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How to Build an Igloo

The National Film Board of Canada produced this video (originally on film) in 1949 to show how igloos are made in far North Canada.

Using hard-packed snow, two Inuit men skillfully build an igloo as an overnight shelter. The operation takes roughly 90 minutes while their sled dogs patiently wait outside.

The video shows how the packed snow is used as building blocks. All the snow is taken from inside the circle, so the floor is much deeper than might be expected. By cutting the first row into a sloping shape, an upward spiral can be created. Interestingly, the right handed builder works counter-clockwise while a left handed one would work clockwise.

Nomadic Inuits would make igloos as temporary homes. They could take as little as 40 minutes to construct, using only a knife. When the home gets dirty or hunting becomes scarce, they can easily move on and rebuild.

[h/t: TheKidShouldSeeThis.com]

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The Evolution of "Two" in the Indo-European Language Family
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The Indo-European language family includes most of the languages of Europe as well as many languages in Asia. There is a long research tradition that has shown, though careful historical comparison, that languages spanning a huge linguistic and geographical range, from French to Greek to Russian to Hindi to Persian, are all related to each other and sprung from a common source, Proto-Indo-European. One of the techniques for studying the relationship of the different languages to each other is to look at the similarities between individual words and work out the sound changes that led from one language to the next.

This diagram, submitted to Reddit by user IronChestplate1, shows the word for two in various Indo-European languages. (The “proto” versions, marked with an asterisk, are hypothesized forms, built by working backward from historical evidence.) The languages cluster around certain common features, but the words are all strikingly similar, especially when you consider the words for two in languages outside the Indo-European family: iki (Turkish), èjì (Yoruba), ni (Japanese), kaksi (Finnish), etc. There are many possible forms two could take, but in this particular group of languages it is extremely limited. What are the chances of that happening by accident? Once you see it laid out like this, it doesn’t take much to put *dwóh and *dwóh together.

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Beyond Plumbing: 19 Other Jobs on Mario's Resume
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Nintendo made news this week by subtly announcing that Mario is no longer a plumber. In fact, they're really downplaying his whole plumbing career. On the character's Japanese-language bio, the company says, "He also seems to have worked as a plumber a long time ago."

But Mario has always had plenty of jobs on the side. Here's a look at his resume:

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