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Cinereous Mourner Chicks Pretend to Be Poisonous Caterpillars

Santiago David Rivera (left) // Wendy Valencia (right)

This strange baby bird may look like pretty flashy, but its plumage keeps it safer than you would think. 

The jungle is a rough place for the young, and nestlings often fall victim to predators like snakes, birds, and mammals. Each animal needs a special way to stay out of harm's way, or else risk extinction. The cinereous mourner chick lives in a high-kill area, but lacks the colors to camouflage or the ability to fly. So, according to a new study published in the the January 2015 issue of The American Naturalist, vulnerable chicks have evolved the ability to hide in plain sight.

During an ecological study in the fall of 2012, researchers found a cinereous mourner nest in southeastern Peru (only the second such nest ever described) and noted that although the adults have smooth black feathers, the chicks are covered in downy orange feathers tipped with black and white. When the researchers took measurements of the nest, the tiny birds began to bob their heads slowly back and forth, not unlike a caterpillar. After some investigating, the scientists found a poisonous caterpillar in the area with similar coloring that made similar movements, and theorized that the tiny birds mimicked the poisonous caterpillars to discourage potential predators from eating them. 

So what exactly are these birds mimicking? It's a horrifyingly large orange caterpillar that's 12 centimeters long, or about one chick size. The fuzzy bug's hairs contain a toxin that irritates the skin (not that you would want to touch it anyway). The exact species has yet to be described, but you can watch the creepy-crawlie move around: 

The fluffy chicks' behavior is an example of Batesian mimicry, a survival technique where a harmless animal has evolved to imitate a more threatening species with which it shares a common predator. Batesian mimicry is often seen in insects, but rarely in vertebrates; it's the first time it has ever been found in birds. With such a remarkable hiding technique, it's no wonder they've stayed hidden for so long. 

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Animals
Watch a School of Humpback Whales 'Fish' Using Nets Made of Bubbles 

Just like humans, humpback whales catch many fish at once by using nets—but instead of being woven from fibers, their nets are made of bubbles.

Unique to humpbacks, the behavior known as bubble-net feeding was recently captured in a dramatic drone video that was created by GoPro and spotted by Smithsonian. The footage features a school of whales swimming off Maskelyne Island in British Columbia, Canada, in pursuit of food. The whales dive down, and a large circle of bubbles forms on the water's surface. Then, the marine mammals burst into the air, like circus animals jumping through a ring, and appear to swallow their meal.

The video offers a phenomenal aerial view of the feeding whales, but it only captures part of the underwater ritual. It begins with the group's leader, who locates schools of fish and krill and homes in on them. Then, it spirals to the water's surface while expelling air from its blowhole. This action creates the bubble ring, which works like a net to contain the prey.

Another whale emits a loud "trumpeting feeding call," which may stun and frighten the fish into forming tighter schools. Then, the rest of the whales herd the fish upwards and burst forth from the water, their mouths open wide to receive the fruits of their labor.

Watch the intricate—and beautiful—feeding process below:

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Big Questions
Why Do Dogs Love to Dig?
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Dog owners with green thumbs beware: It's likely just a matter of time before Fido turns your azalea bed into a graveyard of forgotten chew toys. When dogs aren't digging up your prized garden, they can be found digging elsewhere in your yard, at the beach, and even between your couch cushions at home. But what exactly is behind your dog's drive to turn every soft surface he or she sees into an excavation site?

According to Dr. Emma Grigg, an animal behaviorist and co-author of The Science Behind a Happy Dog, this behavior is completely normal. "When people say 'why do dogs dig,' the first thing that always comes to mind is 'well, because they're dogs,'" she tells Mental Floss. The instinct first appeared in dogs' wolf ancestors, then it was amplified in certain breeds through artificial selection. That's why dogs that were bred to hunt rodents, like beagles and terriers, are especially compelled to dig in places where such animals might make their homes.

But this tendency isn't limited to just a few specific breeds. No matter their original roles, dogs of all breeds have been known to kick up some dirt on occasion. Beyond predatory urges, Dr. Grigg says there are two main reasons a dog may want to dig. The first is to cool off on a hot day. When stuck on an open lawn with little to no shade, unearthing a fresh layer of dirt untouched by the sun is a quick way to beat the heat.

The second reason is to stash away goodies. Imagine your dog gets bored with chewing his favorite bone but knows he wants to come back for it later. Instead of leaving it out in the open where anyone can snatch it up, he decides to bury it in a secret place where only he'll be able to find it. Whether or not he'll actually go back for it is a different story. "There's a disconnect with modern dogs: They know the burying part but they don't always know to dig it up," Dr. Grigg says.

Because digging is part of a dog's DNA, punishing your pet for doing so isn't super effective. But that doesn't mean you should stand idly by as your yard gets turned inside-out. When faced with this behavior in your own dog, one option is to redirect it. This can mean allowing him to dig in a designated corner of the yard while keeping other parts off-limits, or setting up a raised flowerbed or sandbox especially to satisfy that urge. "You can get him interested in the area by burying a couple bones or some interesting things in there for him to dig," Dr. Grigg says. "I like the idea of buried treasure."

If your dog's motive for digging is more destructive than practical, he may have an energy problem. Dogs require a certain amount of stimulation each day, and when their humans don't provide it for them they find their own ways to occupy themselves. Sometimes it's by chewing up shoes, toppling trash cans, or digging ditches the perfect size for twisting ankles. Fortunately, this is nothing more walks and playtime can't improve.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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