CLOSE
iStock
iStock

Medieval Medicine Could Help Fight Superbug MRSA

iStock
iStock

For the most part, modern medicine is a lot better than concoctions from the Middle Ages. But a recent study shows that at least one medieval remedy might have a groundbreaking application.

Christina Lee, a professor in Viking studies at the University of Nottingham, translated an Old English recipe for an eye salve out of the 9th century Bald’s Leechbook. The recipe reads:

take cropleek and garlic, of both equal quantities, pound them well together, take wine and bullocks’ gall, of both equal quantities, mix with the leek, put this then into a brazen vessel, let it stand nine days in the brass vessel, wring out through a cloth and clear it well, put it into a horn, and about night time apply it with a feather to the eye; the best leechdom.

Or, put more simply, mix equal parts garlic and another allium (onion or leek) with wine and cow bile and after nine days, apply to eye infections. Lee said the team chose the recipe "because it contains ingredients such as garlic that are currently investigated by other researchers on their potential antibiotic effectiveness."

Experts from the university's microbiology team recreated the mixture and tested it on Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, otherwise known as MRSA, a highly contagious strain of staph that is notoriously untreatable with modern antibiotics. The team was curious, but skeptical, predicting that the eye salve might show a "small amount of antibiotic activity," Dr. Freya Harrison said.

Instead, it was almost completely effective—only about one in 1000 bacteria survived. "We were genuinely astonished at the results of our experiments in the lab," Lee said in a press release.

In addition to providing insight on this difficult-to-treat infection, their findings have historical implications as well. The salve's effectiveness indicates that Anglo-Saxons relied, to some extent, on the trial and error fundamentals of the scientific method long before the discovery of bacteria.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
Medicine
New Cancer-Fighting Nanobots Can Track Down Tumors and Cut Off Their Blood Supply
iStock
iStock

Scientists have developed a new way to cut off the blood flow to cancerous tumors, causing them to eventually shrivel up and die. As Business Insider reports, the new treatment uses a design inspired by origami to infiltrate crucial blood vessels while leaving the rest of the body unharmed.

A team of molecular chemists from Arizona State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences describe their method in the journal Nature Biotechnology. First, they constructed robots that are 1000 times smaller than a human hair from strands of DNA. These tiny devices contain enzymes called thrombin that encourage blood clotting, and they're rolled up tightly enough to keep the substance contained.

Next, researchers injected the robots into the bloodstreams of mice and small pigs sick with different types of cancer. The DNA sought the tumor in the body while leaving healthy cells alone. The robot knew when it reached the tumor and responded by unfurling and releasing the thrombin into the blood vessel that fed it. A clot started to form, eventually blocking off the tumor's blood supply and causing the cancerous tissues to die.

The treatment has been tested on dozen of animals with breast, lung, skin, and ovarian cancers. In mice, the average life expectancy doubled, and in three of the skin cancer cases tumors regressed completely.

Researchers are optimistic about the therapy's effectiveness on cancers throughout the body. There's not much variation between the blood vessels that supply tumors, whether they're in an ovary in or a prostate. So if triggering a blood clot causes one type of tumor to waste away, the same method holds promise for other cancers.

But before the scientists think too far ahead, they'll need to test the treatments on human patients. Nanobots have been an appealing cancer-fighting option to researchers for years. If effective, the machines can target cancer at the microscopic level without causing harm to healthy cells. But if something goes wrong, the bots could end up attacking the wrong tissue and leave the patient worse off. Study co-author Hao Yan believes this latest method may be the one that gets it right. He said in a statement, "I think we are much closer to real, practical medical applications of the technology."

[h/t Business Insider]

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
Medicine
New Peanut Allergy Patch Could Be Coming to Pharmacies This Year
iStock
iStock

About 6 million people in the U.S. and Europe have severe peanut allergies, including more than 2 million children. Now, French biotechnology company DBV Technologies SA has secured an FDA review for its peanut allergy patch, Bloomberg reports.

If approved, the company aims to start selling the Viaskin patch to children afflicted with peanut allergies in the second half of 2018. The FDA's decision comes in spite of the patch's disappointing study results last year, which found the product to be less effective than DBV hoped (though it did receive high marks for safety). The FDA has also granted Viaskin breakthrough-therapy and fast-track designations, which means a faster review process.

DBV's potentially life-saving product is a small disc that is placed on the arm or between the shoulder blades. It works like a vaccine, exposing the wearer's immune system to micro-doses of peanut protein to increase tolerance. It's intended to reduce the chances of having a severe allergic reaction to accidental exposure.

The patch might have competition: Aimmune Therapeutics Inc., which specializes in food allergy treatments, and the drug company Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. are working together to develop a cure for peanut allergies.

[h/t Bloomberg]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios