11 Places Planes Can't Fly Over in the U.S.

Jacqueline Nell/Disneyland Resort via Getty Images
Jacqueline Nell/Disneyland Resort via Getty Images

From the obvious to the controversial to the mysterious, here are 11 places in the U.S. over which taking a plane just won’t fly.

1. George Washington's Home // Mount Vernon, Virginia

George Washington's Mount Vernon Estate
Drew Angerer/Getty Images

Restriction: Surface to 1500 feet above Mean Sea Level.

I cannot tell a lie: Flying over Mount Vernon, the home of the Father of our Country, is a big no-no. The wooden mansion, built for George Washington between 1758 and 1778, has endured much wear over the years, and in an effort to prevent further damage caused by vibrations from overhead aircraft, a no-fly zone was established around the airspace above the National Historic Landmark. As a result of this restriction, even aerial photography of the home is rarely allowed.

2. and 3. Walt Disney World // Orlando, Florida and Disneyland // Anaheim, California

Disneyland park during a ceremony at Sleeping Beauty Castle
Paul Hiffmeyer/Disneyland Resort via Getty Images

Restriction: 3000 feet above ground level.

Restrictions on airspace are sometimes made on a temporary basis, usually at places where a great many people congregate (like the Super Bowl). And perhaps no place attracts larger crowds with more frequency than Walt Disney World and Disneyland Resorts. After the September 11 attacks, Disney successfully had a “temporary” no-fly zone restriction slipped into a nearly $400 billion federal spending bill in 2003, which established the restricted airspace over its Anaheim and Orlando theme parks. The restriction remains in place to this day, and has faced legal challenges from a Christian group, the Family Policy Network. The group has argued on free speech grounds for the right to use the airspace to tow banners behind small planes in opposition to Disney’s unofficial but popular annual “Gay Days.”

4. Bush Family compound// Kennebunkport, Maine

Restriction: Surface to 1000 feet above Mean Sea Level.

The Bush family compound is located on a peninsula known as Walker’s Point in the scenic southern Maine town of Kennebunkport. The home has been in the family for over a century, and is the summer residence of former president George H.W. Bush. Over the years many important people have been through its doors, including Mikhail Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher, and it has been the scene of numerous Bush family weddings. Given the sensitive nature of the compound, and the frequency with which both former presidents Bush and their families still visit, the airspace above the compound is restricted to aircraft.

5. Pantex Nuclear facility // Amarillo, Texas

Restriction: Surface to 4800 feet above Mean Sea Level.

The Pantex Plant is a high-security nuclear facility located about 17 miles northeast of Amarillo, Texas. Its mission is “to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile." The facility dismantles excess nukes, keeps tabs on our existing ones, and maintains cold-war era missiles that are still knocking around after all these years, and therefore there is a ten-mile no-fly zone around it. As you might expect, the site is also closed to the public.

6. Washington, D.C.

Aerial photo of the Washington Memorial with the Capitol in the background
Andy Dunaway/USAF via Getty Images

Restriction: Surface to 18000 feet above Mean Sea Level.

After the September 11 attacks, the airspace over our nation’s capital became some of the most highly restricted in the world. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of Homeland Security together established concentric no-fly areas around Washington D.C. The outer ring of this boundary, known as the Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) requires any aircraft entering the space to identify themselves. Within that zone exists a smaller area of 15 nautical miles around Reagan International Airport called the Flight Restricted Zone (FRZ). They don’t mess around in that FRZ, either. In 2005, the pilot of a Cessna 150 aircraft was just five miles from the White House before it was greeted by the sight of an F-16 fighter jet dropping flares in its field of vision to send a signal it had wandered into unfriendly skies. Oops.

7. Camp David // Thurmont, Maryland

Camp David, Maryland
Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images

Restriction: Surface to 5000 feet above Mean Sea Level.

Countless photographs of U.S. presidents in windbreakers have been taken at Naval Support Facility Thurmont, better known as Camp David, a presidential retreat and meeting place going back to Franklin D. Roosevelt. The compound has frequently played host to presidents’ families and visiting dignitaries, and numerous high-profile pacts have been struck at the retreat over the years, including the Camp David Accords, a peace deal between Egypt and Israel brokered in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter. Due to the high-profile nature of the visitors and activities at Camp David, the airspace above the private compound has a three-mile no-fly zone around it.

8. Kennedy Space Center // Merritt Island, Florida

space shuttle Endeavour lifts off from Launch pad at Kennedy Space Center
NASA via Getty Images

Restriction: surface to 5000 feet above Mean Sea Level, adjustable to unlimited with notice.

Florida’s “Space Coast” is a popular spot for space fans to see a rocket launch, but the only view you’re going to get is from the ground. Merritt Island houses NASA’s Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Due to military and NASA activities on and around the island, airspace around the island is restricted to all civilian and commercial air traffic.

9. Area 51

Restriction: Surface to Unlimited.

Located in the western United States desert is the fabled Area 51. Its precise location is either in Nellis Air Force Range in Nevada or Edwards Air Force Base in California, but airspace above the general area is restricted to all aircraft, military and civilian. (Cue The X-Files theme.) Area 51 became the stuff of legend after the so-called Roswell Incident, and is allegedly where a recovered alien space ship was stored after crashing in New Mexico in 1947, spawning legions of alien enthusiasts. The Air Force says it uses the area to test new military technology, and declassified documents from 2013 revealed that the U-2 Spy Plane Program in the 1950s and '60s was worked on at the base. The spot of nearly empty desert boasts air space that's more restricted than that of the nation's capital.

10. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness // Northern Minnesota

View point over the Boundary Waters
iStock

Restriction: Surface to 4000 feet.

This million-acre expanse of pristine wilderness runs 199 miles along the Canadian border. The area’s nearly 1200 lakes, dramatic views of glacier-carved canyons, and untrammeled natural beauty make it a paradise for outdoor adventurers. President Harry Truman established the no-fly zone over the area back in 1948 and we thank him for it.

11. Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay // Georgia

Restriction: Surface to 3000 feet.

Another bit of restricted airspace we can safely file in the “no duh” category is the Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay in Georgia. This base houses the U.S. Navy Atlantic Fleet’s Trident nuclear-powered submarines, ballistic and guided missile submarines, and the Strategic Weapons Facility Atlantic (SWFLANT)—which is essentially a missile factory. The base’s functions include maintaining, overhauling, and modernizing the sub fleet, including its weapon systems. Despite the heavy artillery housed here and a strict no-fly zone, over the last decade pilots have violated its airspace eight times and there have been four crashes within the base’s borders.

15 Animal Names That Can Be Used As Verbs

iStock.com/fotojagodka
iStock.com/fotojagodka

People can go fishing, rabbit on incessantly, dog one another, and horse around. But because of their usefulness in completing burdensome work, horse has also been used in (originally naval) slang since the mid-19th century to mean “to work to the point of exhaustion”—or, in the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, “to drive or urge at work unfairly or tyrannically.” But horses aren’t the only animals whose names can be “verbed.” From turtles to tigers, you can drop any one of these 15 creatures into your everyday conversation.

1. Bulldog

No one is entirely sure why bulldogs are called bulldogs, with different theories pointing to everything from their bull-like stature to their bullish faces to the fact that they might once have been bred to bait bulls. Whatever the origin, the bulldog’s strength and its robust, resilient behavior means that you can use its name as a verb meaning “to attack roughly,” or “to wrestle to the ground.”

2. Tiger

A tiger
iStock.com/konmesa

If you tiger, then you walk to and fro, like a tiger pacing in a cage. If you tiger something, then you paint or mark it with contrasting stripes.

3. Spider

Jumping spider
iStock.com/elthar2007

As well as being used simply to mean “to creep” or “to move like a spider,” if you ensnare or entrap something, or else cover it in a cobweb-like pattern, then you spider it.

4. Cat

British shorthair cat with expressive orange eyes
iStock.com/Leesle

Because the cathead is the horizontal beam at the bow of a ship that’s used to raise an anchor, the word cat has a number of nautical uses as a verb, including “to lift an anchor from the water,” “to secure an anchor,” and “to draw an anchor through the water.” But because shooting the cat was 19th century slang for being sick from drinking too much, you can also use cat to mean “to vomit.”

5. Vulture

White-backed vulture
iStock.com/EcoPic

Vultures’ grim feeding habits and their remarkable flying ability have given the word two meanings as a verb in English. Feel free to use it to mean “to eat voraciously” or “to tear at your food,” or else “to descend steadily through the air.”

6. Owl

Owl in flight
iStock.com/WhitcombeRD

Owling (as well as being a short-lived social media craze) was once the name given to the crime of smuggling sheep and wool from England to the continent—a crime so-called because the nefarious “owlers” carried out their crimes at night. That might not be the most useful of words these days of course, so feel free to also use owl to mean “to act wisely, despite not knowing anything.”

7. Shark

It’s easy to presume that the use of shark as a verb to mean “to act like a predator” (which is the same shark as in loanshark, incidentally) derives from the deadly sea creatures. In fact, it might be the opposite: Both meanings of the word shark date back to the late 16th century, but it’s possible that the verb shark is the older of the two. If so, it’s possible that it comes from the earlier word shirk (in the sense of using deceit or trickery to avoid work) or else a northeastern French word, cherquier, which was often used in a phrase that essentially meant “to sponge of others” or “to act as a parasite.” So how did sea-dwelling sharks come to be called sharks? It’s possible the deceitful sharks gave their name to the menacing creatures, or else the two could be completely unrelated—and, thanks to a sea battle off the Yucatan peninsula in 1569, shark could in fact be a Mayan word.

8. Monkey

Chimpanzee looking surprised
iStock.com/photomaru

As well as meaning “to play the fool” or “to behave playfully”—as in “monkeying around”—monkey, like ape, can also be used to mean “to mimic” or “to copy someone’s movements or actions.”

9. Turtle

If a boat “turns turtle,” then it capsizes and flips over, so that it looks like a turtle’s domed shell floating atop the water. Because of that, to turtle something is to turn it upside down.

10. Snail

Burgundy snail
iStock.com/AlexRaths

For obvious reasons, snail has been used to mean “to move slowly” since the late 16th century, but because of the snail’s coiled shell, you can also use snail to mean “to draw or carve a spiral,” or “to roll into a spiral shape.”

11. Porcupine

Porcupine walking
iStock.com/ser-y-star

When your hair stands on end, feel free to say that it porcupined.

12. Canary

Canary birds take their name from the Canary Islands, which, somewhat confusingly, take their name from canis, the Latin word for “dog.” But in the 16th and 17th centuries, the canary was also the name of an energetic dance inspired by a traditional dance performed by the natives of the Canary Islands. And because of that, you can also use the word canary as a verb meaning “to dance in a lively fashion.”

13. Earwig

Earwig
iStock.com/Mr_Fu

Earwigs are so-called because they were once (thankfully erroneously) thought to crawl inside people’s ears as they slept. Through association with someone whispering clandestinely into someone’s ear, in the late 18th century eavesdroppers and people who seeked to secretly influence others became known as earwiggers—and so to earwig is to do precisely that.

14. Pig

Cute pig leaning on railing of his cot
iStock.com/Fotosmurf03

Pig has been used to mean “to give birth” since as far back as the 15th century in English (a fairly uncomplimentary allusion to a pregnant sow delivering a litter of piglets). But slightly less depreciatively, the living habits of pigs mean that it can also be used to mean “to huddle together,” or else “to live or sleep in crowded or dirty conditions.”

15. Dingo

A dingo
iStock.com/JohnCarnemolla

Because of their stereotypically sneaky behavior, to dingo on someone meant “to let down” or “to betray” them in 1930s Australian slang, while to dingo meant simply “to shirk” or “to back out of something at the last minute.”

This list first ran in 2016.

10 Facts About The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

On its surface, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a straightforward story about a boy and a runaway slave floating down the Mississippi River. But underneath, the book—which was published in the U.S. on February 18, 1885—is a subversive confrontation of slavery and racism. It remains one of the most loved, and most banned, books in American history. 

1. Huckleberry Finn first appears in Tom Sawyer.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a sequel to Tom Sawyer, Twain’s novel about his childhood in Hannibal, Missouri. Huck is the “juvenile pariah of the village” and “son of the town drunkard,” Pap Finn. He wears cast-off adult clothes and sleeps in doorways and empty barrels. Despite this, the other children “wished they dared to be like him.” Huck also appears in Tom Sawyer, Detective, and Tom Sawyer Abroad, as well as the unfinished Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians.  

2. Huckleberry Finn may be based on Mark Twain's childhood friend.

Twain said Huck is based on Tom Blankenship, a childhood playmate whose father, Woodson Blankenship, was a poor drunkard and the likely model for Pap Finn. “In Huckleberry Finn I have drawn Tom Blankenship exactly as he was,” he wrote in Autobiography. “He was ignorant, unwashed, insufficiently fed; but he had as good a heart as ever any boy had." 

However, Twain may be exaggerating here. In 1885, when the Minneapolis Tribune asked who Huck was based on, Twain admitted it was no single person: “I could not point you out the youngster all in a lump; but still his story is what I call a true story.”

3. It took Twain seven years to write the book.

Huckleberry Finn was written in two short bursts. The first was in 1876, when Twain wrote 400 pages that he told his friend he liked “only tolerably well, as far as I have got, and may possibly pigeonhole or burn” the manuscript. He stopped working on it for several years to write The Prince and the Pauper and Life on the Mississippi.

In 1882, Twain took a steamboat ride on the Mississippi from New Orleans to Minnesota, with a stop in Hannibal. It must have inspired him, because he dove into finishing Huckleberry Finn. In August 1883, he wrote: “I have written eight or nine hundred manuscript pages in such a brief space of time that I mustn’t name the number of days; I shouldn’t believe it myself, and of course couldn’t expect you to.” The book was published in 1884. 

4. Like Huck, Twain changed his view of slavery.

Huck, who grows up in South before the Civil War, not only accepts slavery, but believes that helping Jim run away is a sin. The moral climax of the novel is when Huck debates whether to send Jim’s owner a letter detailing Jim’s whereabouts. Finally, Huck says, "All right, then, I'll go to hell,” and tears the letter up. 

As a child, Twain didn’t question the institution of slavery. Not only was Missouri a slave state, his uncle owned 20 slaves. In Autobiography, Twain wrote, “I vividly remember seeing a dozen black men and women chained to one another, once, and lying in a group on the pavement, awaiting shipment to the Southern slave market. Those were the saddest faces I have ever seen.”

At some point, Twain’s attitudes changed and he married into an abolitionist family. His father-in-law, Jervis Langdon, was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad and housed Frederick Douglass.

5. Emmeline Grangerford is a parody of a Victorian poetaster.

Huckleberry Finn parodies adventure novels, politics, religion, the Hatfields and the McCoys, and even Hamlet’s soliloquy. But most memorable may be Emmeline Grangerford, the 15-year-old poet. Emmeline is a parody of Julia A. Moore, the “Sweet Singer of Michigan,” who wrote bad poetry about death. So does Emmeline, according to Huck: “Every time a man died, or a woman died, or a child died, she would be on hand with her "tribute" before he was cold. She called them tributes.” Along with bad poetry, Emmeline paints “crayons” of dramatic subjects, such as a girl “crying into a handkerchief” over a dead bird with the caption, "I Shall Never Hear Thy Sweet Chirrup More Alas."

6. A PENIS DRAWING ALMOST RUINED THE BOOK.

Twain, who ran his own printing press, hired 23-year-old E. W. Kemble to illustrate the first edition of Huckleberry Finn. Right as the book went to press, someone—it was never discovered who—added a penis to the illustration of Uncle Silas. The engraving shows Uncle Silas talking to Huck and Aunt Sally while a crude penis bulges from his pants. 

According to Twain’s business manager Charles Webster, 250 books were sent out before the mistake was caught. They were recalled and publication was postponed for a reprint. If the full run had been sent out, Webster said, Twain’s “credit for decency and morality would have been destroyed.” You can view Kemble’s original illustrations here.

7. Many consider Huckleberry Finn the first American novel.

“All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn,” Ernest Hemingway wrote in Green Hills Of Africa. “There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since." 

While this statement ignores great works like Moby-Dick and The Scarlet Letter, Huckleberry Finn was notable because it was the first novel to be written in the American vernacular. Huck speaks in dialect, using phrases like “it ain’t no matter” or "it warn’t no time to be sentimentering.” Since most writers of the time were still imitating European literature, writing the way Americans actually talked seemed revolutionary. It was language that was clear, crisp, and vivid, and it changed how Americans wrote. 

8. The end of the book is often considered a cop-out.

A major criticism of Huckleberry Finn is that the book begins to fail when Tom Sawyer enters the novel. Up until that point, Huck and Jim have developed a friendship bound by their mutual plight as runaways. We believe Huck cares about Jim and has learned to see his humanity. But when Tom Sawyer comes into the novel, Huck changes. He becomes passive and doesn’t even seem to care when Jim is captured.

To make matters worse, it turns out that Jim’s owner has already set him free, and that Huck’s abusive dad is dead. Essentially, Huck and Jim have been running away from nothing. Many, including American novelist Jane Smiley, believe that by slapping on a happy ending, Twain was ignoring the complex questions his book raises.

9. The book is frequently banned.

Huckleberry Finn was first banned in Concord, Massachussets in 1885 (“trash and suitable only for the slums”) and continues to be one of the most-challenged books.

The objections are usually over n-word, which occurs over 200 times in the book. Others say that the portrayal of African Americans is stereotypical, racially insensitive, or racist.

In 2011, Stephen Railton, a professor at University of Virginia, published a version of the book that replaced that offensive word with “slave.” Soon after appeared The Hipster Huckleberry Finn, where the word was replaced with “hipster.” The book's description says, “the adventures of Huckleberry Finn are now neither offensive nor uncool.”

10. Twain had some thoughts about the book's censorship.

In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library removed Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer from the shelves because, as librarian wrote Twain, Huck is “a deceitful boy who said 'sweat' when he should have said 'perspiration.'" Here’s Twain’s reply: 

DEAR SIR:

I am greatly troubled by what you say. I wrote Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn for adults exclusively, and it always distresses me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean; I know this by my own experience, and to this day I cherish an unappeasable bitterness against the unfaithful guardians of my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again this side of the grave. Ask that young lady—she will tell you so.

Most honestly do I wish I could say a softening word or two in defence of Huck's character, since you wish it, but really in my opinion it is no better than those of Solomon, David, Satan, and the rest of the sacred brotherhood. 

If there is an unexpurgated Bible in the Children's Department, won't you please help that young woman remove Huck and Tom from that questionable companionship?

Sincerely yours,

S. L. Clemens

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