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10 Plated Facts About Kentrosaurus

Perhaps the least-cuddly dinosaur of all time, Kentrosaurus boasted some horrific weaponry—and a rather perplexing sex life.

1. Kentrosaurus Could Swing its Tail Spikes with Skull-Cracking Speed.

Get your hard hats ready! Dr. Heinrich Mallison of Tübingen University contends that this Tanzanian beast’s tail could swing in a 180-degree arc and create “forces greater than those sufficient to fracture a human skull." 

2. A Digital Kentrosaurus Was Created in 2005.

After scanning some Kentrosaurus remains currently housed in Berlin, Mallison created a digital skeleton model that allowed him to explore the animal’s range of motion. Among other things, this virtual avatar suggests that Kentrosaurus’ neck was quite flexible—all the better for spotting nearby predators.    

3. One Gender May Have Had Meatier Thighs.

Kentrosaurus femurs—or “thigh bones”—come in two varieties: robust and (comparatively) slender. If these groups represent different sexes, it’s worth noting that roughly two out of three specimens fall within the first category. Perhaps thicker-thighed individuals were females who formed harems around the less-abundant males.

4. Kentrosaurus Brain Casts Have Been Produced.

Few stegosaur brain cavities are well-preserved enough to give us a decent look at their shape. However, both Kentrosaurus and Stegosaurus itself have yielded enough material for the molding of brain casts, which might help scientists gather data on everything from relative intelligence to sense of smell.

5. It Grew Up Relatively Fast.

According to one recent study, Kentrosaurus matured more rapidly than its better-known cousin Stegosaurus. Average adults would have been about fifteen feet long—half the length of a fully-grown Stegosaurus.

6. There’s Been Some Debate Over Where its “Extra Spikes” Were Located.

Among Kentrosaurus’ most distinguishing features is a pair of broad-based spikes, which were initially thought to have been anchored to its hips. However, similar ornaments have been found anchored to the shoulders of fellow stegosaur Gigantspinosaurus, suggesting Kentrosaurus spikes were also located there.  

7. Kentrosaurus Might Have Squatted for Defense.

While strolling about, Kentrosaurus’ arms were held erect, but Mallison’s model found that the animal could also splay its forelimbs far out to each side, possibly in an attempt to guard its underbelly from carnivores.

8. Stegosaurs Like Kentrosaurus Had an Odd Center of Gravity.

Who’s up for some dino physics? Those muscular tails had a dramatic impact on stegosaur weight distribution. Their center of gravity was much further back than it is in most quadrupedal animals, resting all the way in the hip region. Thanks to this handy feature, stegosaurs could more easily rear up on their hind limbs and swing around their trademark tails.

9. Kentrosaurus’ Spikes Weren’t as Durable as Stegosaurus’.

Longer, skinnier spikes like Kentrosaurus’ may be better at piercing, but, as paleontologist Ken Carpenter points out, Stegosaurus’ thicker and proportionally shorter models were less likely to bend or break.

10. Kentrosaurus Sex Raises Wince-Inducing Safety Questions.

When your partner has gigantic, upward-facing spikes running all the way from her hips to her tail tip, making love requires caution. Mallison found that if an overeager male threw his hind leg over a mate’s backside, he’d castrate himself. “These prickly dinosaurs must have had sex another way,” says the scientist. “Perhaps the female lay down on her side and the male reared up to rest his torso over her.” 

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Animals
Why Tiny 'Hedgehog Highways' Are Popping Up Around London
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Hedgehogs as pets have gained popularity in recent years, but in many parts of the world, they're still wild animals. That includes London, where close to a million of the creatures roam streets, parks, and gardens, seeking out wood and vegetation to take refuge in. Now, Atlas Obscura reports that animal activists are transforming the city into a more hospitable environment for hedgehogs.

Barnes Hedgehogs, a group founded by Michel Birkenwald in the London neighborhood of Barnes four years ago, is responsible for drilling tiny "hedgehog highways" through walls around London. The passages are just wide enough for the animals to climb through, making it easier for them to travel from one green space to the next.

London's wild hedgehog population has seen a sharp decline in recent decades. Though it's hard to pin down accurate numbers for the elusive animals, surveys have shown that the British population has dwindled by tens of millions since the 1950s. This is due to factors like human development and habitat destruction by farmers who aren't fond of the unattractive shrubs, hedges, and dead wood that hedgehogs use as their homes.

When such environments are left to grow, they can still be hard for hedgehogs to access. Carving hedgehog highways through the stone partitions and wooden fences bordering parks and gardens is one way Barnes Hedgehogs is making life in the big city a little easier for its most prickly residents.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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Penn Vet Working Dog Center
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
New Program Trains Dogs to Sniff Out Art Smugglers
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

Soon, the dogs you see sniffing out contraband at airports may not be searching for drugs or smuggled Spanish ham. They might be looking for stolen treasures.

K-9 Artifact Finders, a new collaboration between New Hampshire-based cultural heritage law firm Red Arch and the University of Pennsylvania, is training dogs to root out stolen antiquities looted from archaeological sites and museums. The dogs would be stopping them at borders before the items can be sold elsewhere on the black market.

The illegal antiquities trade nets more than $3 billion per year around the world, and trafficking hits countries dealing with ongoing conflict, like Syria and Iraq today, particularly hard. By one estimate, around half a million artifacts were stolen from museums and archaeological sites throughout Iraq between 2003 and 2005 alone. (Famously, the craft-supply chain Hobby Lobby was fined $3 million in 2017 for buying thousands of ancient artifacts looted from Iraq.) In Syria, the Islamic State has been known to loot and sell ancient artifacts including statues, jewelry, and art to fund its operations.

But the problem spans across the world. Between 2007 and 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Control discovered more than 7800 cultural artifacts in the U.S. looted from 30 different countries.

A yellow Lab sniffs a metal cage designed to train dogs on scent detection.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

K-9 Artifact Finders is the brainchild of Rick St. Hilaire, the executive director of Red Arch. His non-profit firm researches cultural heritage property law and preservation policy, including studying archaeological site looting and antiquities trafficking. Back in 2015, St. Hilaire was reading an article about a working dog trained to sniff out electronics that was able to find USB drives, SD cards, and other data storage devices. He wondered, if dogs could be trained to identify the scents of inorganic materials that make up electronics, could they be trained to sniff out ancient pottery?

To find out, St. Hilaire tells Mental Floss, he contacted the Penn Vet Working Dog Center, a research and training center for detection dogs. In December 2017, Red Arch, the Working Dog Center, and the Penn Museum (which is providing the artifacts to train the dogs) launched K-9 Artifact Finders, and in late January 2018, the five dogs selected for the project began their training, starting with learning the distinct smell of ancient pottery.

“Our theory is, it is a porous material that’s going to have a lot more odor than, say, a metal,” says Cindy Otto, the executive director of the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the project’s principal investigator.

As you might imagine, museum curators may not be keen on exposing fragile ancient materials to four Labrador retrievers and a German shepherd, and the Working Dog Center didn’t want to take any risks with the Penn Museum’s priceless artifacts. So instead of letting the dogs have free rein to sniff the materials themselves, the project is using cotton balls. The researchers seal the artifacts (broken shards of Syrian pottery) in airtight bags with a cotton ball for 72 hours, then ask the dogs to find the cotton balls in the lab. They’re being trained to disregard the smell of the cotton ball itself, the smell of the bag it was stored in, and ideally, the smell of modern-day pottery, eventually being able to zero in on the smell that distinguishes ancient pottery specifically.

A dog looks out over the metal "pinhweel" training mechanism.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

“The dogs are responding well,” Otto tells Mental Floss, explaining that the training program is at the stage of "exposing them to the odor and having them recognize it.”

The dogs involved in the project were chosen for their calm-but-curious demeanors and sensitive noses (one also works as a drug-detection dog when she’s not training on pottery). They had to be motivated enough to want to hunt down the cotton balls, but not aggressive or easily distracted.

Right now, the dogs train three days a week, and will continue to work on their pottery-detection skills for the first stage of the project, which the researchers expect will last for the next nine months. Depending on how the first phase of the training goes, the researchers hope to be able to then take the dogs out into the field to see if they can find the odor of ancient pottery in real-life situations, like in suitcases, rather than in a laboratory setting. Eventually, they also hope to train the dogs on other types of objects, and perhaps even pinpoint the chemical signatures that make artifacts smell distinct.

Pottery-sniffing dogs won’t be showing up at airport customs or on shipping docks soon, but one day, they could be as common as drug-sniffing canines. If dogs can detect low blood sugar or find a tiny USB drive hidden in a house, surely they can figure out if you’re smuggling a sculpture made thousands of years ago in your suitcase.

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