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What American Sign Language Looked Like 100 Years Ago

American Sign Language has a long history in the United States. It goes back almost 200 years, to 1817, when a minister named Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet brought Laurent Clerc, a teacher of the Deaf* (who was also Deaf himself) from France to the United States to found the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Conn.

Clerc brought French Sign Language, which had been developing at schools for the Deaf there since the 1760s, and in Hartford it mingled with various home signs the students brought with them, as well as the sign language of Martha’s Vineyard (where there was a high proportion of genetic deafness). Within a matter of decades, ASL had evolved into a rich, full language, capable of handling all the educational and social needs of students at a network of Deaf schools all over the country.

The situation for ASL changed in 1880, when the International Congress on Education of the Deaf resolved that speech training and lip reading were to be the new, preferred method of education. Most deaf schools switched to the oral method, though there was some resistance at schools in the United States. Even at oral schools where signing was forbidden, students continued to use it among themselves and in this way it was passed, surreptitiously and often under threat of punishment, from generation to generation.

By 1913, sign language had been pushed so effectively out of the realm of education that the Deaf community feared for its survival. They decided to take advantage of a new technology, motion pictures, to do what they could to preserve it for posterity. In the film “Preservation of the Sign Language” (above), George Veditz, teacher and former president of the National Association of the Deaf, stresses the importance of documenting “our beautiful language of signs” as much as possible for the benefit of Deaf people around the world, and claims that “50 years from now these motion pictures will be priceless.”

He was right about that. The films made during this time have been invaluable in helping researchers understand how ASL has changed over time. For example, at 3:37 he makes the sign for “jealous” with the tip of his finger between his teeth. It is now produced at the corner of the mouth. Many signs, over time, have moved from a more central to a more peripheral location on the body.

The films have also been invaluable in establishing a place of pride for ASL in American history. The Library of Congress put “Preservation” in its National Film Registry, a list of “works of enduring importance to American culture,” reflecting “who we are as a people and a nation.”

Over the last few decades ASL has slowly regained the status it had once enjoyed in the world of education. In 2010, 130 years after the resolution that cast signing out of the schools, the 21st International Congress on Education of the Deaf officially repudiated that resolution and acknowledged the harm it had done. Sign language had survived and flourished despite it all.

See a translation of Veditz's speech here.

*The capital D in Deaf signifies a cultural identity, rather than just a condition of hearing loss.

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The Richest Person of All Time From Each State


Looking for inspiration in your quest to become a billionaire? This map from cost information website HowMuch.net, spotted by Digg, highlights the richest person in history who hails from each of the 50 states.

More billionaires live in the U.S. than in any other country, but not every state has produced a member of the Three Comma Club (seven states can only lay claim to millionaires). The map spans U.S. history, with numbers adjusted for inflation. One key finding: The group is overwhelmingly male, with only three women represented.

The richest American by far was John D. Rockefeller, repping New York with $257.25 billion to his name. Amazon's Jeff Bezos and Microsoft's Bill Gates clock in at the third and fifth richest, respectively. While today they both make their homes in the exclusive waterfront city of Medina, Washington, this map is all about birthplace. Since Gates, who is worth $90.54 billion, was born in Seattle, he wins top billing in the Evergreen State, while Albuquerque-born Bezos's $116.57 billion fortune puts New Mexico on the map.

The richest woman is South Carolina's Anita Zucker ($3.83 billion), the CEO of InterTech Group, a private, family-owned chemicals manufacturer based in Charleston. Clocking in at number 50 is the late, great socialite Brooke Astor—who, though a legend of the New York City social scene, was a native of New Hampshire—with $150 million.

[h/t Digg]

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Gergely Dudás - Dudolf, Facebook
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There’s a Ghost Hiding in This Illustration—Can You Find It?
Gergely Dudás - Dudolf, Facebook
Gergely Dudás - Dudolf, Facebook

A hidden image illustration by Gergely Dudás, a.k.a. Dudolf
Gergely Dudás - Dudolf, Facebook

Gergely Dudás is at it again. The Hungarian illustrator, who is known to his fans as “Dudolf,” has spent the past several years delighting the internet with his hidden image illustrations, going back to the time he hid a single panda bear in a sea of snowmen in 2015. In the years since, he has played optical tricks with a variety of other figures, including sheep and Santa Claus and hearts and snails. For his latest brainteaser, which he posted to both his Facebook page and his blog, Dudolf is asking fans to find a pet ghost named Sheet in a field of white bunny rabbits.

As we’ve learned from his past creations, what makes this hidden image difficult to find is that it looks so similar to the objects surrounding it that our brains just sort of group it in as being “the same.” So you’d better concentrate.

If you’ve scanned the landscape again and again and can’t find Sheet to save your life, go ahead and click here to see where he’s hiding.

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