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Krause Publications
Krause Publications

12 Lesser Known Star Wars Characters That Got Action Figures

Krause Publications
Krause Publications

Every member of modern civilization—from the most casual spectator of the award-winning Star Wars trilogy to those diehard aficionados who’ve memorized even the most banal lines of the original Star Wars films—will recognize Chewbacca and Yoda, Greedo or a random Sand Person, and even a diminutive Jawa or the odd furry Ewok. But what about some of the lesser known Star Wars characters from the original trilogy (Episodes IV-VI) whose toys could be found hanging on retail pegs across the country for nearly a decade?

Although the screen time for many of the following bipedal, humanoid creatures was often quite limited, children and collectors alike have always shared an affinity for these curious aliens. Whether these singular beings busied themselves downing an intergalactic beverage at Chalmun’s Spaceport Cantina in A New Hope or played the role of resident toady/sycophant in Jabba the Hutt’s throne room in The Return of the Jedi, there were a few oddballs that the Kenner toy company manufactured during the heyday of one of the most revered toy franchises in the history of the medium.

All of the following information is gleaned from my latest book, The Ultimate Guide to Vintage Star Wars: 1977-1985, on sale at finer retailers everywhere in the known galaxy.

1. Amanaman

The Toy: Released by Kenner for their highly-prized Power of the Force assortment in 1985, Amanaman’s action figure sports the appearance of a withered flatworm holding a wooden stick chock full of skulls. However, according to the Star Wars Expanded Universe (as of April 14, 2014, indicated by the non-canonical Star Wars Legends banner), this peculiar alien was in actuality a far more complex character.

The Character: As one member of the primitive Amanin species from the woodland world of Maridun, the male Amani known as Amanaman was a bounty hunter who exhibited precisely the same physical traits as the rest of his sentient race: terribly long arms, elongated lithe fingers, short stubby legs, the aforementioned body resembling that of a giant planarian (similar to a flatworm), and wrinkled yellow skin on the front of his body—with a dark green hood that ran from the tip of his head to the top of his short legs. To keep their skin moist and protect them against predation, Amanin secreted a poisonous slime all over their craggy epidermis. Further planetary adaptations included a pair of tiny red eyes that allowed them to see well in darkness (since Maridun was a dimly-lit sphere), a mouth full of sharp teeth with an elongated tongue to aid the species in consuming game, a keen sense of smell for the sake of tracking prey, and a redundant system of organs—multiple organs such as the heart, liver, lungs, and brain (which is full of multiple nerve clusters) that allowed the Amanin to survive near-fatal injuries with relative ease.

Furthermore, Amanin had two different modes of transportation: brachiation—using their long arms and thin fingers to swing from branch to branch in the forest canopy like Tarzan, and ground rolling—manipulating their flexible body into a ball that allowed them to roll at very high speeds: up to 50 kilometers per hour over level surfaces.

Like the rest of his species, Amanaman’s reputation as a “head hunter” was well-founded due to his Amanin tendency to collect the heads of victims as souvenirs. Amanaman was regularly found at Jabba’s Palace, where he sported a fear-provoking staff decorated with three of his favorite victims’ heads, while he dragged a decapitated, desiccated corpse behind him; the corpse was not included with his action figure.

2. Squid Head/Tessek

The Toy: With a long, nicely textured desert cloak, cream-colored moisture-retaining robe, a broad yet pliable silver “Vand” belt worn around his midriff, and a gray DH-17 blaster pistol, the quick-witted Quarren known as Squid Head was one of the more interesting and detailed action figures offered in Kenner’s first wave of Return of the Jedi action figures in 1983.

The Character: As a Quarren, Squid Head was one member of several fascinating species hailing from the planet Dac (dubbed “Mon Calamari,” “Calamari,” or “Mon Cala” by offworlders), where the Quarren were sentient aquatics that inhabited their planet’s ocean-covered surface. Sporting squid-like heads (hence the figure’s nickname), leathery skin that required moisture for maintenance, suction-tipped fingers, a small mouth with two fangs/teeth protruding outward with a long tongue between them, and four (or more) prehensile tentacles that could manipulate food, Quarren were odd looking creatures. With two holes on the sides of the neck most likely for breathing purposes, two sac-like organs that hung on the back of their heads (for reasons unknown), and two triangular flaps that jut out from the sides of their heads with built-in gills that assist in the hearing process, the Quarrens have an exceptionally unique physiology. Furthermore, as aquatic creatures, they could descend to depths of 300 meters without use of breathing apparatus.

The Quarren male known as Tessek was once a supporter of the Republic, but when the Galactic Empire invaded his home planet, he escaped the conflict. Always a crafty opportunist with conflicting loyalties, Tessek would find his way to the desert planet of Tatooine—a world largely ignored by the Empire—where he joined the court of interplanetary gangster Jabba Desilijic Tiure as his accountant. Although miserable on Tatooine due to the effect of the planet’s blistering heat on his delicate skin (he needed to soak in a tub for many hours a day) and the fact that his master was an abusive sociopath, Tessek hatched a complex scheme to kill the Hutt crime lord. Though he successfully avoided death when Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia Organa destroyed Jabba’s large sail skiff and all of the entities aboard the Khetanna, the accountant would meet his doom a bit later.

Upon returning to the palace after Jabba’s death, Tessek’s brain was (forcibly) removed from his body, and placed into the mechanical frame of a B’omarr Monk—essentially becoming a member of the B’omarr Order. As a mysterious religious organization which believed cutting oneself off from all physical sensation was the only way to achieve enlightenment, the B’omarr Monks allowed their brains to be detached from their corporeal bodies, and the disembodied brains of the order’s members were placed into specially modified BT-16 perimeter droids and left to ponder the mysteries of the cosmos.

3. Hammerhead/Momaw Nadon

The Toy: Concocting an action figure that appeared nothing like his film manifestation, Hammerhead was one of the first four alien toys (apart from Chewbacca the Wookiee, the Sand People, and the Jawas) created by Kenner during the second wave of Star Wars product solicited in late 1978.

Considered highly offensive by the Ithorian race, the derogatory nickname of “Hammerhead” was sometimes applied to a lone member of the mammalian, herbivorous, sentient species of creatures hailing from Ithor. With two mouths located on the side of his neck, four throats (affording Ithorians the ability to speak “in stereo” or to let out a destructively concussive scream), glossy brown skin, and slightly slow reflexes, Kenner’s Hammerhead action figure essentially portrays the form of an average, fully grown male Ithorian.

Kenner’s designers had little more than stock photos of the four cantina patron’s masks available to them from Lucasfilm. The artists had to construct the bodies of Hammerhead, Greedo, Snaggletooth, and Walrus Man from the waist down without any reference photos whatsoever. The result: a Hammerhead figure without his staff, and with boldly incorrect colors and uniform details.

The Character: Possessing a long, curved neck and T-shaped head reminiscent of Earth's hammerhead sharks, Hammerhead was actually the name Kenner Toys gave to Momaw Nadon—an Ithorian high priest (of the floating city of Tafanda Bay) who was exiled upon revealing his planet’s agricultural secrets to the Galactic Empire in order to prevent further destruction to his homeworld. Although Nadon saved Ithor from devastation, the Ithorian Elders punished him for his sacrilege through exile. Therefore, “Hammerhead” settled on Tatooine, and was seeking respite in Chalmun’s Spaceport Cantina (aka the Mos Eisley Cantina) when Luke Skywalker and Ben “Obi-Wan” Kenobi were searching for a ship to provide them passage to the planet of Alderaan in A New Hope.

4. Walrus Man/Ponda Baba (Sawkee)

The Toy: Although vintage toy collectors know this distinctive Kenner action figure as Walrus Man (since the alien’s face resembles a tusked walrus), in the larger Star Wars mythos the character’s proper name is Ponda Baba (aka Sawkee)—an appellation utilized for the character in every version of the toy produced by Hasbro since they bought the license in 1995, beginning with their Power of the Force II line.

The Character: As a character, this pirate/smuggler owed much of his bad humor to his species’ innate ill temper. As a member of the Aqualish race from the planet Ando—a class of amphibious, tusked bipeds who were renowned across the galaxy for their disagreeable manner and belligerence—Baba possessed characteristics of both pinnipeds (i.e., seals, sea lions) and arachnids (spiders, scorpions), a truly bizarre physical amalgamation. The fact that Baba’s walrus-like facial tusks curved downwards over his mouth like a spider only further reinforced this peculiar, frightening combination.

Baba and his partner, infamous sociopathic surgeon Dr. Evazan (who “has the death sentence on 12 systems”) were eventually pursued by bounty hunters due to their illicit ventures. Fearing for their lives, Baba and Evazan holed up on the Outer Rim world of Tatooine, eager to escape prosecution. During their exile—and while patronizing Chalmun’s Spaceport Cantina—the two criminals encountered a young moisture farmer and his wizened old mentor. Although Luke Skywalker and Ben Obi-Wan Kenobi were non-confrontational, Baba and Evazan bullied the humans regardless. Kenobi tried to diffuse the situation, yet Evazan egged on the dim-witted (and possibly drunk) Baba, who assaulted the younger of the two humans. The veteran Jedi Knight engaged Baba in melee combat, slicing off Walrus Man’s right arm during the fracas.

Oddly enough, a continuity error exists within Walrus Man’s lone scene in A New Hope. Ponda Baba’s arms end with finned appendages before his combat with Ben Kenobi, yet after Obi-Wan cuts off the creature’s arm, Baba’s hand appears distinctly furry when it is observed lying on the cantina floor. Perhaps this incident inspired West End Games’ postulation that there are two different species of Aqualish “…easily recognized by the configuration of their hands… [one was] a cupped, fin-like hand, with no fingers, and only a stubbed opposable thumb. The other … by five-fingered, fur covered, claw-like hands.”

5. Ugnaught

The Toy: Although they appeared only in brief bursts throughout the narrative of The Empire Strikes Back on Bespin’s Cloud City, the Ugnaughts provided Kenner with yet another opportunity to craft a figure based upon a diminutive alien race, with a couple of interesting accessories to boot: a blue (or sometimes purple) fabric apron/smock, and a white, hard plastic toolkit.

The Character: Sporting the slightly-upturned snout of a short-statured porcine, tusked humanoid, three tribes of the creatures known as Ugnaughts were brought to Cloud City by an eccentric explorer (Lord Ecclessis Figg) to help build the manufacturing plant many generations ago—where, in return, they had free reign of the facility and were honorably represented in Cloud City’s Parliament of Guilds. Found working within the processing plants of the outpost, they assisted in the production of tibanna gas—a valuable natural element excreted by immensely-large, gas-filled creatures known as “beldons.” Most importantly, the tibanna vapors were utilized as a heating fuel by weapons manufacturers to power blasters or other offensive weapons such as explosives. The Ugnaughts would process this gas then package it for transport off-world in carbonite bricks or blocks; these diminutive workers certainly kept Lando Calrissian in the black.

Ugnaughts were sold into slavery many generations ago (and thanks to added machiantions of evil Separatist leader and Supreme Commander of the Droid Army, General Grievous) before the rise of the Galactic Empire, and were stolen en masse from their volcano-dotted, swampy homeworld of Gentes. They were targeted by slavers due to their intelligence, loyalty, high level of resistance to the elements, long lifespans (maxing out at 200 years), and ability to work for long periods of time at their “blood profession”—a trade taught to Ugnaught children (aka Ugletts) by their parents, and one they would pursue until their deaths.

6. Nien Nunb

The Toy: Originally solicited as a mail-away offer on the back of Kenner’s very first Return of the Jedi action figure package (ROTJ 48-A card back), the alien known as Nien Nunb was also offered as part of the first wave of Kenner’s Return of the Jedi action figures as well.

The Character: Fighting alongside the Rebel Alliance, Nien Nunb was featured in Return of the Jedi during the Battle of Endor, where the former smuggler functioned as Lando Calrissian’s first mate aboard the borrowed Millennium Falcon, and helped to discharge the ordnance which destroyed the superstructure of the (rebuilt) second Death Star.

It was Nunb who essentially fired the shot(s) that put an end to the reign of the Galactic Empire.

As a Sullustan (a species of “Near-Humans”), Nien Nunb—sporting his species’ trademark small ears and facial dewflaps—was raised in the subterranean caves of his homeworld on the planet Sullust, which possessed a toxic upper atmosphere yet a mineral-rich outer crust that forced the Sullustans underground, inhabiting a maze of myriad tunnels. Their below-ground existence afforded the members of this race an uncanny ability to see in the dark (to read/see up to 20 meters in pitch blackness), as well as a preternatural sense of intuition and direction (e.g., navigating a complex map after viewing it only once) which made them first-rate navigators and pilots for the Alliance.

7. Ree-Yees

The Toy: Ree-Yees is of the most peculiar of all of the aliens designed by Kenner in 1983 for the first wave of their Return of the Jedi product. Besides his odd physical attributes, Ree-Yees sported a peculiar sidearm as well—a gold-covered blaster-staff unique to the toy.

The Character: Ree-Yees (a phoneticism of “Three-Eyes”) was a male Gran—a sentient mammalian humanoid native to the pastoral planet of Kinyen. As a member of the Gran race, Ree-Yees had three eyes mounted on short stalks, a goat-like snout, a stocky build, and other characteristics possessed by earthbound bovids such as an herbivorous diet (Gran enjoyed eating Goatgrass, a local flora found on the plains of Kinyen), and a multi-chambered stomach that digested difficult-to-absorb plant matter like most ruminants. Ree-Yees personally suffered from an uncommon Granian genetic mutation which caused his hands to swell and appear deformed.

Although by-and-large Gran society was peaceful, Ree-Yees was the exception that proved the rule: He was a vicious criminal fleeing prosecution for murder on Kinyen, hiding on the desert planet Tatooine. There, he was featured in many scenes within Jabba’s Palace in Return of the Jedi, since he was responsible for taking care of the Hutt’s hideous-looking Frog-dog pet named Bubo (a species of sentient reptile with both frog and dog-like features).

In order to keep Ree-Yees “loyal,” the crafty Hutt crime lord planted a short-range explosive device within Ree-Yees’ body—when Jabba spoke a particular phrase, the Gran would explode to bits. This bomb served two purposes: to murder Ree-Yees if he were disloyal, and to thwart an assassination attempt if a potential killer came too close to Jabba’s resident Frog-dog walker. However, as a result of the abuse and risk involved in attending Jabba during his time at court, Ree-Yees conspired with Tessek to murder their master aboard his large sail skiff, the Khetanna. Unfortunately, Ree-Yees perished when Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia Organa destroyed the Khetanna and all of the sentient beings aboard.

8. Prune Face/Orrimaarko

The Toy: From the picture featured on his toy package to the Kenner action figure itself (released in the second wave of Return of the Jedi offerings), the vintage version of Prune Face would stand out in any Star Wars aficionado’s collection. With his distinctive facial features, long hooded tan cape, green pants, and a brown-colored, 12-round (relatively primitive) projectile rifle with shoulder sling, Prune Face was peculiar indeed.

The Character: A noted leader of his planet’s struggle against Imperial forces, the xenophobic resistance fighter Orrimaarko (nicknamed “Prune Face” due to his characteristic facial qualities) was a member of the Dressellian race—a species of tall, thin, sentient humanoids with wrinkled skin and bulbous, hairless skulls. Although Dressellians originally maintained a peaceful presence in the galaxy, existing in isolation from all other races until the Empire threatened Prune Face’s homeworld, the Imperial threat forced the people of Dressel to reluctantly join the Alliance to Restore the Republic, and eventually, the New Republic.

In conjunction with their old allies, the Bothans (a species of short, furry, humanoid mammalians), Orrimaarko and his Dressellian brethren developed his species’ favored weapon: the Dressellian projectile rifle. Issued with its distinctive sling, this firearm—although considered primitive when compared to the blasters used by Rebel and Imperial soldiers—still packed a wallop. Enough to pierce eve the tough plastoid armor of an Imperial Scout Trooper (aka Biker Scout) with relative ease.

9. Yak Face/Saelt-Marae

The Toy: Yak Face is one of the most sought after of all vintage Star Wars action figures since he was never distributed in the United States. In total, the action figure was only available on two different packages, two different cards with vastly different values. The first and most common was on a Tri-Logo card. This internationally-distributed card is dubbed “Tri-Logo” because there are three Star Wars logos emblazoned on the card front: English, French, and Spanish. Unfortunately, this Tri-Logo version of Yak Face did not come with a silver-plated collector’s coin, just the figure itself. The second package—distributed on a Canadian Power of the Force card—featured only English and French language on the front: “The Power of the Force/Le Pouvoire de la Force” with “SPECIAL Collectors Coin/Piece de Collèction” included. Purchasing this Canadian Power of the Force cardback was the only way to obtain Yak Face’s rare collector’s coin, and the figure was packaged with an accessory as well. More often than not, Yak-Face could be found either with a Palace Blaster (gray or black) or a Bespin Blaster, yet many more times he was found a Skiff Guard battle staff (precisely the same accessory as the one included with Barada).

The Character: Although his character was not given his proper name until the debut of West End Games’ magnificent Star Wars Trilogy Sourcebook, Special Edition, in the Star Wars canon Yak Face is dubbed Saelt-Marae, where the character appeared as a member of Jabba’s court in Return of the Jedi.

As a Yarkora informant and con-man, Marae was a highly-secretive alien and little information is known regarding his formative existence. It is known he was married, spawned at least one child, yet left his family—as did most Yarkorans—to keep engaged in his favorite criminal enterprises, many of which he excelled. As an information broker and confidence trickster, Marae’s large ears, highly sensitive whiskers, and interpersonal intelligence all assisted him in wheedling and divining information out of his wealthy targets almost effortlessly. Although at one point in his career, Marae sold secrets to both the Rebel Alliance and to the Empire, his real profit-making-machine was peddling these tidbits to Jabba Desilijic Tiure—and, therefore, earning the Hutt crime lord’s trust. So valuable was he to Jabba that the gangster kept him on as a member of his court where he was handsomely paid. Posing as a simple-minded merchant, Saelt-Marae sussed out the disparate plots, conspiracies, and subversions conceived by the other members of Jabba’s scheming entourage, and related every nefarious detail to his Hutt master.

Following Jabba’s death aboard the Khetanna, “Yak Face” steals the gangster’s important financial records and goes underground.

Sy Snootles & the Rebo Band

The Toys: The final three entries contain the members of the galactically-renowned Sy Snootles and the Rebo Band, an action figure solicitation which was the first non-exclusive/non re-packaged action figure “set” offered by Kenner for their vintage Star Wars toy line. Comprised of three action figures, a circular organ, two microphone accessories, and a woodwind instrument, this popular set of musicians were denizens of Jabba the Hutt’s ostentatious palace.

10. Droopy McCool (aka Snit)

The Character: With a name utterly incomprehensible to most sentient beings due to its delivery in the manner of a series of sharp whistles, the Kitonak with the alias of “Snit” was born on his homeworld of Kirdo III, yet was sold off planet into servitude by a slaver company. Reaching Orvax IV, Snit was bought by impresario Evar Orbus, the talented lead singer of a popular musical group, Evar Orbus and his Galactic Jizz-Wailers (!!!)—where “Jizz” is an upbeat, optimistic, swinging form of music; “jizz-wailers” are the talented musicians who perform in this style. Paired with his longtime bandmates Max Rebo and Sy Snootles, Snit followed Orbus to the desert planet of Tatooine, where the group pursued a gig at an infamous Wookiee-managed hotpot: Chalmun’s Spaceport Cantina (aka. the Mos Eisley Cantina).

Unfortunately, landing an extended engagement at such a significant place as Chalmun’s was both prestigious and dangerous: As soon as they arrived on Tatooine, Evar Orbus was murdered in a melee organized by popular local jizz band and competitors, the Bith group known as Figrin D’an and the Modal Nodes—those large-eyed, white-headed musicians who we witness performing at the cantina in A New Hope. Eschewing their promised performances at Chalmun’s, they auditioned for Jabba Desilijic Tiure—Jabba the Hutt—instead, and were awarded exclusive rights to perform at his palace … albeit under a terrible contract.

Snit was a laid-back, casual musician who was quite talented on his chosen instrument—the chidinkalu flute (carved from a hollowed chidinkalu plant), yet early on the Kitonak became dissatisfied with his stage name until Sy Snootles suggested “Droopy McCool,” which he promptly adopted. Possessing an aloof, quasi-mystical behavior, he did not fit in with the rest of Jabba’s court; Droopy was an outsider who spoke to almost no one but Sy for years, until the death of Jabba and most of the nefarious gangster’s entourage at the Battle of Carkoon during The Return of the Jedi. Following this incident, the Max Rebo Band broke up and went their separate ways—with Droopy wandering off into the desert, generating a long-held rumor that he secretly joined a gaggle of other music-playing Kitonians who inhabited Tatooine’s dusty wastes in the Dune Sea.

11. Sy Snootles (aka Mrs. Snooty)

The Character: The sultry, lipsticked Pa’lowick crooner known as Sy Snootles (originally dubbed “Mrs. Snooty” during the production of Return of the Jedi) was a sapient amphibian hailing from the planet of Lowick in the Outer Rim. As a Pa’lowick, Sy Snootles possessed a body shape that was perfectly suited for Lowick’s semi-aquatic environment: lithe arms and legs, powerful lungs, round and husky central masses, stalked eyes, and a long proboscis (not a snout) that ended in a pair of lips. Since storytelling was a prime aspect of Pa’lowick culture, their people wrote songs to satisfy a powerful creative impulse; singing was both a pastime and a sacred ritual.

Sy Snootles was a former part-time bounty hunter, tragic lover and murderer of Jabba the Hutt’s traitorous brother Ziro Desilijic Tiure, and also the lead singer for the Max Rebo Band—for although the group was named after their keyboardist, Sy led them from the shadows, allowing Rebo to attract the unwanted attention garnered by a band leader who travelled in precarious criminal circles. Throughout her tenure in the famous band, she functioned as a double agent for Jabba, feeding his enemies false information provided to her by the crime lord’s majordomo, Bib Fortuna.

After the death of Jabba and most of his entourage during the Battle of Carkoon, Sy Snootles and her bandmates went their separate ways, with Sy devoting her life to minor singing gigs on remote planets within the Outer Rim Territories.

12. Max Rebo (aka Siiruulian Phantele)

The Character: With this poseable figurine, Kenner expertly captured the essence of Siiruulian Phantele, a downy-furred alien and talented musician who went by the stage name of “Max Rebo.” As an Ortolan, Rebo was one member of a species of bipedal pachydermoids (elephant-like humanoids) who possessed trunks, beady black eyes, floppy ears, thick fuzzy skin which resembled hanging blue velvet, and hands that ended in odd suction-cupped fingers (and similarly-adapted toes) which allowed Ortolans to absorb food via these digits … as well as through their mouths.

Ortolans possessed a magnificent sense of hearing that reached into the subsonic range and an advanced sense of smell due to their homeworld’s dearth of available food. As a result, many Ortolans engaged in a lifelong pursuit of both music and food, as chefs and musicians. Hence, Max became a gourmand as well as a world-class organist.

Relative to other Ortolans, Max Rebo was actually quite lithe, yet his obsession with food certainly handicapped his business dealings as a musician, where he played his famous Red Ball Jett Organ (aka. nargalon, a 22-keyed air-powered organ with circular keyboard). Finding work on the planet Tatooine, Max was forced into the position of band leader since the group’s singer and true frontman, Sy Snootles, wished to protect her anonymity (and her very life) when pursuing typical yet deadly underhanded business negotiations. Unfortunately, when engaging a contract with Jabba Desilijic Tiure, Max “sold” the Rebo Band to the infamous Hutt for the promise of an unlimited food supply, yet no monetary compensation whatsoever—a pretty awful contract.

Following Jabba’s death, the three members of the Max Rebo Band separated, with Max himself eventually becoming a wealthy restaurant owner of a number of Max’s Flangth House(s) franchises on eight different worlds—serving the mysterious yet nutritious food known as flangth.

All images courtesy of Krause Publications.

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Pop Culture
A Speedy History of the Hess Truck
Hess Corporation
Hess Corporation

Unless you know someone crazy about air fresheners or caffeine pills, holiday gifts purchased at gas stations don’t usually provoke much excitement. But if you were one of the millions who grew up in the northeast, the annual release of the Hess toy truck at Hess gas stations—usually green, always labeled with a Hess logo, always boxed with batteries—was and is as much a part of the holiday as Santa Claus and his sleigh.

The idea for an affordable, quality children’s toy sold at service stations at thousands of Hess locations in 16 states was courtesy of Leon Hess, the college dropout-turned-fuel magnate who began selling oil door-to-door in 1933 and graduated to gas stops by 1960. Hess decided he would trump the cheap merchandise given away by gas stations—mugs, glassware—by commissioning a durable, feature-heavy toy truck modeled after the first oil tanker he ever bought for his company. Unlike most toys of the era, it would have headlights that really worked and a tank that kids could either fill up or drain with water.

Most importantly, Hess insisted it come with batteries—he knew the frustration suffered by kids who tore into a holiday present, only to discover they’d have to wait until it had a power source before it could be operated.

The Hess Tanker Truck went on sale in 1964 for $1.29 and sold out almost instantly. Hess released the toy again in 1965, and then introduced the Voyager Tanker Ship in 1966. For the next 50 years, hardly a year went by without Hess issuing a new vehicle that stood up to heavy play and offered quality and features comparable to the “real” toys on store shelves. Incredibly, fathers would wait in line for hours for an opportunity to buy one for their child.

The toy truck became so important to the Hess brand and developed such a strong following that when the company was bought out in 2014 and locations converted to the Speedway umbrella, new owners Marathon Petroleum promised they would keep making the Hess trucks. They’re now sold online, with the newest—the Dump Truck and Loader, complete with working hydraulics and STEM lesson plans—retailing for $33.99. Bigger, better toy trucks may be out there, but a half-century of tradition is hard to replicate.

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#TBT
Oral History: Tickle Me Elmo Turns 21
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Location: Walmart Supercenter, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Date: December 14, 1996. Victim: Stock room employee Robert Waller. Injuries: A broken rib, pulled hamstring, and concussion.

Cause of emergency room admission: Tickle Me Elmo.

The 27-year-old stock clerk had been working the overnight shift during the holiday rush when he was spotted holding the giggling, vibrating toy by a crowd of frantic shoppers. The ensuing melee left him looking like he had just been in a minor car accident. Someone had even torn the crotch from his jeans. The last thing he saw was a white Adidas sneaker kicking him in the face before he lost consciousness. 

All across North America, shoppers and retail workers alike were reduced to their primal instincts in an effort to obtain Tyco’s must-have toy of the holiday season. Tickle Me Elmo combined the appeal of Sesame Street’s breakout character—a three-and-a-half year old monster with charmingly clipped speech—with a novel design that allowed him to be “tickled” until he was practically out of breath.

It was impossibly adorable, and impossible to get: Tyco, which was anticipating a modest success, found themselves chartering private jets in order to get inventory from China more quickly; John Gotti Jr. made headlines for a top-secret Elmo pick-up at a Queens Toys "R" Us; bomb threats were called in to Tyco; one Elmo disappeared from a New York City police station; a toy designer carrying parts through airports was suspected of being the Unabomber.

With Hasbro re-releasing the toy for a new generation of kids this winter, we assembled the inventors, designers, marketers, and industry insiders who helped make Tickle Me Elmo one of the biggest success stories in the history of playthings to talk about how the furry red monster became a pop culture phenomenon—one that parents would literally step all over someone to get.

I: TICKLISH

Tickles the Chimp. Courtesy of the Strong, Rochester, NY

With an interest in art and a degree in clinical psychology, Ron Dubren had been making board games and toys for 15 years. A mutual friend had introduced him to the late Stan Clutton, who held inventor liaison positions with a number of companies. Clutton was always willing to listen to Dubren’s ideas, but had rarely said anything other than "no." That’s not unusual in the toy business, but it was still gratifying when Dubren—who had only had modest success with games like Babble On—finally heard Clutton say “yes” to a prototype he made: a chuckling primate named Tickles the Chimp.

Ron Dubren (Co-inventor): I had been in the park one day watching a bunch of kids tickling each other. It brought back childhood memories—how much I loved tickling or being tickled. There was usually a kind of build-up of this laughing jag until you just finally lose it. I thought that would make a great toy.

Patricia Hogan (Curator, The Strong National Museum of Play): There was some precedent for putting electronics into a plush-type toy. There was Teddy Ruxpin, who had a cassette recorder in his torso. He read the story to kids like a sort of surrogate librarian.

Dubren: I can’t tell you why I used a chimp. I somehow associated chimps with laughter, or maybe I saw J. Fred Muggs on the Today show when I was a kid. I don’t know.

Mark Johnson-Williams (Electronics Designer): I had been doing design for Tyco for years. There had been talking dolls since you could pull a string. What made this different was the right sound and right personality.

Dubren: Sound was becoming inexpensive for toys at that point. We were getting into sound chips. It was too expensive to make one, so the prototype had a cable connected to a computer.

Johnson-Williams: Later on, I basically wrote the program for the circuit board that tells the motor what to do. I had done a talking Cabbage Patch Kid.

Dubren: I called up [co-inventor] Greg Hyman, who was a sound engineer and had recently lost his business partner. The original idea was a chimp that tickled you, but it wasn’t feasible. Greg and I worked on developing a prototype to show around. We were turned down by 12 different companies.

Dubren, who refers to the toy business as “the failure business,” wasn’t dissuaded. He finally came around to Clutton, who was working as vice president of marketing at Tyco’s Preschool division, in 1994.

Dubren: We showed it to Stan, and his immediate reaction was, “This would be great as an Elmo, but we don’t have the rights.”

Janice Yates (former Associate Vice President of Marketing and Development, Tyco Preschool): We had the plastic rights. Hasbro had the plush rights.

Dubren: The meeting lasted about 15 minutes before Stan referred me to another guy at Tyco, Gene Murtha. He knew that side of the company had the rights to Looney Tunes. I met Gene that day.

Gene Murtha (former Vice President of Marketing, Tyco): I instantly liked what he had. It was kind of reminiscent of Curious George.

Dubren: He looks at it and says, “This would be a great Tickle Me Taz.”

What remains of Tickle Me Taz. Courtesy of the Strong, Rochester, NY

Murtha: I don’t think I said it to Ron, but I thought it would be a great feature product for our Looney Tunes license, which we had at the time.

Yates: The concept was when it came in that you’d tickle it once and it would laugh. Tickle it a second time and it laughed harder. Tickle it a third time and it went hysterical.

Dubren: That escalation was important. It just keeps laughing harder and harder. There was a beginning, middle, and end.

Murtha: We might have looked at doing Tickle Me Tweety. But at the time, Warner Bros. was pushing the Tasmanian Devil and had all kinds of research indicating how popular he was. Boys loved the gruffness of him. The market was reaching a saturation point with Tweety. There had been a lot of Tweety.

Johnson-Williams: No one wants to take care of a Tasmanian Devil. You don’t want to be his friend.

Murtha: We did do a Taz prototype. It was functioning, with the electronics and everything. We had someone do a voice to simulate his grunting sort of laugh. I remember taking it to Warner Bros. and they were like, “Yeah, fine.” It wasn’t memorable on their part. They could have had the Tickle Me license under their property.

Despite Murtha's enthusiasm, Taz would not get the opportunity to become the must-have toy of the year.

Hogan: When you think of that character, tickling doesn’t seem the least bit compatible.

Yates: It was good for Taz, he had a crazy personality, but during the evaluation, Tyco decided not to renew the Warner Bros. license.

Murtha: In those days, Tyco had no email system. We all communicated via fax. I remember being at the offices in New York after hours—it was me, Stan, and a few others. I walked past the fax machine and it was spitting out a notice that Tyco had dissolved their agreement with Warner Bros. I walked to Stan and said, “Why don’t you take this and make Tickle Me Big Bird?” And he said, “No, it would be Tickle Me Elmo.” And by this point, they had gotten the Sesame Street license.

Dubren: The guy Stan worked for, [former Tyco president] Martin Scheman, had the idea to pursue the license to Sesame Street and create feature items they’d promote on TV. Marty went to Stan and said, “I need a feature item.” And Stan said, “I’ve got an idea.”

Yates: We had a long-term relationship for plastic toys for the Sesame license. The relationship had grown and they gave us the opportunity to bid on the plush portion and to become the master toy licensee.

Ann Kearns (former Vice President, Licensing, Sesame Workshop): StoryMagic Big Bird was really our first big item. It was pretty low-tech, but it was a huge success. Before Elmo came along, Big Bird was the star of the show. He was the quintessential 6-year-old and Elmo was the quintessential 3-year-old.

Sesame Workshop

Dubren: I got a call from Stan saying, “Guess what?” That’s when I came up with Elmo’s Law: Anything that can go right will go right.

Yates: From the time it got kicked back to us, we all felt the best use for the concept would be with Elmo.

Murtha: I was delighted for Stan to take it over. It was 70 percent done. I was able to take the internal development costs, which were between $50,000 and $100,000, and move them over to Stan’s profit and loss margin.   

Bruce Maguire (CEO, Freeman PR): Elmo hadn’t really been translated into toys yet.

Yates: Elmo was starting to come to the forefront on Sesame Street. This was around 1995. He was becoming more and more popular with parents and children.

Kearns: We didn’t do a lot of Elmo products at first, but in the early 1990s, we started getting calls from parents. “My kid loves Elmo, my kid wants to go to sleep with Elmo.”

Dubren: At the time, Sesame Street was sort of a sleepy license for toys. They were perceived as educational, and that’s a death knell for toys.

Johnson-Williams: The character had to be on long enough for people to go looking for him.

Murtha: The whole character changed with Elmo’s skin. It gave it a gentle, loving ambiance.

Yates: His character lent itself to the laughing and giggling element. It was perfect.

II: GOOD VIBRATIONS

Courtesy of the Strong, Rochester, NY

Work began on turning Tickle Me Taz into Tickle Me Elmo in early 1995, with the expectation that it would be ready for a February 1996 debut at New York’s Toy Fair. Dubren and Hyman had licensed their concept and would be paid a royalty, although the end result would be markedly different from Tickles the Chimp.  

Dubren: I don’t have a proprietary feeling about it. A lot got changed, developed, and improved.

Johnson-Williams: I have a lab near a main street and there are windows. At one point, there were Elmo skins all over without any of the electronics. It looked like a toy factory exploded. People would walk by and go, “What happened?”

Murtha: The next pieces they put in were friggin’ awesome.

Yates: We brought in our ad agency to take a look at the concept. Bob Moehl came to the meeting. He looked at the toy and there was just dead silence.

Maguire: It was a line review. I remember being there. They said, “This is going to be our lead item.”

Bob Moehl (Advertising): I, as the ad man, said it was a waste of money to advertise a sound toy. Television is about motion. The thing ought to move

Yates: He said, “It’s adorable, it’s great, but television is a visual medium.” And off he went.

Maguire: Bob said, “It’s great, but can you make it shake, like a Santa Claus belly?” That one little change had such a payoff.

Dubren: I think what happened was, someone had remembered seeing a shaking monkey that had been on the market.

Neil Friedman (former President, Tyco Preschool): The line review was just about the time I had come on board the company. That mechanism became the third component.

Jerry Cleary (former Vice President, Sales, Tyco Preschool): With the laughing and shaking together, I thought we had something compelling.

The secret to Elmo's success: a vibrating sound box.

Johnson-Williams: They showed me this shaking, shrieking monkey, showed me Elmo, and asked me to build one with all of those elements.

Yates: I remember at the time people had those old-style flip phones on the table. They were vibrating and shaking as they were ringing. And a light bulb went off.

Dubren: My wife actually saw Tickles the Chimp and said, “Wouldn’t it be great if it shook?” I said, “Yeah, but no one is going to put that kind of money into it.”

As with most licensors, Children’s Television Workshop—which later changed its name to Sesame Workshop—was fiercely protective of its intellectual property.   

Yates: There were serious concerns from Sesame. They weren’t sure if they wanted Elmo to shake in case parents thought he was having a seizure. It was a conversation over the course of several meetings, winning them over.

Kearns: I don’t recall that. She may have spoken to someone else about it. What I recall is that we wanted to make sure the shaking was confined to the giggle, so he was only shaking when he was giggling, and then it stopped. There’s no reason for the body to move without that.

Johnson-Williams: It was a conversation with Janice on how to get the motor to run a little, then a little more, then run full blast.

Dubren: They tested it with moms, and no one seemed to care it was going to be $30 instead of $20 because of the motor.

Yates: We did some informal research, and no parent thought Elmo was having a seizure. 

Johnson-Williams: Every licensor does this. Every one. I remember one company had to stop production on a Minnie Mouse because her bow had nine polka dots. Disney said, “No, she has 11. Start over.”

Dubren: It was a big payoff, or surprise ending. The vibration is what makes people start laughing along with it.

Johnson-Williams: At one point, we had him saying, “Stop, stop tickling me.” And there was something sinister about that. Elmo is a child and you can’t have a child saying, “Stop, stop.”

Hogan: Almost all of us have memories of being tickled or tickling. It’s fun, but it’s also a little uncomfortable. There’s a tension there that’s part of the appeal. Elmo recalled that.

Johnson-Williams: I flew the prototype back to show them. They’re professional toy people. It’s not like they clapped.

grac_rahi via eBay

While a lot had to go right in order for Tickle Me Elmo to succeed, one key component would be the notion that parents and their children would be able to see Elmo in action before spending $29.95.

Yates: Martin Scheman originated the concept of “Try Me” at retail, which means presenting a product to a consumer in packaging with batteries included so you can press it and get a demonstration. That was a critical piece of Tickle Me Elmo.

Murtha: I wouldn’t say originated, but there was a mastery of it. We had to do a lot of Try Me because Tyco Preschool wasn’t advertising on television.

Friedman: I forced the factory to put batteries in because I wanted it to be a Try Me.

Maguire: You’d be walking down the aisle, squeeze his hand, and he’d laugh right on the shelf.

Johnson-Williams: That was a relatively new idea. One of my theories when I wrote the program was, most people have an attention span of less than eight seconds. The Tickle Me Elmo would have to get to the punch line in less time than that. Any longer and people walk away.

Dubren: Try Me showed off everything about the toy. It laughs, it escalates, it starts to shake, and you get it right away.

Yates: You could experience it at the retail level but it would not wear out the batteries. Engineering had flagged us about using battery life for a toy with sound and a motor. They were concerned about dead batteries at retail if the toy played in its full mode.

Johnson-Williams: Once you took it home and pulled the cord out, it would play in the full mode.

While Johnson-Williams worked on getting Elmo to laugh and shake in the right ratio, he would sometimes be interrupted by calls or visits to his office in Half Moon Bay, California from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He was suspected of being the Unabomber.

Yates: I was on a plane to San Francisco with a bucket of parts on my way to meet with Mark. I was interrogated at the airport because I had all these wires, batteries, and tapes. They asked me who I was going to see. That’s how they got Mark’s name.

Johnson-Williams: The FBI basically had 10,000 people on a list, and one of the ways to get on was to order a bunch of electronic parts. They were trying to find this guy and casting as wide a net as possible.

Dubren: The media picked up on that and turned it into him being the creator of Tickle Me Elmo. It got to be a little uncomfortable.

Johnson-Williams: There were some funny coincidences. He was seen in Utah, supposedly, at the same time I was shooting a toy commercial in Utah. One day he said he was going to blow up San Francisco and then I flew into San Francisco. Every few weeks, they’d make a call and ask a question.

After an 18-year search, the FBI caught Unabomber Ted Kaczynski on April 3, 1996. While that was a relief for Johnson-Williams, the pressure was building for Tyco Preschool’s core team, which had never before been charged with delivering such a high-profile item.  

Murtha: That division of Tyco was considered to be kind of a stepchild. There was a critical meeting where four or five of us sat with Dick Grey, the CEO, at Gramercy Park. And he basically scolded and berated us.

Cleary: I think he was challenging us, which was his job. The discussion was about who was going to be promoting it.

Murtha: We showed him Elmo and thought we had something special and wanted to handle the advertising. He wouldn’t allow it. I thought we’d be fired.

Cleary: In so many words, he told us we didn’t know what we were doing. And then they finally reconsidered.

Murtha: This is around the time Neil Friedman came in [as president of Tyco Preschool]. He had a very keen marketing eye for what the consumer will respond to.

Cleary: Elmo was done by the time Neil came to the company, but he did a remarkable job selling it.

Friedman: It was not done. The packaging still needed to be designed and there was more work to do.

Maguire: She wasn’t his wife at the time, but Amanda Friedman designed the original Tickle Me. A lot of people became lifetime friends from working on it.

Tickle Me Elmo’s push began during the February 1996 Toy Fair in New York, the annual event for companies and buyers to get an idea of what the coming year will bring. 

Yates: I remember waddling into Toy Fair very pregnant at the time. I was presenting it to buyers and having meetings. The reaction was positive, but it wasn’t, “Oh, my God, we have a phenomenon.” It was, "Okay, it’s cute, great."

Johnson-Williams: They stuck a bunch of them on a wall.

Maguire: The primary line at Toy Fair was Tyco’s line of RC Cars. So the media would go through this tour and wind up at Tyco Preschool, where Elmo was. It was probably one of the first animated plush licenses next to Big Bird. They may have thought, “Oh, okay, they’re just doing what they did before.”

Johnson-Williams: My wife at the time had a friend who didn’t like anything I did. She was kind of a curmudgeon. When she touched Tickle Me Elmo, she smiled, and I knew it was going to be a big deal.

Maguire: Al Roker from the Today show was there, and he loved it. This was pre-[gastric] surgery, so he was a little chunky then. He laughed and his belly laughed and Elmo laughed.

Ellie Bagli (Senior Vice President, Freeman PR): Al was being Al and Elmo was being Elmo. It was a great visual.

Maguire: It brought Elmo to life in a way that had never been done before.

Yates: Neil was at a baseball game when he ran into a buyer from Toys "R" Us. And the guy said, “Oh, my God, Neil. We just got an initial point of sale report and this thing is flying off the shelves. You guys better ramp up.” It had been out three or four weeks.

Friedman: We were monitoring it from the moment it hit shelves. It wasn't because of running into anyone. We were getting calls from buyers right away. It was selling far better than any $30 plush would have sold in those days.

III: THE TICKLE MONSTER

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Thanks to Elmo’s popularity and the novel Try Me packaging, Tickle Me Elmo was off to a solid start when it hit store shelves in July 1996. But without the viral marketing of today, a toy’s best shot at hitting the stratosphere was exposure to children—and their parents—on television.

Yates: The Today show had aired a segment about the new hot toys. Bryant Gumbel and Katie Couric were sitting there playing with the doll and getting a kick out of it. It was great exposure.

Maguire: Bryant was not considered a warm guy, so for us, it was great. He was not the type you’d expect to have Elmo on his lap. It seemed to humanize him.

Bagli: He held it the entire time. I don’t think it’s ever been done before or since.

Yates: Freeman PR was responsible for getting Rosie [O'Donnell].

Maguire: Ellie was taping her show almost from the start. Rosie would create a kind of game show atmosphere and give her audience products.

Murtha: It was perfect. This was September, and the kids were going back to school.

Dubren: It helped her show as well. She was just starting out.

Yates: You couldn’t just send Rosie items. It was all about whether she liked it or not. If she didn’t, it wasn’t going on her show.

Bagli: It was early October. We had sent her son one and then she talked on-air about how he had flushed it down the toilet. So I jumped on the phone with Tyco and said, “Get every Elmo we have. Get some red tissue paper.” I got a call from her show an hour later saying, “This is great. Can we have enough for the whole audience?”

Murtha: She eventually brought Neil Friedman out and he did a great job pitching. Elmo did a great job pitching.  

The packaging, the character, and O’Donnell’s endorsement put Tickle Me Elmo on the map in a very prominent way. As the holiday season began, the media took note of shoppers waiting anxiously outside toy stores in groups resembling "Depression-era bread lines.” Unlike most dolls and many plush items, Elmo was a “gender-free” gift that boys and girls were demanding in equal quantity.

Hogan: If it were a plastic doll, chances are most boys wouldn’t have wanted anything to do with it.

Murtha: Going into September, we were forecasting 100,000 pieces. Within a week of Rosie, we were forecasting a million.

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Bagli: It was virtually sold out from the day after Thanksgiving through Christmas.

Maguire: All of a sudden, demand got really strong, and Tyco was in a position of, “How many more can we make before the end of the year?”

Murtha: You line up factories for 100,000. A week later, it’s a million. There’s just no way to get them into the marketplace.

Cleary: I was on the phone with Hong Kong three nights a week. The tools could burn out on high manufacturing runs, so we were figuring out how to build new tools.

Friedman: The plush was not the limiting factor. The problem is producing the mechanism. We were building new tools every week.

Yates: We ended up not running the full TV campaign, pulling some of the back-half media because we didn’t feel it was right to continue to advertise the item to gain awareness and sales when we could barely support all of the pent-up demand.

Maguire: That’s the irony of the motor. It was made for television and they never needed television.

Following Black Friday, Tickle Me Elmo turned into the most coveted holiday item on wish lists. The scarcity led to a tsunami of media about toy aisle mayhem. John Gotti Jr., son of late mafia boss John Gotti, was seen entering a Toys "R" Us after hours and walking away with several Elmos; Cartier Jewelers offered Elmo free with the purchase of a $1 million necklace. One Toys "R" Us district manager pushed a pallet of Elmos out and watched in horror as parents tore into them without regard for anyone’s safety. He started to cry.  

Yates: People would call the Tyco offices threatening to do something if we didn’t release more Elmos. Bomb scares. “I’m going to blow the place up.” It was overwhelming.

Dubren: There were people acting primitive, but that happens every Christmas. A kid laughing with his parents doesn’t get to be a news story.

Kearns: Did it make us cringe? A little. It was nothing we promoted, but there was nothing we could do about it. It was just demand.

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Yates: The media kept saying that we planned it, and it was just great marketing. It wasn’t.

Dubren: Nothing of the kind ever happens. They’re in business to sell stuff. The problem is, they don’t want to be stuck with inventory.

Maguire: The media was doing negative stories, saying it was artificial. Sometimes they want to build up a thing to knock it down. Everyone thought there was a bunch in storage somewhere. Tyco was a public company. You couldn’t mess around like that.

Friedman: Plan a shortage? No one plans a shortage. You can't just say, okay, we want a million. You need to buy chips and other materials, and that can take 60 days.

Cleary: You have a responsibility to the shareholder. That’s the last thing we’d do.

Moehl: [We just] underestimated how the thing would take off. Nothing succeeds in the toy business like shortages.

Yates: Neil was so influential in getting us more goods, as much as we could possibly produce. We went from 400,000 to shipping a million units.

Dubren: Stan thought Neil was crazy to do that, that it was way over the line.

Maguire: He wanted to put the pedal to the metal, where Tyco as a whole wanted to be more cautious. Big toys have put companies under. Teddy Ruxpin killed Coleco. You can’t flood the market. Neil convinced them.

Friedman: It was completely my decision. 

Dubren: They were shipping them by boat, but then they started to fly them in.

Friedman: We air-freighted them in on a regular basis, over and above the goods arriving on water.

As Christmas neared, it was clear not everyone who wanted a Tickle Me Elmo was going to get one. A toy phenomenon had become a cultural symbol of how determined shoppers were to land the coveted monster. To prevent thefts or fights, Toys "R" Us would call raincheck holders and leave vague messages that their “item” was in. In the store, they would be handed a pre-wrapped package so they could slip out of the store without being obstructed.

Dubren: For me, it hit home when I was on a plane to Chicago in early December and The New York Times had the front page of their business section talking about Tickle Me Elmo. It was a pinch-me moment.

Maguire: Harvey Weinstein at Miramax contacted us and sent us a bunch of Oscar-nominated movies on VHS. The Letterman people called and traded us sweatshirts. Brett Favre called Neil.

Cleary: Al Gore called. I told my secretary to tell him I’m Republican.

Murtha: Jill Barad, the [former] CEO of Mattel, walked past my office one day and saw him. “Oh, my God, you have an Elmo!” I gave her mine.

Maguire: Some people at Nintendo traded us N64s, which were the other hot toy, for Elmos.

Dubren: The internet was pretty fresh back then. Most people had dial-up. But there were a few on eBay already.

Yates: I was riding the train home from New York one night and Stan asked me to go do a radio interview. I get on the phone and did the interview. I look up, and everyone on the train is looking at me. “You work for that place? Can you get me an Elmo?” I really felt like my life was in danger.

Maguire: You had to say no sometimes to needy people who would benefit, like charities. You became the gatekeeper for this toy.

Cleary: We tried to distribute it evenly. But we were able to use it and say to retailers who were slow to pay invoices, “Look, we gotta clean this up or we can’t allocate any product to you.” And everyone paid their bills.

Murtha: We took Tyco Preschool from being the losers in New York to, “Oh, those are our guys.”

Maguire: When Tickle Me Elmo sold out, you couldn’t come home empty-handed, so you bought some kind of Elmo toy.

Kearns: It was a halo effect across the entire Sesame line. There was always another Elmo on the shelf to buy. We had T-shirts, books.

Maguire: They could have sold 10 times as many if they had them.

Murtha: Mattel was in the process of buying Tyco and merging Tyco Preschool and Fisher-Price together when Elmo was coming out. I would say the entire purchase price of Tyco [$737 million] was recovered over the next two to three years by Elmo.

IV: ELMO GETS EXTREME

Courtesy of the Strong, Rochester, NY

By the end of 1996, Tickle Me Elmo had taken his place among the most popular toys of the 20th century. Over 1.2 million of the dolls had reportedly been sold, making Tyco a name that could stand among the Hasbro and Mattel brands as a leading supplier of hot holiday items. But unlike past fads, Elmo wasn’t going to be forgotten quickly.  

Dubren: I think it took until the following June for Toys "R" Us to honor all of their rainchecks for 1996.

Friedman: I'm not going to tell you the number. We sold well over a million in 1996. And we sold many, many more Elmos in 1997. In fact, we sold more Elmos in the first quarter than we did for the entire year before.

Cleary: We sold one million Elmos in 1996 and four million Elmos in 1997.

Kearns: It may have been the first time a toy did better in year two than year one.

Yates: It was an exciting time, but Stan gave me a reality check. He wanted to know what we were going to do the next year.

Maguire: It became a franchise out of nowhere.

Yates: We did Sing and Snore Ernie, which did almost as well as Tickle Me Elmo.

Friedman: The biggest thing I found following the craze was walking into a toy department and seeing people pick up a plush toy and squeezing it to see if it would do anything. We needed to keep bringing soft toys to life, and that's what we spent a lot of time doing.

Kearns: Ernie was very popular in Europe. Elmo actually wasn’t on Sesame Street in Europe at the time.

Yates: We also did a line extension with Baby Tickle Mes—Cookie Monster, Ernie, Zoe.

Kearns: There was no Tickle Me Oscar. The toys always had to be true to the character.

Cleary: We sold 4 million Baby Tickle Mes. There was just so much demand we couldn’t fill.

Gina Sirard (former Vice President of Marketing, Fisher-Price): One of my main strategies when I got to Fisher-Price was to have people asking, “What is Elmo going to do next?”

Bagli: You’ve got to give them credit. Every year, they did a new Elmo. Chicken Dance Elmo won a Toy of the Year award.

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Yates: There was a Toss and Tickle Me Elmo.

Dubren: You threw him up in the air, he’d laugh, you’d catch him, and a motion sensor switch would get him to stop laughing.

Cleary: Elmo as Elvis.

Yates: Rock and Roll Elmo was also Greg Hyman. I was there until 2008 and there weren’t any real dogs.

Girard: Pogo Elmo got a lukewarm reception. It was the only one that wasn’t really a huge success.

Dubren: To some degree, I’ve been told it saved Children’s Television Workshop at the time. The success spread to the entire license.

Maguire: As funding for public television deteriorated from the government, the private sector was coming into place through royalties. Now you were seeing the characters on applesauce and snacks.

Kearns: What I would say is that any non-profit is constantly challenged with ways to drive income. Any success story is a big plus. [Workshop founder] Joan Ganz Cooney gave a speech where she said Tickle Me was such a big success it allowed them to expand internationally.

Under Mattel’s Fisher-Price banner, Elmo made annual appearances right on through 2006. For his 10th anniversary, the company launched TMX Elmo, or Tickle Me Elmo Extreme, a doll that had to be seen to be believed. 

Dubren: TMX was fabulous. I wish I could say I developed the mechanism, but I didn’t.

Bruce Lund: (Owner, Lund and Company): We had actually shown them the mechanism for Elmo’s fifth anniversary. Later, one of us came to the other and wanted to take the concept further into extreme laughter.

Sirard:  It didn’t work out for the fifth anniversary. When he bought it back, we added the slapping on the ground and the rolling over.

Lund: It was something we used in a toy called Baby Go Boom—not the same, but an earlier version. Baby Go Boom could basically fall from a standing to seated position, then lay down, then sit back up. And then we realized we could get her to stand back up, and that became Somersault Sara.

Gabriela Arenas (Vice President of Licensing, North America, Sesame Workshop): TMX was really an attempt to recreate how a 3-year-old would laugh when being tickled—rolling on the floor, giggling, having fun. The mechanism was able to translate that.

Kearns: I remember Fisher-Price did a mock-up to show us and we just fell over laughing. It was a no-brainer.

Lund: Getting the Elmo skin on was an issue. The mechanism can work fine on its own, but the fur adds friction.

Maguire: We were able to recreate the hysteria, which was pretty huge.

Kearns: Gina Sirard was the genius behind the marketing of keeping the whole thing under wraps. Retailers would buy it without having seen it.

Sirard: We did ads with Elmo in silhouette.

Maguire: I had been working with Tyco for 25 years and it was the first time they made me sign a non-disclosure agreement.

Lund: There is satisfaction in seeing people mystified. It was a simple mechanism, but people thought it was a mechanical marvel.

Sirard: The whole goal was to make Elmo seem as real and alive as possible.

Lund: One time we had temporarily lost a sample and Fisher-Price was a little upset. We did find it. They wanted everything kept top secret.

Maguire: We stole a little from Steve Jobs and didn’t let anyone see the product until it was at retail.

Bagli: There were maybe 20 people in the world who saw it before then. We kept the product a secret until the day we revealed it on Good Morning America.

Lund: It was really marketing genius.

Bagli: The package looked like a metal briefcase with a warning, “May Contain Uncontrollable Laughter.”

Lund: We had shipped samples in a diamond-plate pattern metal with foam inside, sort of an attaché case that fit the model properly, because they were so valuable. That was ultimately the inspiration for the packaging.

Kearns: They made a package where you just saw the eyes through a tiny little flap.

Lund: It was also good because there was no on-shelf demo, and so the batteries wouldn’t wear out.

Maguire: Diane Sawyer had it in a little vault.

Bagli: Most holiday sales started on Black Friday, but this pushed it ahead two months. We called it the Elmo Effect.

Fisher-Price

Maguire: People were lined up outside of Toys "R" Us and put 10 in a cart to sell on eBay.

Bagli: It was like getting election results. You get the East Coast, and then West coast numbers pop up.

Arenas: It created that must-have expectation with consumers.

Maguire: The toy industry was in the doldrums that year. All of a sudden people got excited to go to big box stores in September and it turned out to be a good year. Everyone benefited from TMX Elmo.

Hogan: I suspect the appeal was more for adults who had grown up with Tickle Me Elmo and now had kids of their own. It was very exaggerated and very funny.

Lund: According to Mattel, it sold more toys on its first day than any other toy in history to that point. That doesn’t include video games.

Sirard: I remember getting calls every hour from Walmart. It was incredible. I think the number was 250,000 sold that day. I don’t know if there’s been a product since that’s done that.

After countless variations—including backpacks, foreign releases, and more—Elmo and the rest of the Sesame Street license returned to Hasbro in 2011. Their Love2Learn Elmo offers children guidance on potty-training; a slightly smaller version of the original is also in stores. Sesame Street, which is now premiering new episodes on HBO, still considers Elmo its biggest licensing success among preschoolers.

Dubren: Ironically, there had been a tickle-me baby on the market the same year Tickle Me Elmo came out. But there was no TV promotion and no character.

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Bagli: People still use Tickle Me Elmo as the standard. “What’s the next Tickle Me Elmo?”

Lund: When I did TMX, I had people come to me and go, “Oh, man, why didn’t you bring it to us?” What would you do with it? Make a teddy bear? Who cares? When it’s Elmo, that’s when it matters to people.

Dubren: There had been big toys, but this transcended the typical toy phenomenon. It was more human than something like Furby or Tamagochi. It became something adults were aware of.

Kearns: It became what the industry came to call “feature plush.” There had been talking toys, but this was wiggling, giggling, and vibrating.

Murtha: I’ve worked on a lot of these. Strawberry Shortcake, Trivial Pursuit, Cabbage Patch—it’s what you work for. When it comes together, all you can say is wow.

Dubren: Tickle Me Taz probably would have vanished overnight.

Kearns: It was a perfect storm, the right character with the right mechanism. No one wants to hug Taz.

Dubren: It’s simple. It gave people joy. It may have only lasted a couple of moments, but that’s one of the precious things about life.

Kearns: At the time, my sister-in-law was going through some very serious radiation and chemotherapy for cancer. I would visit her and talk about what we were working on. I once brought a Tickle Me to show her and she got the biggest smile on her face. Even with all these tubes and chemicals, she smiled. All the doctors and nurses played with it. It showed me Elmo’s appeal went beyond preschoolers.

She passed away. I still have her doll. Everyone loves Elmo.

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