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Dictionary.com Explains How a Word Becomes “A Word”

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Whether your spellchecker likes it or not, “astroturfing” is officially a word. At least it is according to the lexicographers behind Dictionary.com, one of the Web’s most popular online (and mobile) resources for all things word-related. The same goes for “agender,” “crash blossom,” “microaggression,” and “slacktivism.”

On Wednesday, the site unveiled its latest update, which added or modified more than 1,000 words to its already enormous database of more than 1.2 million searchable terms. To learn how a word becomes “a word,” we spoke with Rebekah Otto, Dictionary.com’s Director of Content, who shared some secrets of the lexicon trade.

1. LANGUAGE IS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING.

“Our team of lexicographers finds potential new terms from an array of sources: reading widely, looking at words our users are searching with no results, and scanning changes over time in our corpus of contemporary language use,” Otto explains. “We evaluate this massive list of terms against our corpus of more than 19 billion words, which is a collection of sources, from literature to news articles to television and interview transcripts, balanced to reflect actual usage of language. This list is constantly added to and culled, so it’s an ongoing process. Just because a new term or coinage is not added in an update does not mean it will not be included in the future.”

2. TECHNOLOGY IS A LANGUAGE UNTO ITSELF.

Dictionary.com’s latest update saw a trend toward technology-related terms, but Otto swears that “We do not intentionally focus on the technology industry in our updates, at the expense of other changes in the language. That said, we are more aware of changes in technology-related words because we’re based in the Bay Area and are surrounded by that culture. For example, last year, when our designers were working on mocks for our Android Wear app, they kept running across the word ‘glanceable’ in their research and suggested it to one of our lexicographers who added the word to our list to be considered. Even outside of the Bay Area, the language of our devices and how we interact with them continues to evolve, and we will always monitor those shifts.” (Case in point: the recent addition of “smartwatch.”)

3. THE CULTURE REFLECTS THE CONVERSATION.

“We aim to reflect the cultural conversation, not to drive it,” says Otto. “We have noticed our users increasingly looking for words like ‘cisgender’ (which was added last year). Just a few weeks ago, following Bruce Jenner’s interview with Diane Sawyer, the word ‘transsexual’ trended in our lookups. Additionally public news events like the Silk Road trial drive increased interest and awareness in terms like ‘deep web’ and ‘dark web.’”

4. THERE’S A THIN LINE BETWEEN “SLANG” AND “INFORMAL LANGUAGE.”

What's the line that delineates a phrase like “brogrammer” between being slang and an official word? “Slang is defined as ‘very informal usage.’ This typically indicates that these terms will not be found in published books or other formal, edited speech. Of course, words move from slang to more widely accepted usage in English. In these cases we might change a label from ‘Slang’ to ‘Informal’ or remove the label altogether.”

5. UPDATING AN ALREADY EXISTING WORD IS ONE OF A LEXICOGRAPHER’S HARDEST JOBS.

There’s more to Dictionary.com’s quarterly updates than the addition of new words; existing words are updated, too. And Otto admits that “this is one of the trickiest parts of updating the dictionary. It is relatively straightforward to identify and define new coinages like ‘brogrammer,’ but for new senses of existing words we have to look closely at a wide range of examples from our corpus to see how frequently and widely a new sense is being used. Some new senses—like ‘tablet’ and ‘scroll,’ which were added years ago—quickly reach a point of cultural saturation that the evidence is apparent. Typically today if someone says ‘tablet,’ they mean their iPad, Kindle Fire, or Google Nexus—not a pad of paper or a piece of stone."

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23 Slang Terms You Only Understand if You Work in Antarctica
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Thanks to extreme conditions, a small research population, close quarters, and the unique experience of life there, Antarctica has developed a lingo all of its own. Yes, even freezing, remote Antarctica has slang. Here is a sample of some, er, cooler terms, which come from the many English-speaking nationalities, from Canada to New Zealand, that have stepped foot on its ice.

1. BIG EYE

In winter, Antarctica is covered in perpetual darkness; in summer, sunlight. The continent can certainly put a wrench in one’s circadian rhythms, as this slang for light-related insomnia makes plain.

2. TOASTY

Antarctica’s climate also puts a wrench in one’s mental faculties. Crew stationed there often experience a loss of words, forgetfulness, irascibility, and “brain fog” brought on by the dark, cold, and altitude. Toasty is also used for other general misdemeanors committed around the camp.

3. ICE SHOCK

Antarctica’s shell shock. As one Antarctica-based worker blogged about it, ice shock is “when you get back to the rest of the world and realize that no matter how insane Antarctica is, the real world is FAR nuttier, and that you can no longer function in it.”

4. GREENOUT

A riff on whiteout. As The Antarctic Dictionary defines it, greenout is “the overwhelming sensation induced by seeing and smelling trees and other plants spending some time in antarctic regions.”

5. THE ICE

Speaking of the ice, this is how Antarcticans refer to the whole ice-covered continent.

6. CHEECH

Not the counterpart of Chong, but a play on consonant clusters in the name of the place from which many researchers jump off to Antarctica: Christchurch, New Zealand.

7. MACTOWN

McMurdo Station, the U.S. research hub and largest Antarctic community, which can host around 1250 residents in summer.

8. CITY MICE

These are personnel who work at the main research stations.

9. COUNTRY MICE

These are crew who move among different camps on the continent.

10. ICE-HUSBAND/ICE-WIFE

When the cat's away, the mice will play. One’s ice-husband or ice-wife is like a fling for crew down in Antarctica for the season.

11. ICE-WIDOW/ICE-WIDOWER

Meanwhile, one’s spouse or significant other is stuck all alone back home as their loved one is working at the South Pole.

12. FINGY

This pejorative term for a newbie apparently derives from “f—king new guy,” or FNG.

13. BEAKER

An epithet for “scientist.” Some specialist personnel also have nicknames, like fuelie (responsible for fueling various equipment) and wastie (who deal with refuse).

14. WINTER-OVER

When crew, bravely, stay in Antarctica over the entire brutal winter.

15. TURDSICLE

It gets cold down at the southern end of the world. The average—yes, average—temperature is -52ºF. The excrement freezeth, shall we say.

16. SNOTSICLE

So too do boogers freeze in this blend of snot and icicle.

17. DEGOMBLE

“To disencumber of snow,” as The Antarctic Dictionary explains, especially before coming back inside shelter. The origin of gomble is obscure, possibly a term for little balls of snow stuck to the fur of sled dogs.

18. SKUA

Named for the predatory, scavenging skua birds found in Antarctica, a skua pile or bin is a sort of rummage bin. Crew can leave and pick over unwanted items there. Also used as a verb.

19. OFFENSIVE POTATOES

British speakers apparently did not take a liking to canned potatoes they had to eat ...

20. SAWDUST

... nor the dried cabbage.

21. FRESHIES

Shipments of these fresh fruits and vegetables are quite welcome to the cuisine-deprived Antarctica researchers and personnel.

22. POPPY

Alcohol served over Antarctica ice, which makes a pop sound as it releases the gas long pressurized into it.

23. CARROTS

Not that much of the food sounds terribly edible, if slang is any measure, but these carrots aren’t to be munched on. They refer to ice cores, ‘uprooted’ samples whose cylindrical shape resemble the vegetable.

This slang is only the tip of the, um, iceberg. For more, see Bernadette Hince’s The Antarctica Dictionary, the Cool Antarctica website, and The Allusionist podcast, which has explored linguistic life on the ice in its episode, “Getting Toasty.”

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What's the Longest Word in the World? Here are 12 of Them, By Category
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Rebecca O'Connell

Antidisestablishmentarianism, everyone’s favorite agglutinative, entered the pop culture lexicon on August 17, 1955, when Gloria Lockerman, a 12-year-old girl from Baltimore, correctly spelled it on The $64,000 Question as millions of people watched from their living rooms. At 28 letters, the word—which is defined as a 19th-century British political movement that opposes proposals for the disestablishment of the Church of England—is still regarded as the longest non-medical, non-coined, nontechnical word in the English language, yet it keeps some robust company. Here are some examples of the longest words by category.

1. METHIONYLTHREONYLTHREONYGLUTAMINYLARGINYL … ISOLEUCINE 

Note the ellipses. All told, the full chemical name for the human protein titin is 189,819 letters, and takes about three-and-a-half hours to pronounce. The problem with including chemical names is that there’s essentially no limit to how long they can be. For example, naming a single strand of DNA, with its millions and millions of repeating base pairs, could eventually tab out at well over 1 billion letters.

2. LOPADOTEMACHOSELACHOGALEOKRANIOLEIPSAN …P TERYGON

The longest word ever to appear in literature comes from Aristophanes’ play, Assemblywomen, published in 391 BC. The Greek word tallies 171 letters, but translates to 183 in English. This mouthful refers to a fictional fricassee comprised of rotted dogfish head, wrasse, wood pigeon, and the roasted head of a dabchick, among other culinary morsels. 

3. PNEUMONOULTRAMICROSCOPICSILICOVOLCANOCONIOSIS

At 45 letters, this is the longest word you’ll find in a major dictionary. An inflated version of silicosis, this is the full scientific name for a disease that causes inflammation in the lungs owing to the inhalation of very fine silica dust. Despite its inclusion in the dictionary, it’s generally considered superfluous, having been coined simply to claim the title of the longest English word.

4. PARASTRATIOSPHECOMYIA STRATIOSPHECOMYIOIDES 

The longest accepted binomial construction, at 42 letters, is a species of soldier fly native to Thailand. With a lifespan of five to eight days, it’s unlikely one has ever survived long enough to hear it pronounced correctly.

5. PSEUDOPSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM

This 30-letter thyroid disorder is the longest non-coined word to appear in a major dictionary.

6. FLOCCINAUCINIHILIPILIFICATION

By virtue of having one more letter than antidisestablishmentarianism, this is the longest non-technical English word. A mash-up of five Latin roots, it refers to the act of describing something as having little or no value. While it made the cut in the Oxford English Dictionary, Merriam-Webster volumes refuse to recognize it, chalking up its existence to little more than linguistic ephemera.

7. SUBDERMATOGLYPHIC

At 17 characters, this is the longest accepted isogram, a word in which every letter is used only once, and refers to the underlying dermal matrix that determines the pattern formed by the whorls, arches, and ridges of our fingerprints. 

8. SQUIRRELLED

Though the more commonly accepted American English version carries only one L, both Oxford and Merriam-Webster dictionaries recognize this alternate spelling and condone its one syllable pronunciation (think “world”), making it the longest non-coined monosyllabic English word at 11 letters.

9. ABSTENTIOUS

One who doesn’t indulge in excesses, especially food and drink; at 11 letters this is the longest word to use all five vowels in order exactly once.

10. ROTAVATOR 

A type of soil tiller, the longest non-coined palindromic word included in an English dictionary tallies nine letters. Detartrated, 11 letters, appears in some chemical glossaries, but is generally considered too arcane to qualify.

11. and 12. CWTCH, EUOUAE

The longest words to appear in a major dictionary comprised entirely of either vowels or consonants. A Cwtch, or crwth, is from the Welsh word for a hiding place. Euouae, a medieval musical term, is technically a mnemonic, but has been accepted as a word in itself. 

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