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12 Interesting Documents from the Digital Einstein Papers

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Earlier this month, Princeton University Press and The Einstein Papers Project at CalTech made more than 5000 of the famous scientist's documents freely available online, in both their original language and in translated text. Previously, the documents had been available as books, which had been published at a rate of one volume every two or three years since 1987. "Many people don’t have quick access to [the books]," says CalTech professor Diana Kormos-Buchwald, director of the Einstein Papers Project. “We hope to bring it to teachers and students who might be interested in reading Einstein in his own words. He was, no doubt, one of the most influential scientists of the last 100 years, but he was also a public figure and a personality of great influence during difficult political and social periods, and at a time when scientific community was much smaller. I don’t know of any living scientist to whom people would turn the way they did then [to him]. So we hope that these scholarly volumes will now be more accessible.“

Both the books and the files will continue to expand; there are 30,000 documents written by and to Einstein, so there's a long way to go—but there's still plenty to keep you busy: You'll find Einstein's birth certificate, early essays, and correspondence with other big scientific names (Marie Curie! Max Planck!). We perused the archive to find just a few of the fascinating documents within.

1. Einstein’s School Records

Einstein left his grammar school in Germany in 1894, when he was just 15. He didn't have a degree, but he did have a plan: He’d take his Matura tests—which would give him the equivalent of a high school degree—and then attend the Swiss Federal Polytechnical School (also called the Polytechnic). He petitioned Ablin Herzog, director of the Polytechnic, for entrance to the school. Typically, the school only took in students that were 18 and already had their Maturas. Herzog wrote to Einstein family friend Gustav Maier that “it is not advisable to withdraw a student from the institution in which we had begun his studies even if his is a so-called ‘child prodigy,’” but relented and let Einstein take the Maturas anyway in October 1895.

Einstein’s math and science grades were good, but he was lacking in other areas, so Herzog insisted he take another year of secondary school; Einstein started at the Argau School along the Aare River in Switzerland shortly after his attempt at the Maturas. His school records indicate that he had private lessons in French, Chemistry, and Natural History and was “exempted from singing and gymnastics upon request.” In a report on a music exam, instructor J. Ryffel notes that Einstein, playing the violin, “even sparkled by rendering an adagio from a Beethoven sonata with deep understanding.” 

2. His Final Grades

In September 1896, when Einstein was 17, he received his final grades; as one might expect, he excelled in math, garnering a 6—the highest possible score—in Algebra and Geometry. He scored a 5 - 6 in physics, and 5s in Italian, History, and Natural Drawing. 

Later that month he took his Matura exams (they begin here), which consisted of seven written exams and oral exams that were open to the public; students were quizzed for at least 10 minutes on the subjects they’d taken written examinations on as well as history and descriptive geometry. Einstein noted in his Matura exams that he planned to “study Physics and Mathematics at Department 6 of the Federal Polytechnikum.” He passed, garnering the highest average in his class—5 1/3 out of a possible 6—which allowed him direct admission to professional school. (You can read more about the process of taking the exams here.)

3. “My Future Plans”

For his in-class French exam, Einstein wrote that “a happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much upon the future. But on the other hand, young people especially like to contemplate bold projects. Also, it is natural for a serious young man to envision his desired goals with the greatest possible precision.” He then outlined his plans to enroll in the polytechnical school in Zurich—“if I am lucky and pass my examinations”—where he will study math and physics for four years: “I suppose I will become a teacher of these branches of natural science, opting for the theoretical part of these sciences.”

He might have known exactly what he wanted to do, but his French was lacking, as you can see by reading the footnotes here. “He made quite a few mistakes,” Kormos-Buchwald says. “This was Switzerland, where pupils study German and French for many years, they are required to be at least bilingual, in addition to a foreign language, but Einstein had not rigorously studied modern foreign languages while in a classical gymnasium in Munich, Germany. Therefore, he had a lot of catching up to do.”

4. Verse in the Album of Anna Schmid

Anna Schmid was the sister-in-law of the owner of the hotel where Einstein was staying in Mettmenstetten, Switzerland. At that time, Kormos-Buchwald says, “Girls and women had these albums in which they asked people to write a dedication.” In August 1899, Einstein wrote a poem in Anna’s album:

You girl small and fine
What should I inscribe for you here?
I could think of many a think
Including also a kiss
On the tiny little mouth.
——————
If you’re angry about it
Do not start to cry
The best punishment is—
To give me one too.
——————
This little greeting is
In remembrance of your rascally little friend.

Albert Einstein

“Einstein often wrote poems,” Kormos-Buchwald says. “They were always dedicated to someone, more in the genre of a ditty or amusing remembrance than actual literary poetry. There are poems throughout the volumes.” 

5. Military Service Book

Einstein began the process of applying for Swiss citizenship in 1899. The process, which took more than a year, required not only a background check by the police—the detective noted that Einstein was “a very eager, industrious and extremely solid man. (Teetotaler)”—but also an assessment for military service. A doctor’s exam revealed that he suffered from varicose veins, flat feet, and excessive foot perspiration. He was deemed unfit to serve. 

6. Letters Seeking Employment

After graduating, Einstein worked as a private teacher and wrote a number of letters to universities in Germany inquiring after positions, but was unsuccessful in finding a job. “Last summer I completed my studies at the mathematical-physical department of the Zurich Polytechnikum,” he wrote to physicist Otto Wiener, a professor at the Physics Institute of the University of Leipzig in 1900. “I am taking the liberty of asking whether you might need an assistant. … I would appreciate if you could drop me a few lines and let me know about my prospects of getting such a position now or possibly next autumn.” In August, he traveled to Zurich to ask about an assistant position to Professor Adolph Hurwitz at the ETH. 

In 1901, he applied for a position at the secondary school of the Technical School in Brugdorf, and was turned down. That same year, Einstein sent a copy of an article inspired by Wilhelm Ostwald’s work in general chemistry to the professor, who also worked at the University of Leipzig. “On this occasion permit me also to inquire whether you might have use for a mathematical physicist familiar with absolute measurements,” he wrote. “If I permit myself to make such an inquiry, it is only because I am without means, and only a position of this kind would offer me the possibility of additional education.” Later, he followed up with another letter that included his address. (Einstein’s father, Hermann, would also write to Ostwald inquiring after a position for his son.) And he believed that he might have had a shot at a position as assistant to Eduard Riecke, director of the Division of Experimental Physics of the Physics Institute at the University of Göttingen if he had not been sabotaged by Heinrich Friedrich Weber, who had once been Einstein’s doctoral advisor. That relationship ended when they had a bitter disagreement, and Einstein switched to another advisor. 

“He wished to be an academic,” Kormos-Buchwald says, “[but] there were very few [positions] available for a theoretical physicist at the time. The discipline was evolving. There were only five full professors in Germany, and an assistant or associate position was very difficult to obtain.” 

7. Swiss Patent Office Letter on the AEG Alternating Current Machine 

In December 1901, Einstein applied for a position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern; in June 1902, he got a provisional appointment as Technical Expert third class, with a salary of 3500 francs a year. Two years later, in September 1904, his position was confirmed, and two years after that he was promoted to Technical Expert second class. 

Einstein evaluated a number of patents every day, and on December 11, 1907, he wrote that a patent filed jointly by Berlin’s AEG and Bern’s Nageli & Co for an alternating current machine was “incorrectly, imprecisely, and unclearly prepared. … We can go into the specific deficiencies of the description only after the subject matter of the patent has been made clear by a properly prepared claim.”

He would remain with the patent office until 1909.

8. "Max Planck as Scientist"

Ferdinand Springer, publisher of the weekly journal Die Naturwissenschaften, asked Einstein to write a piece about the work of theoretical physicist Max Planck, who had recently been appointed as rector of Berlin University. “We, his close and his distant colleagues, wish joyfully to take this opportunity to celebrate with gratitude the achievements that science owes to his creative activity,” Einstein wrote.

“Max Planck as Scientist” appeared in the journal in late October 1913. Three weeks before publication, Einstein confessed in a letter that he hadn’t yet begun to write it. This, Kormos-Buchwald says, was pretty typical: “Einstein pondered about his writings for a while, and then wrote things down very quickly, once he had it all clearly formulated in his mind.”

9. Manifesto to the Europeans

In mid-October 1914, Einstein wrote “Manifesto to the Europeans” in response to a document, signed by 93 German scientists, that supported Germany’s aims in the first World War. Einstein disagreed with them. “Through technology the world has become smaller; the states of the large peninsula of Europe appear today as close to each other as the cities of each small Mediterranean peninsula appeared in ancient times,” he wrote, continuing (emphasis Einstein's),

In the needs and experiences of every individual, based on his awareness of manifold of relations, Europe—one could almost say the world—already outlines itself as an element of unity. 

It would consequently be a duty of the educated and well-meaning Europeans to at least make the attempt to prevent Europe—on account of its deficient organization as a whole—from suffering the same tragic fate as ancient Greece once did. Should Europe too gradually exhaust itself and thus perish from fratricidal war?

The struggle raging today will likely produce no victor; it will leave probably only the vanquished. Therefore, it seems not only good, but rather bitterly necessary that educated men of all nations marshall their influence such that—whatever the still uncertain end of the war may be—the terms of peace shall not become the wellspring of future wars. The evident fact that through this war all European relational conditions slipped into an unstable and plasticized state should rather be used to create an organic European whole. The technological and intellectual conditions for this are extant.

It need not be deliberated herein by which manner this (new) ordering in Europe is possible. We want merely to emphasize very fundamentally that we are firmly convinced that the time has come where Europe must act as one in order to protect her soil, her inhabitants, and her culture.

“This is an extraordinary document,” Kormos-Buchwald says. “Einstein thought the war was wrong, and it was a brave act to sign this document at a time when many of his colleagues were nationalistically inclined.” 

One year later, he followed “Manifesto” with My Opinion of the War, which began “The psychological roots of war are—in my opinion—biologically founded in the aggressive characteristics of the male creature. … This aggressive tendency comes to the fore whenever individual males are placed side by side, and even more so when relatively close-knit societies have to deal with each other. Almost without fail they will end up in disputes that escalate into quarrels and murder unless special precautions are taken to prevent such occurrences.”

10. The Nightmare 

In its December 25, 1917 issue, the Berliner Tageblatt devoted a section of the paper to the possible discontinuation of Germany’s Arbitur exam, which consisted of written exams lasting from 8am to noon, followed by oral exams from 2 to 6pm, for as long as six consecutive days. In his essay, Einstein wrote,

I consider the final secondary school exam that follows normal school education not only unnecessary but even harmful. … The fear of the exams as well as the large mass of topical subjects that have to be assimilated by memorization harm the health of many young men to a considerable degree. This fact is too well known to need to be verified in detail. But I will nevertheless mention the well known fact that many men in the most varied professions have been plagued, into their later years, by nightmares whose origins trace back to the final secondary school exam.  

And in a criticism that sounds like it could come from a teacher today, Einstein writes that the exam “lowers the level of teaching in the last school years. Instead of an exclusively substance-oriented occupation with the individual subjects, one too often finds a lapse into a shallow drilling of the students for the exam.” In other words, professors were teaching to the test.

11. Memorandum to Mileva Einstein-Marić, with Comments

Einstein married Mileva Marić in 1903, but by 1914, things had soured (in fact, Einstein had started an affair with his married cousin, Elsa Lowenthal, two years earlier). The Einstein family moved from Zurich to Berlin, and the scientist wrote his wife this letter of rules she had to obey if she wanted to stay married:

A. You make sure
1) that my clothes and laundry are kept in good order and repair
2) that I will receive my three meals regularly in my room.
3) that my bedroom and office are always kept neat, in particular, that the desk is available to me alone.

B. You will renounce all personal relations with me as far as maintaining them is not absolutely required for social reasons. Specifically, you do without
1) my sitting at home with you
2) my going out or traveling together with you.

C. In your relations with me you commit yourself explicitly to adhering to the following points:
1) You are neither to expect intimacy from me nor reproach me in any way.
2) You must desist immediately from addressing me if I request it.
3) You must leave my bedroom or office immediately without protest if I so request.

D. You commit yourself not to disparage me in word or in deed in front of my children.

Before WWI broke out, Marić took the children and returned to Zurich. “This was painful,” Kormos-Buchwald says, “and divorce took many years, since Mileva returned to Switzerland and Einstein stayed in Berlin. They were separated for four years.” During that time, Einstein lived with Lowenthal, which he admitted to in a deposition:

It is correct that I committed adultery. I have been living together with my cousin, the widow Elsa Einstein, divorced Lowenthal, for about 4.5 years and have been continuing these intimate relations since then. My wife, the Plantiff, has known since the (spring) summer of 1914 that intimate relations exist between me and my cousin. She has made her displeasure known to me.

12. Divorce Agreement

In 1918, Einstein and Marić finally settled on the terms of their divorce. “[It’s] notable that he declared he would give her the Nobel Prize money if he were to receive it, which happened only in late 1922,” Kormos-Buchwald says. “In 1923 he indeed receives the actual prize money and sends it to her. Mileva purchases a home.”

In February 1919, the divorce was granted. A few months later, Lowenthal and Einstein were married.

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7 Spine-Tingling Tales of Christmas Ghosts
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Traditionally, Christmas in England was a time for scaring the bejesus out of little children by telling ghost stories around the fire. Charles Dickens led the way with his famous ghost story A Christmas Carol, but what of the "real" ghosts said to haunt the land at Christmas time? Below are seven spine-tingling and seasonal stories of Christmas ghosts.

1. THE HAUNTED CHRISTMAS FEAST AT ALCATRAZ

Dinner hall at Alcatraz
Alex Light, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

The island of Alcatraz, off the coast of San Francisco, has a long and spooky history. In its earlier days, Native Americans allegedly used to banish miscreants to the island as punishment, where they were reportedly plagued by the local spirits. Alcatraz, of course, became a notorious federal prison in 1934, housing criminals such as Al Capone before it was shut down in 1963. Today, visitors to the island report hearing screams, the clanging of metal doors, and the sound of voices within the walls. One of the more famous tales associated with the island supposedly occurred in the 1940s, when warden James Johnston held a Christmas Day party at his residence for the staff at the prison. The good cheer is said to have been brought to a swift halt when an apparition sporting mutton-chop whiskers and a gray suit appeared. The temperature in the room plummeted and the fire blew out, before returning to normal when the spirit disappeared about a minute later. The rattled guards were too scared to stay in the residence, and the rest of the Christmas celebration ended abruptly.

2. THE GHOSTLY QUEEN RETURNING HOME AT HEVER CASTLE

Hever Castle
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Anne Boleyn is notorious as the second of King Henry VIII’s ill-fated wives. To marry Anne, Henry spent years seeking a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and went on to sever England’s relationship with the Catholic Church in Rome, forever changing the course of British history. Despite the lengths he went to ensnare her, Henry soon grew tired of Anne and, choosing to believe the idle gossip surrounding her, had her beheaded in 1536. A number of reports exist of the ghost of Anne Boleyn, but perhaps the most affecting is the version said to haunt her childhood home, Hever Castle in Kent. Some say that every Christmas Eve, the spectral figure of Anne Boleyn can be seen slowly gliding across the bridge over the river Eden toward her family home, where she was at her happiest.

3. THE HEADLESS HORSEMAN AT ROOS HALL


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Roos Hall in Suffolk lays claim to being one of the most haunted houses in England. The 16th century hall has a number of sinister connections, including a gruesome “hanging tree”—an oak tree planted at the site of the old gibbet where numerous criminals were hung. To make things even spookier, inside one of the building's cupboards, the mark of a devil’s cloven hoof is said to be imprinted. But perhaps the most dramatic haunting is supposed to happen every Christmas Eve: Legend has it that a headless horseman clatters down the driveway with his four black horses pulling a phantom coach, terrifying anyone who witnesses him.

4. THE HAUNTED DINING ROOM AT THE CRESCENT HOTEL

The Crescent Hotel in Eureka Springs, Arkansas

The Crescent Hotel in Eureka Springs, Arkansas, was built in 1886 and is rumoured to harbor numerous ghosts, who seem to be especially playful during the holidays. One Christmas, the staff came down to set up the dining room only to find the Christmas tree had been moved from one side of the room to the other. Another year, all the menus in the dining room had been scattered around the room. Other visitors have reported seeing groups of ghostly dancers clad in Victorian-era clothing, whirling around the deserted dance floor.

5. THE GHOSTLY GATHERING OF KINGS AT WAWEL CASTLE

View of the Wawel Cathedral from the Wawel Castle entrance
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Poland's Wawel Royal Castle was built on Wawel Hill in the 1500s. Within the hill lies a deep cave known as Smocza Jama (Dragon’s Den); legend has it that a great dragon once lived there, terrorizing the locals, before Prince Krak bravely vanquished the dragon and brought peace to Poland. To memorialize this event, a statue of the dead dragon now stands in the cave. Go deeper into the cave and you come to yet another chamber, and it is here that on December 24 every year, all the long-gone kings of Poland are said to meet and hold a spectral special council.

6. THE MISTLETOE BRIDE AT BRAMSHILL HOUSE

The Long Gallery, Bramshill House
Tsukiko YAMAMURA, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

In the early 17th century, a young woman named Anne was to be married on Christmas Day at Bramshill House in Hampshire, England. After the ceremony and feast, as was tradition at the time, the guests were all set to carry the bride to the bedchamber. Anne suggested a game be played, and asked for a five-minute head start before the guests came to find her. Everyone searched long and hard for Anne, but no sign of her could be found. At first they thought she had played a merry trick, but soon a sense of unease fell over the guests. The bridegroom, Lord Lovell, was distraught, and guests began to whisper that she must have fled. Days, weeks, months, and years passed, and Lord Lovell never stopped looking for his bride. One day, some 50 years after her disappearance, Lord Lovell was up in the huge attic of the sprawling mansion, where he began tapping on the oak panelling. As he knocked, a long-hidden secret door sprung open, and inside he found an ornate wooden chest. He pried open the heavy wooden lid, and there, still in her wedding dress and clutching her mistletoe bouquet, were the skeletal remains of his beloved. The scratch marks on the inside of the lid of the chest attested to her desperate, but futile, effort to free herself from her hiding space. (While the story appears in many variations, Bramshill House is thought to be the most likely site.)

7. THE APPARITION OF A MURDERED HIGHWAYMAN IN KENT

A burial in the forest
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One Christmas Eve near the close of the 18th century, a notorious highwayman named Gilbert is said to have stopped a coach and horses on the Hawkhurst Road in Marden, Kent. The coach contained a young lady and her father, and Gilbert ordered them out onto the road. Just as the girl stepped out, the horses bolted, taking the coach and her father with them. The young lady was left alone on the dark road with the highwayman, and as she looked into his face, she recognized him as the very same highwayman who had murdered her brother some years earlier. Horrified, she drew a hidden knife from her bag and stabbed Gilbert in the side, fleeing into the bushes. When the horses were calmed and the coach returned a little while later, the men discovered the bloodied body of the highwayman, and buried him at the side of the road. When villagers found the woman in the forest the next day, she had gone completely mad. They avoided that spot in the road for many years, and it's said that every Christmas Eve, the bloody scene is silently replayed to all that pass through.

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15 Surprising Facts About Steve Buscemi
Grant Lamos IV/Getty Images for the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival
Grant Lamos IV/Getty Images for the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival

With his meme-worthy eyes, tireless work schedule, and penchant for playing lovable losers, Steve Buscemi is arguably the king of character actors. Moving seamlessly between big-budget films and shoestring independent projects, he’s appeared in well over 100 movies in the past 30 years. But if you think he’s anything like the oddballs and villains he regularly plays—well, you don’t know Buscemi. In celebration of the Brooklyn native's 60th birthday, here are 15 things you might not have known about the Golden Globe-winning actor.

1. HE WAS BORN ON A FRIDAY THE 13TH.

It only seems appropriate that Buscemi, who dies on screen so frequently, would be born on such a foreboding date. Growing up in Brooklyn and Valley Stream, New York, Buscemi also experienced plenty of real-life misfortune. As a kid, he was hit by a bus and by a car (in separate incidents). On the plus side, he used the money from the legal settlement following the bus accident to attend the Lee Strasberg Theatre & Film Institute in New York City.

2. HE WAS A NEW YORK CITY FIREFIGHTER.

As a teenager, Buscemi worked a series of odd jobs: ice cream truck driver, mover, gas station attendant. He even sold newspapers in the toll lane of the Triborough Bridge. When Buscemi turned 18, his father, a sanitation worker, encouraged his son to take the civil service exam and become a New York City firefighter. Four years later, in 1980, the future star became a member of Engine Co. 55, located in New York City's Little Italy district. While he answered emergency calls during the day, at night Buscemi played improv clubs and auditioned for acting roles.

After four years working for the FDNY, Buscemi landed one of the lead roles in Bill Sherwood’s Parting Glances (1986), a drama set during the early days of AIDS in New York. Buscemi took a three-month leave of absence during filming, and afterwards decided not to return.

3. HE FORMED A COMEDY DUO WITH SONS OF ANARCHY’S MARK BOONE, JR.

For a brief while, Buscemi tried his hand at stand-up comedy (he bombed). In 1984, he met fellow aspiring actor Mark Boone, Jr., and the two began performing together. Part improv, part scripted comedy, the two would often carry out power struggles that pitted thin-man Buscemi against the larger Boone. The New York Times called their act “theater in the absurdist vein.”

4. HE DID NOT AUDITION FOR THE ROLE OF GEORGE COSTANZA.

Like any hard-working actor, Buscemi has had his share of failed auditions. His tryout for Alan Parker’s Fame lasted less than 30 seconds. In the late ‘80s, Martin Scorsese brought him in four different times to read for The Last Temptation of Christ. (Buscemi ended up reading every apostle’s part before being turned away.) He also auditioned for the part of Seinfeld’s George Costanza—at least according to numerous sources, including Jason Alexander himself. But it turns out this tidbit—fueled, no doubt, by the thought of a very twitchy, bug-eyed Costanza—isn’t true. On a recent episode of The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon, Buscemi addressed the rumor in his typical good-natured way: “I never did [the audition] and I don’t know how to correct it because I don’t know how the Internet works.”

5. TREES LOUNGE WAS BASICALLY HIS LIFE AT 19.

After gaining momentum with roles in Mystery Train, Reservoir Dogs, Barton Fink, and other films, Buscemi took a turn behind the camera with 1996’s Trees Lounge. The movie, which he also wrote, follows a bumbling layabout named Tommy who spends most of his time at the title bar in the town where he grew up. It’s a classic flick for Buscemi fans and, according to the actor, it was pretty much his life as a teenager living on Long Island. “I was truly directionless, living with my parents,” Buscemi said in an interview. “I was driving an ice-cream truck and working at a gas station… The drinking age was 18 then, so I spent every night hanging out with my friends in bars, drinking.”

6. HE IS FULLY AWARE THAT HIS CHARACTERS OFTEN DIE.

Steve Buscemi in 'Fargo' (1996)
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc.

He’s been shot numerous times, stabbed with an ice pick, riddled with throwing knives, tossed off a balcony, and fed to a wood chipper. Yes, Buscemi’s characters have died a variety of deaths, and the actor isn’t without a sense of humor about the whole matter. He’ll often joke in interviews that he’s living longer and longer as the years go by. Before the 2005 release of The Island, in which the aforementioned balcony-tossing occurs (and into a glass bar no less), Buscemi said he was happy his character lived almost a third of the way through the movie. Buscemi admitted that he will actually read ahead in any script he receives to see when and how he dies.

7. HE HAS A FAVORITE DEATH—AND IT ISN’T FARGO.

For connoisseurs of Buscemi's movie deaths, the demise of Fargo’s Carl Showalter by way of axe then wood chipper is the crème de la crème. But when asked about his own favorite onscreen death, Buscemi references another Coen brothers film: The Big Lebowski. In that movie his character, Donny Kerabatsos, succumbs to a heart attack. It’s a surprise for viewers, and so out-of-the-blue that Buscemi can’t help but be tickled at the randomness of it. “They thought, ‘Well, Buscemi’s in it, so we’ve gotta kill him,'" the actor said in an appearance on The Daily Show.

8. HIS CHARACTER IN CON AIR WAS WRITTEN SPECIFICALLY FOR HIM.

In Con Air, the Jerry Bruckheimer-produced action movie filled with muscled-up prisoners, Buscemi played the most dangerous con of them all. His Garland Greene—a serial killer whose exploits “make the Manson family look like the Partridge family,” according to one character—enters the film strapped to a chair, Hannibal Lecter mask affixed to his face. Screenwriter Scott Rosenberg, a friend of Buscemi’s, wrote the part with him in mind, and was tickled when Buscemi accepted the role. To this day, fans will still serenade the actor with “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hands.”

9. HIS CHARACTER IN DESPERADO IS NAMED AFTER HIM.

Steve Buscemi in Desperado
Columbia Pictures

Although he inevitably dies (courtesy of Danny Trejo’s throwing knives), Buscemi commands the opening of Desperado, Robert Rodriguez’s stylish revenge movie, regaling bar patrons with the story of the title gunslinger, played by Antonio Banderas. Because his character’s name is never mentioned, Rodriguez decided to have some fun and name him "Buscemi" in the credits.

10. HE WON’T FIX HIS TEETH.

Buscemi’s crooked smile has helped him portray lowlifes and losers throughout his career. Dentists have offered to fix the actor’s teeth, but he always turns them down, knowing how valuable those chompers are to the Buscemi brand. In a guest starring role on The Simpsons, Buscemi poked fun at the matter after a dentist offers to straighten his character’s teeth: “You’re going to kill my livelihood if you do that!”

11. THERE’S SOME CONFUSION OVER HOW TO PRONOUNCE HIS LAST NAME.

Many people pronounce his last name “Boo-shemmy,” but it turns out Buscemi himself pronounces it “Boo-semmy.” In interviews, Buscemi says he’s following his father’s pronunciation, and says he doesn’t begrudge anyone who says it differently. It turns out, though, that his fans have it right—or at least mostly right. On a trip to Sicily to visit family, Buscemi recounted recently on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, he noticed everyone saying “Boo-SHAY-me.”

12. HE GOT STABBED IN A BAR FIGHT.

Steve Buscemi in 'Trees Lounge' (1996)
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On April 12th, 2001, while filming Domestic Disturbance in Wilmington, North Carolina, Buscemi, co-star Vince Vaughn, and screenwriter Scott Rosenberg went out for late night drinks at the Firebelly Lounge. After Vaughn traded insults with another patron (whose girlfriend had apparently been flirting with Vaughn), the two stepped outside, and a brief scuffle ensued before the two were separated. Buscemi, who was among the crowd that had gathered, was then confronted by a man who, after a brief exchange, attacked the actor with a pocketknife. Buscemi suffered stab wounds to his face, throat, and hands, and had to return to New York to recuperate. His attacker, Timothy Fogerty, was charged with assault with a deadly weapon. In typical good-guy fashion, Buscemi declined to press additional charges and instead insisted Fogerty enter a substance abuse program.

13. HE REJOINED HIS FIRE ENGINE IN THE WAKE OF 9/11.

After the horrific attack on New York City’s Twin Towers on September 11, Buscemi—like many Americans—was desperate to help. Although it had been nearly 20 years since he had strapped on his fireman’s gear, the actor reunited with his Engine 55 brethren and for days scoured the towers’ debris for survivors. Buscemi didn’t want his actions publicized; when people asked to take his picture, he declined. It took more than 10 years, in fact, before word got out, thanks to a Facebook post from Engine 55. “Brother Steve worked 12-hour shifts alongside other firefighters digging and sifting through the rubble,” the post read. “This guy is a badass!”

14. HE NARRATES THE AUDIO TOUR AT EASTERN STATE PENITENTIARY.

People who take a tour of the historic Philadelphia prison may notice a familiar voice coming through their listening device. So how did Buscemi end up lending his talents to such a seemingly obscure place? It turns out Eastern State is a popular location for film and photo shoots. Scenes from Terry Gilliam's 12 Monkeys were filmed there, as were album covers for artists like Tina Turner. In 2000, Buscemi scouted the penitentiary for a film project. The location didn’t work out, but the actor fell in love with the history and grand architecture of the 190-year-old prison. When officials asked for his help to celebrate the prison’s tenth year running tours, he agreed.

15. HE DIDN’T BELIEVE TERENCE WINTER WHEN HE OFFERED HIM THE LEAD IN BOARDWALK EMPIRE.


HBO

After years of playing disposable villains and losers on the periphery, Buscemi had grown accustomed to being passed over for leading roles. So when Boardwalk Empire creator Terence Winter offered him the part of corrupt politician Enoch “Nucky” Thompson in the award-winning HBO series, Buscemi offered his usual reply. “When Terry did call me and he said that he and Marty [Scorsese] wanted me to play this role, my response was, ‘Terry, I know you’re looking at other actors, and I just appreciate that my name is being thrown in,’" Buscemi recalled. "He said, ‘No, Steve, I just said we want you.’ It still didn’t sink in.” Eventually, of course, reality did sink in, and Buscemi went on to win a Golden Globe and Emmy Award across the show’s five seasons.

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