Brontosaurus Might Exist After All

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Tyrannosaurus. Triceratops. Velociraptor. Though dinosaurs remain popular as ever, the general public knows very few genera by name. And, for many years, one of the most famous dino names ever coined has been considered invalid. But today, some scientists have announced that long-dormant Brontosaurus might deserve to be reinstated.

After an enormous skeleton belonging to a long-necked herbivore was discovered in 1879, paleontologist Othneil Charles Marsh (1831-1899) called the creature Brontosaurus excelsus. A prolific fossil-hunter, Marsh named over a dozen brand-new dinos that his field teams had discovered lurking beneath the American West—including fan favorites like Allosaurus and Stegosaurus.

Unfortunately, his earlier work condemned Brontosaurus (which means “Thunder Lizard”) to a second extinction of sorts. In 1877, he’d dubbed a related animal Apatosaurus ajax. Twenty-six years later, geologist/paleontologist Elmer Riggs compared that animal to Brontosaurus and concluded that, because these creatures were so similar-looking, they truly belonged to the same genus. Since the name Apatosaurus had seniority, Brontosaurus excelsus became Apatosaurus excelsus.

However, some new research argues in favor of extracting Brontosaurus from history’s dustbin. A comprehensive study comparing numerous anatomical features was recently published in PeerJ, and according to lead author Emmanuel Tschopp, Brontosaurus and Apatosaurus are distinctive enough to be re-divided into separate genera again. “Generally,” he said, “Brontosaurus can be distinguished from Apatosaurus most easily by its neck, which is higher and less wide … So, although both are very massive and robust animals, Apatosaurus is even more extreme than Brontosaurus.”

Previously, dinosaur expert Robert Bakker had advocated splitting up the two—but no one has made that case more forcefully than Tschopp and his colleagues just did. And, as an added bonus, the team also believes that Brontosaurus excelsus might have some company: Two other species (Brontosaurus parvus and Brontosaurus yahnahpin) may also belong to the genus.

Still, the case isn't closed. There are still debates to be had about whether Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus truly are one-and-the-same. But for the first time in the history of this awkward situation, there’s a legitimate ray of hope for the “Thunder Lizard.” 

Big Questions
What's the Difference Between Gophers and Groundhogs?
Gopher or groundhog? (If you chose gopher, you're correct.)
Gopher or groundhog? (If you chose gopher, you're correct.)

Gophers and groundhogs. Groundhogs and gophers. They're both deceptively cuddly woodland rodents that scurry through underground tunnels and chow down on plants. But whether you're a nature nerd, a Golden Gophers football fan, or planning a pre-spring trip to Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, you might want to know the difference between groundhogs and gophers.

Despite their similar appearances and burrowing habits, groundhogs and gophers don't have a whole lot in common—they don't even belong to the same family. For example, gophers belong to the family Geomyidae, a group that includes pocket gophers (sometimes referred to as "true" gophers), kangaroo rats, and pocket mice.

Groundhogs, meanwhile, are members of the Sciuridae (meaning shadow-tail) family and belong to the genus Marmota. Marmots are diurnal ground squirrels, Daniel Blumstein, a UCLA biologist and marmot expert, tells Mental Floss. "There are 15 species of marmot, and groundhogs are one of them," he explains.

Science aside, there are plenty of other visible differences between the two animals. Gophers, for example, have hairless tails, protruding yellow or brownish teeth, and fur-lined cheek pockets for storing food—all traits that make them different from groundhogs. The feet of gophers are often pink, while groundhogs have brown or black feet. And while the tiny gopher tends to weigh around two or so pounds, groundhogs can grow to around 13 pounds.

While both types of rodent eat mostly vegetation, gophers prefer roots and tubers (much to the dismay of gardeners trying to plant new specimens), while groundhogs like vegetation and fruits. This means that the former animals rarely emerge from their burrows, while the latter are more commonly seen out and about.

Groundhogs "have burrows underground they use for safety, and they hibernate in their burrows," Blumstein says. "They're active during the day above ground, eating a variety of plants and running back to their burrows to safety. If it's too hot, they'll go back into their burrow. If the weather gets crappy, they'll go back into their burrow during the day as well."

But that doesn't necessarily mean that gophers are the more reclusive of the two, as groundhogs famously hibernate during the winter. Gophers, on the other hand, remain active—and wreck lawns—year-round.

"What's really interesting is if you go to a place where there's gophers, in the spring, what you'll see are what is called eskers," or winding mounds of soil, Blumstein says [PDF]. "Basically, they dig all winter long through the earth, but then they tunnel through snow, and they leave dirt in these snow tunnels."

If all this rodent talk has you now thinking about woodchucks and other woodland creatures, know that groundhogs have plenty of nicknames, including "whistle-pig" and "woodchuck," while the only nicknames for gophers appear to be bitter monikers coined by Wisconsin Badgers fans.

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Watch Christmas Island’s Annual Crab Migration on Google Street View

Every year, the 45 million or so red crabs on the remote Australian territory of Christmas Island migrate en masse from their forest burrows down to the ocean to mate, and so the female crabs can release their eggs into the sea to hatch. The migration starts during the fall, and the number of crabs on the beach often peaks in December. This year, you don’t have to be on Christmas Island to witness the spectacular crustacean event, as New Atlas reports. You can see it on Google Street View.

Watching the sheer density of crabs scuttling across roads, boardwalks, and beaches is a rare visual treat. According to the Google blog, this year’s crabtacular finale is forecasted for December 16, and Parks Australia crab expert Alasdair Grigg will be there with the Street View Trekker to capture it. That is likely to be the day when crab populations on the beaches will be at their peak, giving you the best view of the action.

Crabs scuttle across the forest floor while a man with a Google Street View Trekker walks behind them.

Google Street View is already a repository for a number of armchair travel experiences. You can digitally explore remote locations in Antarctica, recreations of ancient cities, and even the International Space Station. You can essentially see the whole world without ever logging off your computer.

Sadly, because Street View isn’t live, you won’t be able to see the migration as it happens. The image collection won’t be available until sometime in early 2018. But it’ll be worth the wait, we promise. For a sneak preview, watch Parks Australia’s video of the 2012 event here.

[h/t New Atlas]


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