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48 Things You Didn't Know Had Names

So that's what it's called!

Don't miss an episode—subscribe today! Images and footage provided by Shutterstock. Here's a transcript courtesy of Nerdfighteria Wiki:

1. Hi, I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon, this is mental_floss on YouTube. And this is my glabella - the area between my eyebrows. And that is just the first of many things that you may not have known had names, until today.

2. Do you love the smell of rain? That clean greenish aroma when rain drops hit dry ground? That's petrichor from the Greek "Petra" meaning stone and "ichor" meaning the blood of the gods and goddesses. The term was coined by two Australian researchers in 1964 and really became a word in 2011 when it popped up in a Doctor Who episode.

3. When I get that itching and tingling sensation, that means my foot's asleep - paresthesia.

4. Dysania means having difficulty getting out of bed in the morning but in my house, we call that Monday and also other days.

5. Doctors are notorious for "griffonage" or illegible handwriting.

6. The area between your shoulder blades that you can never scratch is called the acnestis.

7. Palindromes are words or phrases that read the same way forward or backward. Like "Mom" or "Taco Cat" or the sentence "Marge lets Norah see Sharons telegram."

8. But a Semordnilap reads one way forward, "stressed" and another way backward, "desserts." Other examples include diaper, parts and of course, semordnilap itself.

9. Aphthongs are silent letters in words like "knight" or "fight" or "Django." This might be something that you already "knew." By the way, never forget 6 miles of canoeing, one micromort.

10. If your house has a neatly manicured front lawn and an overgrown mess in the back, you've got yourself a "lawn mullet." That's not really a word, but we're into it.

11. Your "Googleganger" is the person with your name who shows up in Google search results when you Google yourself. Like, for me, there is a John Green who's known as one of the "Four Horsemen of Sasquatchery." Then there's John Green the realtor who has JohnGreen.com - my mortal enemy - and of course John Green with the mustache.

12. Fans of the television program Phineas and Ferb—which is to say humans—all know that those plastic or metal things at the end of shoelaces are called aglets.

13. But you might not know that the metal thing that holds your eraser to the end of your pencil is called a "ferrule" - not the wild cat kind, obviously.

14. When you're playing chess and every possible move is to your disadvantage, the situation is called a zugzwang. Which by the way, sometimes also happens when you're playing Connect Four. Zombie Fairy is in a bit of a zugzwang right now because if she goes over here, she's going to get attacked by Troll Face, over here by a pirate and up here, a bunch of dogs.

15. Scroop is the rustling swooshy sound that ballgowns make. More generally, its the sound produced by the movement of silk.

16. That thing you use to dot a lower case i is called a tittle.

17. The plastic table-like item found in the middle of a pizza box is called a box tent and was patented in 1983. Pro Tip: Many people in the biz now call it a pizza saver. How do I know so much about pizza? You gotta have a forte in this world.

18. Kummerspeck is a German word that refers to excess weight gained from emotional over-eating. Its literal translation? Grief bacon. That's another 25 cents towards the staff pork chop party.

19. If you're packing on the Kummerspeck, you might be feeling crapulous. Though it sounds like a word invented by a middle-schooler in the 1990's, crapulous dates back to the 1530's when it was used to describe that gross nauseated feeling that you get from eating or drinking too much.

20. The small triangular bump on the inside corner of each eye is called the caruncula.

21. The depressed area of skin under your nose and above your upper lip is called the philtrum

22. And niddick is the technical term for the nape of your neck.

23. Obsessive nose picking is called rhinotillexomania.

24. Peladophobia is the fear of bald people. It is most frequently suffered by balding people. Don't worry James Madison, you die before you go bald.

25. Pentheraphobia is the fear of your mother-in-law which I don't have. I would tell you if I did. I don't. I promise, I don't. No, what are you talking about, I do not. No. No. She's awesome. She really is awesome actually.

26. Arachibutyrophobia is a real mouthful of a word that means the fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.

27. Scandiknavery means deceit or trickery by Scandinavians. Like so many 20th century words, we have James Joyce to thank for that one. And of course, the deceitful Scandinavians.

28. The indent on the bottom of wine bottle is called a punt.

29. An agraffe is the wire cage that keeps the cork in a bottle of champagne.

30. Barm is the foam on a beer.

31. Encounter too many punts, agraffes, and barns in one night and you'll have the Zings or a peppy name for a hangover.

32. Some people have started calling the cardboard sleeve that comes wrapped around your coffee a zarf. I'm now going to be one of those people.

33. The string of typographical symbols that comic strips use to indicate profanity is called a grawlix. *#%* yeah it is! What are you going to do about that Mark? Oh, just bleep it?

34. A word that can be its own antonym is called a contronym. For example, cleave can mean to sever or to cling. What's that? You need four more examples? I will provide some. Off means deactivated, as in to turn off, but it also means activated as in the alarm went off. Weather can mean to withstand or come safely through or it can mean to be worn away. If you seed your lawn, you add seeds but if you seed a tomato, you remove them. And left can mean either remaining or departed.

35. When you're outside on a cold day and you can feel the warmth of the sun, you're experiencing a moment of apricity.

36. A compulsive book thief or hoarder is a biblioklept.

37. Thomas Edison had five dots, like the ones you see on dice, tattooed on his left forearm. This pattern is properly, although almost never, referred to as a quincunx. It is now gang affiliated making Tommy Edison an OG.

38. You probably already know the meaning of schadenfreude but another super-specific German word 'vorfreude' describes a kinder, less terrible feeling. The joy you feel when thinking about good things that will happen.

39. A person known by one name like Adele or Moby or Voltaire or Madonna, is mononymous. By the way, just for the record, Adele Laurie Blue Adkins, Richard Melville Hall, Francois-Marie Arouet and Madonna, its just Madonna.

40. And let's run out the clock today with some old-timey collective nouns from James Lipton's wonderful book An Exaltation of Larks. A group of ponies is called a string.

41. An assembly of ferrets is a business, and it is very serious business indeed.

42. A group of jellyfish is a smack.

43. It's a gam of whales.

44. Murder of crows.

45. Unkindness of ravens.

46. Three or more goats and you've got yourself a trip. Three or more goats yelling like humans and you've got yourself a short-lived internet meme.

47. Many owls form a parliament.

48. And you might think that a group of donkeys is an ass-load but you'd be wrong. It's a pass of asses.

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10 Things You Might Not Know About Steve Martin
NBC Television/Courtesy of Getty Images
NBC Television/Courtesy of Getty Images

Is there anything Steve Martin can't do? In addition to being one of the world's most beloved comedians and actors, he's also a writer, a musician, a magician, and an art enthusiast. And he's about to put a number of these talents on display with Steve Martin and Martin Short: An Evening You Will Forget for the Rest of Your Life, a new comedy special that just arrived on Netflix. To commemorate the occasion, here are 10 things you might not have known about Steve Martin.

1. HE WAS A CHEERLEADER.

As a yellleader (as he refers to it in a yearbook signature) at his high school in Garden Grove, California, Martin tried to make up his own cheers, but “Die, you gravy-sucking pigs,” he later told Newsweek, did not go over so well.

2. HIS FIRST JOB WAS AT DISNEYLAND.

Martin’s first-ever job was at Disneyland, which was located just two miles away from his house. He started out selling guidebooks, keeping $.02 for every book he sold. He graduated to the Magic Shop on Main Street, where he got his first taste of the gags that would later make his career. He also learned the rope tricks you see in ¡Three Amigos! from a rope wrangler over in Frontierland.

3. HE OWES HIS WRITING JOB WITH THE SMOTHERS BROTHERS TO AN EX-GIRLFRIEND.

Thanks to a girlfriend who got a job dancing on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, Martin landed a gig writing for the show. He had absolutely no experience as a writer at the time. He shared an office with Bob Einstein—better known to some as Super Dave Osborne or Marty Funkhauser—and won an Emmy for writing in 1969.

4. HE WAS A CONTESTANT ON THE DATING GAME.

While he was writing for the Smothers Brothers, but before he was famous in his own right, Martin was on an episode of The Dating Game. (Spoiler alert: He wins. But did you have any doubt?)

5. MANY PEOPLE THOUGHT HE WAS A SERIES REGULAR ON SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE.

Martin hosted and did guest spots on Saturday Night Live so often in the 1970s and '80s that many people thought he was a series regular. He wasn't. 

6. HIS FATHER WROTE A REVIEW OF HIS FIRST SNL APPEARANCE.

After his first appearance on SNL, Martin’s father, the president of the Newport Beach Association of Realtors, wrote a review of his son’s performance in the company newsletter. “His performance did nothing to further his career,” the elder Martin wrote. He also once told a newspaper, “I think Saturday Night Live is the most horrible thing on television.”

7. HE POPULARIZED THE AIR QUOTE.

If you find yourself making air quotes with your fingers more than you’d really like, you have Martin to thank. He popularized the gesture during his guest spots on SNL and stand-up performances.

8. HE QUIT STAND-UP COMEDY IN THE EARLY 1980S.

Martin gave up stand-up comedy in 1981. “I still had a few obligations left but I knew that I could not continue,” he told NPR in 2009. “But I guess I could have continued if I had nothing to go to, but I did have something to go to, which was movies. And you know, the act had become so known that in order to go back, I would have had to create an entirely new show, and I wasn't up to it, especially when the opportunity for movies and writing movies came around.”

9. HE'S A MAJOR ART COLLECTOR.

As an avid art collector, Martin owns works by Pablo Picasso, Roy Lichtenstein, David Hockney, and Edward Hopper. He sold a Hopper for $26.9 million in 2006. Unfortunately, being rich and famous doesn’t mean Martin is immune to scams: In 2004, he spent about $850,000 on a piece believed to be by German-Dutch modernist painter Heinrich Campendonk. When Martin tried to sell the piece, “Landschaft mit Pferden” (or "Landscape With Horses") 15 months later, he was informed that it was a forgery. Though the painting still sold, it was at a huge loss.

10. HE'S AN ACCOMPLISHED BLUEGRASS PERFORMER.

Many people already know this, but we’d be remiss if we didn’t mention that he’s an extremely accomplished bluegrass performer. With the help of high school friend John McEuen, who later became a member of the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, Martin taught himself to play the banjo when he was 17. He's been picking away ever since. If you see him on stage these days, he’s likely strumming a banjo with his band, the Steep Canyon Rangers. As seen above, they make delightful videos.

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10 Things You Might Not Know About Wine
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iStock

by Tilar J. Mazzeo

Between the vine and the liquor store, plenty of secrets are submerged in your favorite bottle of vino. Here, the author of Back Lane Wineries of Sonoma spills some of the best.

1. DIGITAL EYES ARE EVERYWHERE IN VINEYARDS.

Certain premium estates in Bordeaux and Napa are beginning to look a little more like an army base—or an Amazon.com warehouse. They’re using drones, optical scanners, and heat-sensing satellites to keep a digital eye on things. Some airborne drones collect data that helps winemakers decide on the optimal time to harvest and evaluate where they can use less fertilizer. Others rove through the vineyard rows, where they may soon be able to take over pruning. Of course, these are major investments. At $68,000 a pop, the Scancopter 450 is about twice as costly as a 1941 Inglenook Cabernet Sauvignon!

2. THERE ARE ALSO LOTS OF COW SKULLS.

They’re not everywhere, but biodynamic farming techniques are on the rise among vintners who don’t want to rely on chemicals, and this is one trick they’ve been known to use to combat plant diseases and improve soil PH. It’s called Preparation No. 505, and it involves taking a cow’s skull (or a sheep’s or a goat’s), stuffing it with finely ground oak chips, and burying it in a wet spot for a season or two before adding it to the vineyard compost.

3. FEROCIOUS FOLIAGE IS A VINTNER’S FRIEND.

The mustard flowers blooming between vineyard rows aren’t just for romance. Glucosinolates in plants like radishes and mustard give them their spicy bite, and through the wonders of organic chemistry, those glucosinolates also double as powerful pesticides. Winemakers use them to combat nematodes—tiny worms that can destroy grape crops.

4. WHAT A CANARY IS TO A COAL MINE, ROSES ARE TO A VINEYARD.

Vintners plant roses among their vines because they get sick before anything else in the field. If there’s mildew in the air, it will infect the roses first and give a winemaker a heads-up that it’s time to spray.

5. VINTNERS EXPLOIT THE FOOD CHAIN.

A trio of wines
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Small birds like blackbirds and starlings can clear out 20 percent of a crop in no time. But you know what eats little birds? Big birds. Falconry programs are on the rise in vineyards from California to New Zealand. Researchers have found that raptors eat a bird or two a day (along with a proportion of field mice and other critters) and cost only about as much to maintain as your average house cat.

6. THE BIG PROBLEMS IN TASTING ROOMS ARE VERY SMALL.

Winemakers are constantly seeking ways to manage the swarms of Drosophila melanogaster that routinely gather around the dump buckets in their swanky showrooms. You know these pests as fruit flies, and some vintners in California are exploring ways to use carnivorous plants to tackle the problem without pesticides. Butterworts, sundews, and pitcher plants all have sweet-sounding names, but the bugeating predators make for terrific fruit fly assassins, and you’ll see them decorating tasting rooms across wine country.

7. WINE NEEDS CLEANING.

Winemaking produces hard-to-remove sediments. Filters can catch most of the debris, but winemakers must add “fining agents” to remove any suspended solids that sneak by. Until it was banned in the 1990s, many European vintners used powdered ox blood to clean their wines. Today, they use diatomaceous earth (the fossilized remains of hard-shelled algae), Isinglass (a collagen made from fish swim bladders), and sometimes bentonite (volcanic clay). Irish moss and egg whites are also fine wine cleaners.

8. ATOMS HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS.

About 5 percent of the premium wine sold for cellaring doesn’t contain what the label promises. So how do top-shelf buyers avoid plunking down serious cash on a bottle of something bunk? Most elite wine brokerages, auction houses, and collectors use atomic dating to detect fraud. By measuring trace radioactive carbon in the wine, most bottles can be dated to within a year or two of the vintage.

9. FINE WINES GET MRIs.

Even with atomic dating, there are certain perils involved in buying a $20,000 bottle of wine. Leaving a case in the hot trunk of your car is enough to ruin it, so imagine what can happen over a couple of decades if a wine isn’t kept in the proper conditions. Back in 2002, a chemistry professor at University of California at Davis patented a technique that uses MRI technology to diagnose the condition of vintage wines. Not planning any $20,000 wine purchases? This is still good news for the consumer. This technique may soon be used at airport security, meaning you’ll be able to carry on your booze.

10. THERE’S A TRICK TO AGING YOUR WINE.

If you end up with a bottle of plonk, Chinese scientists have developed a handy solution. Zapping a young wine with electricity makes it taste like something you’ve cellar aged. Scientists aren’t quite sure how it happens yet, but it seems that running your wine for precisely three minutes through an electric field changes the esters, proteins, and aldehydes and can “age” a wine instantly.

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