Thanks to its similar-sounding name, today’s dino will always get mixed up with the spiky-tailed, crowd-pleasing Stegosaurus. If you caught these two standing side by side, however, you’d have no trouble telling them apart. Bipedal Stegoceras had a very different profile and led a very different lifestyle.
1. Its Back Legs Were Three Times Longer Than Its Front Ones.
Stegoceras probably didn’t win many arm wrestling contests with those “short and weak” forelimbs.
2. A New Species Was Introduced in 2011.
Seventy-two million years ago, Stegoceras novomexicanum roamed the American Southwest. At around four feet long, it would have been dwarfed by Stegosaurus validum, a better-known species which measured in at just over six feet from end to end.
3. Stegoceras’ Name Means “Horned Roof.”
Coined by paleontologist Lawrence Lambe in 1902, the moniker references that bumpy dome on the dino's head.
4. The Creature Was a Heavy Breather.
“The biggest difference between Stegoceras and us (in terms of breathing) is that it would have breathed more like a bird or reptile in that it took longer, deeper breaths,” says Ohio University doctoral student Jason Bourke. When Bourke and his colleagues performed a CT scan of a Stegoceras skull last year, they sniffed out some amazing new facts about the way this dino breathed. For example, each breath likely helped keep its brain from overheating by cooling cranial blood vessels. Also, because reptiles lack nose hairs, Stegoceras must have relied heavily on mucous to avoid inhaling small, airborne objects.
5. Stegoceras had Decent Vision.
Both of Stegoceras’ eyes faced forward—which means this dino had depth perception. Not all were so lucky: Many primitive species had eyes that were oriented in slightly different directions. Though this let them take in more scenery, these guys would have struggled with discerning distances.
6. Four Distinct “Zones” of Bone Were Present Inside its Dome.
As paleontologist Eric Snivley points out, one can see “alternating layers of stiff and compliant bone in the domes of these dinosaurs … It’s almost as if they are wearing a double motorcycle helmet.” For reasons we’re still figuring out, spongy skull material rested beneath a solid outer surface.
7. Its Range Stretched from Alberta to New Mexico.
Next time you’re in Edmonton, check out the University of Alberta’s excellent Stegocerasdisplay. Two mounted specimens can also be seen at the Royal Tyrell Museum (located about 85 miles northeast of Calgary).
8. Stegoceras and A Famous Carnivore Were Briefly Mistaken For the Exact Same Critter.
Hey, hindsight is 20/20. Scientists now know that Troodon was a nimble, sickle-clawed predator, as evidenced by multiple skeletons. For many years, however, we had nothing but its isolated teeth to work with. In the early 20th century, a handful of these pearly whites were found near an assortment of partial Stegoceras skull remains. So, naturally, some paleontologists assumed that they all belonged to a weird, thick-headed chimera-saurus rather than two separate dinos.
9. Stegoceras Had an “S” or “U”-Shaped Neck
Older paintings of Stegoceras (and its relatives) show the animal keeping its neck perfectly straightened and parallel with the ground, ready to ram into whatever might be stupid enough to mess with it. But in life, the creature’s neck was habitually curved [PDF].
10. By Some Accounts, It Could Have “Out-Butted” A Modern Bighorn Sheep.
After scanning the skulls of Stegoceras, a similar dinosaur named Prenocephale, and 10 still-living hoofed mammals, an international paleontology team concluded that these dinos may have been even better at butting heads than today’s bighorn sheep or musk ox. Their research indicates that Stegoceras’ skull was great at dissipating impact forces caused by collisions with solid objects.
This doesn’t necessarily prove that these guys went on head-to-head ramming sessions. Some experts believe that Stegoceras preferred “flanking” each other by swinging those bowling ball-like heads into their rivals’ sides. Frankly, both techniques sound painful—be glad you’ll never have to worry about incurring the wrath of a belligerent Stegoceras.
Twenty-five years ago, director Steven Spielberg created a movie that was 65 million years in the making. With cutting-edge CG effects and a rousing adventure story only the filmmaker behind Jaws and Raiders of the Lost Ark could conjure, Jurassic Park, based on the novel by author Michael Crichton, went on to become the highest-grossing film of all time at the time (today, it maintains the 17th position). Now, in celebration of the original film’s 25th anniversary and with the fifth installment of the dino franchise about to hit theaters, it’s time to look back to where it all began in case you missed a few things.
Here are 18 details to look out for next time you take a trip to Jurassic Park.
1. A CAMERAMAN PROTECTED JOPHERY ... AND HIS CAMERA.
The film’s opening scene features the park game warden, Robert Muldoon, and a group of handlers attempting to transport velociraptors from a cage into their paddock, but it goes terribly wrong. Jophery, the “gatekeeper,” is thrown off the top of the cage as the alpha raptor attempts to escape.
In the shot when Jophery falls toward the camera before being pulled into the cage and devoured by a pack of hungry dinos, the camera operator’s hand can be seen in the bottom right of the frame making sure the stuntperson doesn’t fall into the camera.
2. LIFE FINDS A WAY ... IN ALAN GRANT’S SEAT BELT.
The scene when the helicopter carrying Alan Grant (Sam Neill), Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), and John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) descends into Jurassic Park features a clever and unorthodox bit of foreshadowing.
When the copter hits a bit of turbulence—with Hammond giving the group a spirited "Yahoo!”—the occupants scramble to click their seat belts. Grant tries to buckle up, but finds two “female” ends, making it impossible to snap in for safety. After getting some verbal help from Hammond, Grant grabs both straps and ties them together as they come in for the rough landing.
Using a bit of resourcefulness, Grant goes against the odds to find a way to make it work—just like the dinosaurs in the park are able to reproduce despite being bred as females.
3. CGI MADE THE MOVIE’S DINOSAUR SUPERVISOR “EXTINCT.”
A bit of cheeky dialogue between Grant and Malcolm as the group makes their way into the park perfectly showcases their dueling personalities. When mulling over the implications of a park filled with living dinosaurs, the paleontologist opines, "I think we're out of a job," to which the chaotician responds, "Don't you mean extinct?"
The line is a deliberate reference to something effects pioneer Phil Tippett, who developed “go-motion” animation for the film, said to Spielberg before the director settled on primarily using groundbreaking CGI for the movie (“I think I’m extinct”). Instead of leaving the production, Tippett stayed on to serve as a consultant by helping the CG animators create realistic movements for the digital dinos.
4. JOHN HAMMOND’S JEEP GETS GREAT MILEAGE.
Keep an eye out for the Jeeps that Hammond uses to buzz around and show off the park to his first guests. JP29 is the same truck used by the characters Gray and Zach to escape from the old section of the park in 2015’s Jurassic World.
Grant and Ellie’s JP18 truck can also be seen in the garage in Jurassic World when Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard’s characters, Owen and Claire, try to escape from the Indominus rex.
5. THE NEXT JURASSIC PARK WAS SUPPOSED TO BE IN EUROPE.
When Hammond pitches the grand ideas of the park to the group in the dining room—during the bragged-about meal of Chilean sea bass—corporate-focused slides can be seen in the background that suggest Hammond anticipated Jurassic Park becoming more popular than both “sports” and "zoos."
They also hint at Hammond’s “Future Attractions.” He was also planning to expand internationally to Jurassic Park Europe.
6. MR. DNA’S VOICE SHOULD SOUND FAMILIAR.
The animated Mr. DNA sequence impresses Grant and the gang because the little cartoon DNA strand explains exactly how dinosaurs were brought back from extinction, but animation fans should be impressed for a different reason.
The voice behind Mr. DNA is voiceover artist Greg Burson, who also provided the voices at various points for famous Looney Tunes characters like Elmer Fudd, Porky Pig, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, and Pepe Le Pew. Burson was also one of the voiceover artists to voice Hanna-Barbera characters like Huckleberry Hound, QuickDraw McGraw, Snagglepuss and Yogi Bear.
7. THE VOICE YOU HEARD WAS, IN FACT, RICHARD KILEY.
Hammond gets to utter the famous phrase, “Welcome to Jurassic Park” after showing off the newly non-extinct creatures to Grant and Sattler, but we get to hear it again during the tour from the car’s virtual tour guide. “The voice you’re now hearing is Richard Kiley,” Hammond tells the group. “We spared no expense.”
Hammond spared no expense because Kiley, with his distinct baritone, was an esteemed actor of stage and screen who won Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical for Redhead in 1959 and Man of La Mancha in 1966, as well as three Emmys and two Golden Globes for his TV work.
Kiley was also mentioned as the tour guide in author Michael Crichton’s source novel, and, appropriately enough, voices the Jurassic Park Jungle River Cruise at Universal Studios in Orlando.
8. NEDRY IS A JAWS FAN.
While Hammond berates Nedry (Wayne Knight) in the command center for the park’s problems, keep an eye on the computer programmer’s computer screen past all the garbage, Jolt Cola cans, and candy wrappers: He’s watching Spielberg’s seminal shark attack hit, Jaws.
9. NEDRY DRESSES LIKE THE GOONIES.
It turns out that Jaws isn’t Nedry’s only Spielberg fandom, and that concealed dinosaur embryos in a fake shaving cream can aren’t the only thing Nedry is hiding.
The programmer’s wardrobe—with his Hawaiian shirt, Members Only jacket, and yellow rain slicker—is almost exactly the same as the clothes that Chunk, Mouth, and Mikey wear in the Spielberg-produced adventure classic The Goonies.
10. NEDRY’S DESK GIVES A NOD TO THE FATHER OF THE ATOMIC BOMB.
The photo on Nedry’s computer isn’t some stern, pipe-smoking father figure; the little mushroom cloud doodle above the photo should let you know that it’s none other than J. Robert Oppenheimer, the theoretical physicist who helped develop the atomic bomb during the Manhattan Project.
The nod carries a symbolic, cautionary tale significance: Much like Hammond, Oppenheimer also used fundamental science for his own gain. Or, as Malcolm said, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could that they didn't stop to think if they should."
11. THE PARK’S CUTTING-EDGE SECURITY CAMERA FOOTAGE IS JUST A QUICKTIME VIDEO.
When Nedry calls the dock worker while watching live security footage to coordinate his escape with the dinosaur embryos, the webcam seen on the screen is actually a Quicktime video instead of a live feed. The progress bar at the bottom of the desktop window, and the mouse cursor over the “Play” button, are dead giveaways.
12. JURASSIC PARK’S SCIENTISTS ARE GREAT AT GENETICS, BUT BAD AT SPELLING.
When Nedry breaks into the embryo chamber to steal the individual dinosaur types, two of them are spelled incorrectly. “Stegasaurus” should be Stegosaurus and “Tyranosaurus” should be Tyrannosaurus.
They’re not so great with numbers either: The faux shaving cream canister Nedry uses to steal the dinos off the island only holds 10 embryos even though during their meeting in San Jose, Dodson told Nedry to take 15 different species.
13. TIM MAKES SOME REAL-LIFE AND FAKE BOOK RECOMMENDATIONS.
While fanboying out about getting to hang out with Dr. Alan Grant, Tim (Joseph Mazzello) presents alternate theories to Grant’s assertion that dinosaurs evolved into birds by citing a book by “a guy named Bakker.” This line refers to Robert T. Bakker, the real-life American paleontologist who helped shape the modern theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded) and who served as an advisor on the film.
Tim can also be seen carrying Grant’s book, Dinosaur Detectives, a prop created for the film that supposedly features a foreword by Sir Richard Attenborough (the actor who plays Hammond), and co-written by Michael Backes, a real-life software developer who helped Crichton fact check the original novel and the guy who created the the animated computer graphics used in the movie's control room sequences.
14. OBJECTS IN THE MIRROR ARE ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE FROM WHERE THEY’RE SUPPOSED TO APPEAR.
During Sattler and Muldoon’s daring escape with an injured Malcolm from a rampaging T. rex, the dinosaur comes so close to chomping on the driver’s side of their Jeep that the side mirror’s “objects in the mirror are closer than they appear” message can be seen. In reality, such a safety warning is only required on the opposite side because passenger mirrors are convex as a way to limit blind spots.
15. THE MERCHANDISE IN THE GIFT SHOP IS REAL.
During the scene where Sattler and Hammond eat ice cream and debate the failure of the park, The Making of Jurassic Park book seen in the park’s fictional gift shop is a real book about the making of the movie, written by authors Don Shay and Jody Duncan.
16. THE RAPTOR IN THE KITCHEN NEEDED SOME HELP STANDING UP.
The raptors in the movie may be smart enough to open doors, but they can’t stand on their own two feet. If you look to the back left of the raptor that opens the door to the kitchen while hunting for Lex and Tim, you can see a hand steady the raptor puppet so it doesn’t fall over. Once the scene cuts to two raptors in the kitchen those shots are largely CGI.
17. LOOK CLOSELY FOR THE DINO DNA ALL SPELLED OUT.
As Grant, Sattler, and the kids hide in the vents in the climactic velociraptor finale in the Visitor’s Center, the letters GATC can be seen reflected on the skin of one of the raptors searching for her prey. These letters represent the nucleobases that form the base pairs of DNA—a nod to the building blocks of life that created the raptors in the first place.
18. THERE’S AN INCREDIBLE DISAPPEARING RAPTOR.
There's a glaring yet unnoticed visual effects "mistake" in one of the most successful VFX films of all time. This brings me comfort. pic.twitter.com/hldUTONqrx
Just in the nick of time in the movie’s finale, the T. rex snatches a pouncing raptor out of thin air and saves Grant and the gang. But if you look closely, a visual effects mistake causes the CGI raptor to disappear for a single frame and then reappear before the rex chomps down for the kill.
One of the most compelling aspects of paleontology is its ability to surprise even the most well-versed dinosaur scholars. Every fossil holds the potential to shed new light on how these prehistoric creatures lived, ate, and thrived.
Now, scientists have learned some dinos would have benefited from a medicated shampoo.
A study published in Nature Communications examining 125-million-year-old fossils discovered in China demonstrates that dinos expressed a condition common to humans: Their skin would flake off, creating tiny dandruff specks. The paper helps provide an explanation for how dinosaurs managed to molt, or shed skin in an effort to create tougher exterior tissue.
The specimens consisted of skin and feathers from three different non-avian dinosaurs—the crow-sizedMicroraptor and the larger Beipiaosaurus and Sinornithosaurus—and one bird, Confuciusornis, all from the Early Cretaceous period. The feathers were dotted with white, 1-2 millimeter blobs that initially puzzled scientists, who eventually visualized them with an ion beam microscope. Researchers confirmed them to be flakes of skin composed of corneocytes, tough cells containing keratin. The flecks suggested that these dinosaurs molted by shedding skin like modern birds instead of casting off chunks of skin like other reptiles.
The corneocytes of today's birds contain fats and loosely packed keratin, which allows birds to stay cool during heat-intensive activity like flying. The dino corneocytes were densely packed with keratin, and they probably wouldn't have provided much of a cooling effect. That tells scientists that the bird-like dinosaurs didn't spend too much time in the air.
If they didn't fly, why the feathers? It probably had to do with keeping warm and providing camouflage from both predators and prey. Researchers hope to continue their studies on the plumage to see what else they can learn.