn’t because they’re shopping for a new home, however: our bodies attract insects, and bats are after their next snack. So don’t worry—your spectacular updo is safe.

6. IN FACT, BATS DON'T NEST AT ALL.

Unlike birds or rodents, bats don’t build nests. Instead, they find shelter inside existing structures. Caves, trees, walls, and ceilings are favorites, as are rafters of buildings. They don’t always hang upside down, either. According to Dr. Thomas Kunz from Boston University, bats are frequently horizontal when roosting in small crevices, not vertical.

7. BATS WILL ATTACK YOU AND GIVE YOU RABIES.

Three bats hanging upside down on a branch
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Nope. Shari Clark, president of the Florida Bat Conservancy, says that statistically bats contract rabies much less frequently than other mammals. And if they do get rabies, it manifests differently than in raccoons or foxes. Rabies-infected bats become paralyzed and can’t fly or roost. This means that as long as you stay away from bats on the ground that are behaving weirdly, you’re pretty much in the clear. Phew.

All photos courtesy of iStock.

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