12 Things You Might Not Have Known About Manatees

iStock
iStock

In August 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service temporarily closed Three Sisters Springs in the Crystal River after more than 300 manatees rapidly moved into the springs. “We have a record number this year,” Laura Ruettiman, an environmental education guide at the Springs, told USA TODAY. “We have 150 more manatees here than have ever been recorded in the past.” Here are a few things you might not have known about these cute, cuddly aquatic mammals.

1. "Manatee" comes from the Carab word manti, meaning “breast, udder.” These docile creatures are also called sea cows.

2. Manatees live in coastal waters and rivers, and they’re the ocean’s largest herbivores: An adult can grow up to 13 feet long and weigh as much as 1300 pounds—and consume 10 to 15 percent of its body weight in vegetation each day.

3. Using their powerful tails, manatees can swim for short bursts at 15 mph. However, the placid animals are usually content to cruise along at 5 mph.

4. There are three species of manatee: West Indian (Trichechus manatus), West African (Trichechus senegalensis), and Amazonian (Trichechus inunguis). The aquatic mammals belong to the order Sirenia, which also includes the dugong (Dugong dugon) and the Steller's sea cow, which went extinct in 1768 due to overhunting.

5. According to a ship log dated January 9, 1493, Christopher Columbus himself said that on the previous day he “distinctly saw three mermaids, which rose well out of the sea; but they are not so beautiful as they are said to be, for their faces had some masculine traits.” Columbus wasn’t the only sailor to spot mermaids in the water. The reason they weren’t as beautiful as he might have imagined is because they were actually manatees.

6. Though they can hold their breath while submerged for 15 to 20 minutes, manatees usually surface every three to five minutes to breathe. With a single breath, manatees can replace 90 percent of the air in their lungs; humans, by comparison, replace just 10 percent.

7. Remember when that lady rode a manatee in Florida a few years ago and got arrested? That’s because West Indian manatees are protected by the Manatee Sanctuary Act, which states that it’s against the law for “any person at any time, by any means, or in any manner intentionally or negligently to annoy, molest, harass, or disturb or attempt to molest, harass, or disturb” the endangered animals.

8. Manatees are closely related to two land mammals: the hyrax and the elephant. While most animals have a heart that has a point, elephants and manatees have hearts that are rounded on the bottom.

9. The endangered animals are threatened by a number of things, including toxic red tide and run-ins with watercraft. According to Florida Today, 361 of Florida’s West Indian manatees died in 2014; 19 percent of the overall death toll came from watercraft.

10. Manatees have 2000 thick, whisker-like hairs called vibrissae on their faces, and 3000 on their bodies. These innervated follicles help the manatee sense and explore the world around it.

11. The manatee has a smooth brain, and the smallest brain of all mammals in relation to its body mass. But that doesn’t mean they’re stupid: According to a 2006 New York Times article on the work of Roger L. Reep, a neuroscientist at the University of Florida at Gainesville, manatees are “as adept at experimental tasks as dolphins, though they are slower-moving and, having no taste for fish, more difficult to motivate.”

12. Manatees are nearsighted and can see in blue, green, and gray—but not red!

Watch a Gulper Eel Inflate Like a Terrifying Balloon

OET, NautilusLive.org
OET, NautilusLive.org

Since launching in 2008, the Ocean Exploration Trust's Nautilus research vessel has live-streamed a purple orb, a transparent squid, and a stubby octopus from the bottom of the ocean. The latest bizarre example of marine life captured by the vessel is a rare gulper eel that acts like a cross between a python and a pufferfish.

As Thrillist reports, this footage was shot by a Nautilus rover roaming the Pacific Ocean's Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument 4700 feet below the surface. In it, a limbless, slithery, black creature that looks like it swallowed a beach ball can be seen hovering above the sea floor. After about a minute, the eel deflates its throat, swims around for a bit, and unhinges its jaw to reveal a gaping mouth.

The reaction of the scientists onboard the ship is just as entertaining as the show the animal puts on. At first they're not sure what they're looking at ("It looks like a Muppet" someone says), and after being blown away by its shape-shifting skills, they conclude that it's a gulper eel. Gulper eels are named for their impressive jaw span, which allows them to swallow prey much larger than themselves and puff up to intimidate predators. Because they like to lurk at least 1500 feet beneath the ocean's surface, they're rarely documented.

You can watch the inflated eel and hear the researcher's response to it in the video below.

[h/t Thrillist]

14 Adorable, Vintage Photos of Rabbits

Chaloner Woods, Getty Images
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

In honor of International Rabbit Day (held annually on the fourth Saturday of September), we've pulled photographic proof that the furry little mammals have always been appreciated by children and the adults who use a number of rabbit-related phrases and idioms more often than they probably realize.

1. DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE

Nursery school children playing with their pet rabbit Bubbles; 1939.
David Parker, Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Nursery school children playing with their pet rabbit Bubbles, 1939.

2. DUST BUNNY

 A woman spinning Angora rabbit wool in her garden, 1930.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

A woman spinning Angora rabbit wool in her garden, 1930.

3. MAD AS A MARCH HARE

A young boy holds a pet rabbit, 1955.
Charles Ley, BIPs/Getty Images

A young boy holds a pet rabbit, 1955.

4. BUY THE RABBIT

A golfer makes a practice drive while his pet rabbit minds the balls; 1938.
Reg Speller, Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

A golfer makes a practice drive while his pet rabbit minds the balls, 1938.

5. HONEY BUNNY

School children petting rabbits; 1949.
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

Schoolchildren petting rabbits, 1949.

6. HAREBRAINED IDEA

A woman took her Himalayan rabbit, Albrecht Durer, on a walk in Hyde Park, 1939.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

A woman took her Himalayan rabbit, Albrecht Durer, on a walk in Hyde Park, 1939.

7. CUDDLE BUNNY

A little girl petting a large rabbit, 1949.
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

A little girl petting a large rabbit, 1949.

8. LUCKY RABBIT'S FOOT

Schoolgirls care for pet rabbits, 1932.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

Schoolgirls care for pet rabbits, 1932.

9. PULL A RABBIT OUT OF A HAT

A young magician and his rabbit, 1971.
George W. Hales, Fox Photos/Getty Images

A young magician and his rabbit, 1971.

10. SNOW BUNNY

A woman shows off her two pet angora rabbits, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A woman shows off her two pet angora rabbits, circa 1955. Angoras can be sheared to provide enough wool for two sweaters each year.

11. THE EASTER BUNNY

A little girl holds an Easter bunny on a leash, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A little girl holds an Easter bunny on a leash, circa 1955.

12. A RABBIT TRAIL

Three children hold a rabbit, 1935.
H. Allen, Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

Three children hold a rabbit, 1935.

13. RABBIT FOOD

A boy feeds his pet rabbit a lettuce leaf, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A boy feeds his pet rabbit a lettuce leaf, circa 1955.

14. RABBITING ON

Actresses Fiona Fullerton and Clare Clifford posting some of the many letters sent to the House of Lords and parliamentary candidates to request support for World Day for Laboratory Animals which was instituted that year, 1979.
Central Press, Getty Images

Actresses Fiona Fullerton and Clare Clifford posting some of the many letters sent to the House of Lords and parliamentary candidates to request support for World Day for Laboratory Animals which was instituted that year, 1979.

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