15 Lucky Things You Probably Didn't Know About Leprechauns

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In America, the little bearded sprites known as leprechauns have become synonymous with St. Patrick’s Day and Irish culture. Here are some lucky facts about Ireland’s mythical little beings.

1. Leprechauns are fairies.

Although they might not match your initial idea of what a fairy is, leprechauns are considered a part of the family. Like other fairies, they are small in size and prone to mischief. The miniature men are said to be descendants of Tuatha De Danann, a group of magical beings that served under the Gaelic goddess Danu. According to legend, this mythical group lived in Ireland long before humans inhabited the land.

2. There aren’t any female leprechauns.

As a way of explaining why there is no record of female leprechauns (and therefore no way to procreate in the traditional sense), some sources claim that leprechauns are the unwanted fairies that have been tossed aside by the rest of the community. As a result, leprechauns are described as grouchy, untrusting, and solitary creatures.

3. There’s a leprechaun colony in Portland, Oregon.

After noticing a small circular hole in concrete where a light pole was meant to be, a journalist took it upon himself to make use of it. After adding flowers and a tiny sign that proclaimed it the “world’s smallest park,” the man began to write stories about the spot in a newspaper column. He detailed the adventures of a small leprechaun colony, led by a leader that only the journalist could see. The modest garden became an official city park on St. Patrick’s Day in 1976. Over the years, contributors have added miniature additions like a swimming pool complete with a diving board.

4. Sometimes they are red.

Although the little Irishmen are now synonymous with the color green, they weren’t always. Early accounts of leprechauns describe them as wearing red and a variety of hats—often three-cornered.

5. They have a troublesome cousin.

Also sporting red is the rambunctious clurichaun, a mythical creature that shares many characteristics with the leprechaun. These beings are always described as drunk and surly. They are often seen in stories riding animals at night, or clearing out entire wine cellars. Some accounts explain these troublemakers as the night-form of leprechauns; after a hard day’s work, the bearded fairies get so tipsy that they become an entirely different species. Other stories describe them as a close relative to the leprechaun.

6. Leprechauns are the bankers and cobblers of the fairy world.

Leprechauns are known for their money, and there’s apparently a lot of it in the cobbling business. Since they spend most of their time alone, the little green men pour all their energy into crafting shoes. They are said to always have a hammer and shoe in hand. In fact, legend says you can hear them coming by the telltale tapping sound they make.

While some stories attribute the leprechauns’ wealth to the fine shoes they make, others say they protect the treasure of the entire fairy world. One tale says that leprechauns act like bankers to make sure the frivolous fairies don’t spend all their gems at once.

7. They’re sneaky.

Wherever there are leprechauns, there are stories of people trying to steal their gold. The rule is, if you’re lucky enough to catch a leprechaun, you can never take your eyes off the little men, or they’ll disappear. In one tale, a man managed to catch a leprechaun and forced the fairy to divulge the secret location of his treasure. The leprechaun reluctantly pointed to a tree. Delighted, the man tied a red bandana around the branch and ran home to get a shovel. When he returned, he was dismayed to find that all the trees were sporting the same red scarf.

8. But they can be generous if you’re kind to them.

Constantly being chased for one’s gold—or cereal— can take a toll on any fairy’s demeanor. As a result, leprechauns are distrustful and secretive. This attitude does not mean they won’t loosen the purse strings if touched by a bit of kindness. One legend mentions a down-on-his-luck nobleman who offered a leprechaun a ride on his horse. In return, the man returned to his crumbling castle to find it filled to the ceiling with gold.

9. Someone claims to have found the remains of an actual leprechaun.

A local businessman claimed to have found evidence of a real leprechaun on Carlingford Mountain in Ireland. After hearing a scream near the wishing well, the man found bones, a tiny suit, and gold coins near scorched earth. The evidence is now displayed behind a glass case for visitors to come see.

As a result, a new tradition was born: 100 ceramic leprechauns are hidden in the mountain as part of an annual leprechaun hunt. Tourists come every year to try to hunt down the little green statues. Hunters need to buy a 5€ “hunter’s license” beforehand and the adults are given a small bottle of whiskey to help them with their search.

10. Leprechauns are protected under European law.

Apparently, there are 236 leprechauns that live in the caverns of Carlington Mountain. The EU has granted heritage status to the remaining wee people; they now have their own protected sanctuary nestled in the mountain. The directive also protects the animals and flora in the area to help keep the biodiversity of the land safe.

11. Some accounts say leprechauns can live underwater.

The earliest known folktale to feature a leprechaun comes from the Middle Ages. In it, Fergus mac Léti, the King of Ulster, falls asleep by the beach. He awakens to find three tiny leprechauns attempting to drag him into their undersea lair. The king captures them, but releases them after he is promised three wishes. This story suggests the little men are sea-dwellers, but modern takes on the myth do not often include this lifestyle detail.

12. They might have a divine heritage.

Some sources say leprechauns are derivatives of the Irish deity Lugh, god of the sun and of arts and crafts. After the rise of Christianity, Lugh’s importance was diminished; he was demoted to a shoe-making folklore character known as Lugh-chromain.

13. Leprechaun means “small body.”

“Leprechaun” is believed to be a variation of the Middle Irish word, lūchorpān—lū means small and corp means body.

14. You can pretend to be a leprechaun for a good cause.

In March, there are marathons all over the country that encourage the participants to dress like leprechauns. The festive runners help raise money for charity while getting in the St. Patrick’s Day spirit.

15. You can make your own leprechaun trap.

Making a leprechaun trap is a great activity to share with your children this St. Patrick’s Day. All you need to get started is something shiny to lure the little men. The traps can be simple as a shoebox, or elaborate as your family can imagine. Although no one has caught anything yet—that we know of—it doesn’t hurt to try!

Finding a leprechaun’s gold can be tricky, but getting great customer service from GEICO is easy—it’s there every time you call.

11 Facts About the Library of Congress

Thomas Jefferson Building of the LOC. Image Credit: TheAgency via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
Thomas Jefferson Building of the LOC. Image Credit: TheAgency via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

For more than two centuries, the Library of Congress (LOC) and its staff have served as invaluable resources for American legislators. But their mission isn’t limited to U.S. politics. The Library of Congress catalog includes iconic films, historical documents, and your tweets about lunch. In short, it's a cultural treasure. Here are 11 facts worth knowing about the Washington, D.C.-based establishment.

1. The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest cultural institution.

Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress is America’s oldest federal cultural institution. It was established by the same bill that officially moved the capital from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. The library was conceived of as a resource available exclusively to members of Congress, containing "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress." That remains the case today, though citizens can read books on site or request them at their local library through an interlibrary loan.

2. Thomas Jefferson helped rebuild the Library of Congress catalog after a fire.

Not long after it was established, tragedy struck the Library of Congress: Its contents were destroyed when the Capitol Building was set on fire by British troops during the War of 1812. Approximately 3000 books (mostly law-related) were lost in the blaze, but luckily a friend of Washington D.C. owned a collection that was even bigger. Thomas Jefferson’s personal library comprised well over 6000 volumes, making it the largest library in the country at the time. He agreed to sell all of his books to Congress for $23,950 in 1815. Jefferson's contributions significantly expanded the scope of the library, by including books on art, science, and philosophy. (The increased diversity of the collection was a subject of criticism at the time, to which Jefferson responded by saying "there is in fact no subject to which a member of Congress may not have occasion to refer.”) Sadly, the library met with another tragedy when a second fire tore through it on Christmas Eve 1851, burning two-thirds of Jefferson’s contribution.

3. James Madison first proposed the Library of Congress.

Seventeen years prior to the LOC's official formation, James Madison proposed the idea of a special library for Congress. He planted the idea as a Continental Congress member in 1783 when he suggested compiling a list of books to which lawmakers could refer. As president, Madison approved the purchase of Jefferson’s personal library in 1814.

4. It makes Congress's job a lot easier.

Members of Congress drafting legislation don’t necessarily need to do the nitty-gritty research themselves: There’s a whole team [PDF] of lawyers, librarians, economists, and scientists employed through the Library of Congress to do it for them. Established in 1914, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a legislative department within the LOC responsible for supporting lawmakers through every step of the lawmaking process. Based on what’s asked of them, CRS employees supply House and Senate members with reports, briefings, seminars, presentations, or consultations detailing research on the issue in question. The CRS is currently staffed with 600 analysts. In any given year, a single researcher responds to hundreds of congressional requests.

5. It's the largest library on Earth.

With over 164 million items in its inventory, the LOC is the world’s largest library. In addition to the 38 million books and other printed materials on the premises, the institution contains millions of photographs, recordings, and films. It also houses some record-breaking collections: more maps, comics, newspapers, and phonebooks can each be found there than any other place on Earth. The whole thing is stored on about 838 miles of bookshelves.

6. The Library of Congress contains some surprising items.

The Library of Congress is home to an eclectic collection, with books ranging in size from a tiny copy of “Ole King Cole” to a 5-foot-by-7-foot photo book filled with color images of Bhutan. Some items, like a Gutenberg Bible and a rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, feel right at home in the historic library. Others, like Rosa Parks’s peanut butter pancakes recipe, are a bit more unexpected. Additional noteworthy artifacts include Bob Hope’s joke collection, George Gershwin’s piano, and the contents of Abraham Lincoln's pockets the night he was shot.

7. The Library of Congress owns materials from around the world.

The Library of Congress isn’t solely dedicated to American documents. The institution possesses materials acquired from all around the globe, including 3 million items from Asia and 10 million items in the Iberian, Latin American, and Caribbean collections. Over half of the books in their inventory are written in a language other than English. In total, over 460 languages are represented, and their end goal is to eventually have at least one item from every nation. The LOC also maintains overseas offices in New Delhi, India; Cairo, Egypt; Islamabad, Pakistan; Jakarta, Indonesia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to acquire, catalog, and preserve items that might be hard to access otherwise.

8. It preserves America's most important films.

Since the National Film Preservation Act was passed in 1988, 700 "culturally, historically, or aesthetically" significant films have been selected for the LOC archives. Up to 25 entries are chosen each year by a board of industry professionals, and the only rule is that submissions must be at least 10 years old. Beyond that, they can be anything from beloved comedy blockbusters like Ghostbusters (1984) to health class classics like The Story of Menstruation (1946). Pieces added to the National Film Registry are kept in a climate-controlled storage space where they can theoretically last for centuries.

9. The Library of Congress serves patrons of all abilities.

In 1931 the Library of Congress launched The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS). Today the service offers free Braille and audio books, either through digital downloads or physical deliveries, to people with visual impairments or other issues that limit their reading abilities. Offerings include a wide array of books and magazines, as well as the world’s largest collection of Braille music. NLS librarians are currently undertaking the painstaking process of scanning every sheet of Braille music onto their computer system. Once that project is complete, the National Library Service’s entire collection will be fully digitized.

10. Only three librarians of Congress have been actual librarians.

When nominating someone to head the largest library in the world, presidents rarely choose actual librarians. They’re more likely to select a scholar, historian, or some other veteran of academia for the job. Of the 14 Librarians of Congress we’ve had, current title-holder Carla Hayden is one of just three to come into the role with prior librarian experience. (She is also the first woman and the first African American to hold the job.) On top of running the world’s largest library, Hayden is also responsible for managing relations with Congress, selecting the Poet Laureate, and overseeing the U.S. Copyright Office.

11. It receives every public tweet you write.

The government isn’t just responsible for cataloging tweets coming out of the White House. In 2010, Twitter agreed to donate every public tweet in its archive to the Library of Congress. That amounts to several hundred million tweets a day. In addition to documenting the rise and fall of #dressgate and live tweets of The Walking Dead, the archive would also act as an invaluable data source for tracking language and societal trends. Unfortunately, that archive isn’t much closer to being completed than the day the deal was announced. The LOC has yet to develop a way to organize the information, and for the past seven years, unprocessed tweets have been have been stored out of sight on a server. There’s still no word on what the next step will be, but that might change with the newest Librarian of Congress. Unlike her predecessor, Carla Hayden is known for taking a digital-forward approach to librarianship.

Merriam-Webster Just Added Hundreds of New Words to the Dictionary—Here Are 25 of Them

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iStock.com/xxz114

The editors of Merriam-Webster's dictionary know better than most people how quickly language evolves. In April 2019 alone, they added more than 640 words to the dictionary, from old terms that have developed new meanings to words that are products of the digital age.

Entertainment fans will recognize a few of the new words on Merriam-Webster's list: Buzzy (generating speculation or attention), bottle episode (an episode of a television series confined to one setting), and EGOT (winning an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar, and a Tony) have all received the dictionary's stamp of approval.

Some terms reflect the rise of digital devices in our everyday lives, such as unplug and screen time. Other words have been around for centuries, but started appearing in new contexts in recent years. According to Merriam-Webster, snowflake can now mean “someone who is overly sensitive," purple can describe an area split between Democrat and Republican voters, and Goldilocks can mean “an area of planetary orbit in which temperatures are neither too hot nor too cold to support life."

You can read 25 of the new words below. And for even more recent additions to the dictionary, check out Merriam-Webster's list from last September.

  1. Bioabsorbable

  1. Bottle episode

  1. Bottom surgery

  1. Buzzy

  1. EGOT

  1. Garbage time

  1. Gender nonconforming

  1. Geosmin

  1. Gig economy

  1. Go-cup

  1. Goldilocks

  1. On-brand

  1. Page view

  1. Peak

  1. Purple

  1. Vulture capitalism

  1. Qubit

  1. Salutogenesis

  1. Screen time

  1. Snowflake

  1. Stan

  1. Tailwind

  1. Top surgery

  1. Traumatology

  1. Unplug

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