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Turning Point at Ypres, Turks Join Central Powers

The First World War was an unprecedented catastrophe that shaped our modern world. Erik Sass is covering the events of the war exactly 100 years after they happened. This is the 151st installment in the series. 

October 29-31, 1914: Turning Point at Ypres, Turks Join Central Powers

After the “Race to the Sea” ended in stalemate between German and Allied armies, in October 1914 German chief of the general staff Erich von Falkenhayn threw all the German Army’s remaining reserves against the British, French, and Belgian forces in Flanders, staking everything on a final effort by the German Fourth and Sixth Armies to break through the Allied lines around Ypres. If victorious, they would split the Allies, outflank the French armies from the north, and capture the French ports on the English Channel, threatening Britain with invasion.

But Falkenhayn’s hopes of delivering a swift coup de grâce foundered in the face of fierce Allied resistance. In the first phase of the battle, fresh German reserve divisions battered the outnumbered British around the village of Langemarck, northeast of Ypres, but couldn’t overcome the basic defensive advantage conferred by modern weaponry: British machine guns and massed rifle fire simply mowed down the advancing Germans, in a horrific slaughter remembered in Germany as “The Massacre of the Innocents at Ypres.”

The British also suffered very heavy casualties, but were reinforced by French divisions rushed to Ypres by chief of the general staff Joseph Joffre; in fact on October 28-29 the French 17th Division and the British 2nd Division managed to advance and recapture the village of Zonnebeke. Further south the Indian Lahore and Meerut Divisions arrived to take over trenches from exhausted French cavalry and the BEF’s equally exhausted 6th Division west of Lille. 

Meanwhile to the north depleted Belgian divisions held off repeated German assaults along the River Yser, aided by shallow-bottomed British monitors bombarding German units from the North Sea, while a scrappy brigade of French marines defended the key canal town of Dixmude against German forces six times as large. When the Germans finally threatened to break through the Belgian lines, on October 25 Belgium’s King Albert decided to play his trump card: they would open the dikes holding back the North Sea and flood the plains around the Yser.

Gheluvelt 

As the floodwaters slowly began to rise, the German generals were absorbed in planning another attempt to break through the British lines with two thrusts – one towards Messines, south of Ypres, and another towards the village of Gheluvelt, to the city’s east. To carry out the assault Falkenhayn formed a new formation, Army Group Fabeck, named for commander Max von Fabeck, with troops from the Fourth and Sixth Armies plus new divisions drawn from elsewhere on the Western Front.

Chastened by the appalling casualties at Langemarck, this time the Germans decided to clear the way with one of the largest artillery bombardments in history. At 5:30 a.m. on October 29, about an hour and a half before sunrise, the German guns opened up with a deafening roar that shook the earth and lit up the foggy pre-dawn sky along a five-mile front east of Ypres. These included huge 42-centimeter siege guns brought up from Antwerp, nicknamed “Big Berthas.” John Lucy, a corporal in the British Army, described the experience of coming under fire by one of these guns:

It was the loudest shell we had heard in transit to date… Would it never come down? It took an unbelievably long time. Then every man in the front line ducked as the thing shrieked raspingly louder and louder down on us. There was a terrific thump which shook the ground, and quite a pause, then a rending crash so shatteringly loud each of us believed it to be in his own section of trench. A perceptible wall of air set up by a giant explosion struck our faces. 

The infantry attack of the German 54th Reserve Division and 6th Bavarian Reserve Division came like a tidal wave along Menin Road, connecting Ypres to the village of Menin  (one of the great battlegrounds of the war on the Western Front, the road and surrounding landscape were soon turned into a burnt-over wasteland; above, “Hellfire Corner” on the road in 1917). The first German assault hit the junction between the British 1st and 7th Divisions, still occupying hastily dug trenches with few if any defensive improvements. Sergeant John Bell recalled a darkly humorous exchange with another soldier: 

All the guns in Flanders seemed to have suddenly concentrated on our particular sector of the British front. When the artillery fire subsided, the Germans sprang from everywhere and attacked us… I told the men to keep under cover and detailed one man, Ginger Bain, as “look out”. After what seemed ages Ginger excitedly asked, “How strong is the German army?” I replied, “Seven million.” “Well,” said Ginger, “here is the whole bloody lot of them making for us.”

By 6:30 a.m. the Germans had broken through the first line of British troops, aided by the fact that several of the already scarce British machine guns had jammed and British rifles seemed to be malfunctioning, perhaps because the cartridges were too big. Another German attack south of the Menin Road pushed the British troops there back by 7:30 a.m. amid fierce hand-to-hand combat, with two-thirds of the British defenders killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. One British soldier recalled: “Some was strangling the Boche [Germans], some was stabbing them as they come at us, we just did what we could.” However the British 7th Division brought up reserve troops and eventually held the German attack.

As British troops were falling back before the German onslaught that morning, the town of Ypres itself came under sustained bombardment for the first time, sowing terror and chaos among the remaining inhabitants. William Robinson, an American volunteering with the British Expeditionary Force, was present when the bombardment began:

I was in town when the first shells landed, and the panic they created was something terrible to witness. Men, women, and children seemed to have but one idea, and that was to get out as quickly as possible… The roads were littered with dead and dying, wounded horses screaming their horrible scream kicking. The din was terrible. Shells would burst in the roads choked with people, but the momentary gap would immediately fill and the panic-stricken people would sweep over their own dead. 

Back at the front the British were still falling back in confusion north of the Menin Road, having lost hundreds of troops killed and taken prisoner, when around 4 p.m. the officers of the 1st Division ordered their troops to dig in around Gheluvelt, a small village on the Menin Road centered on an aristocratic chateau (pictured below). As the Germans tried to advance across open fields towards the village, the British machine guns cut them down mercilessly. One soldier in the Bavarian List Regiment, Adolf Hitler, wrote to a friend not long afterwards: “Because we had no cover, we simply had to press on. Our captain was in the lead now. Then men started to fall all around me. The English had turned their machine guns on us. We flung ourselves down and crawled through a gully.” 

As night fell the British were stretched dangerously thin in the face of superior enemy numbers, but Sir John French, overall commander of the British Expeditionary Force, somehow still believed they might be able to take the offensive the next day. He was soon disabused of this hope.  On October 30 the German assault would resume, following Fabeck’s order to his troops:

The breakthrough will be of decisive importance. We must and will conquer; settle forever the centuries-long struggle, end the war, and strike the decisive blow against our most-detested enemy. We will finish with the British, Indians, Canadians, Moroccans and other trash, feeble adversaries, who surrender in great numbers if they are attacked with vigor. 

This time Fourth and Sixth Armies would pin down the Allies with attacks all along the line, while Army Group Fabeck delivered the main against the British 7th Division and three cavalry divisions under Edmund Allenby to the south around Messines (the British 3rd Division was temporarily fighting with the cavalry too). 

As dawn was breaking on October 30, an even bigger artillery bombardment hit the poorly hidden trenches of the British 7th Division, which were quickly pulverized, sending the defenders fleeing backwards. The German 39th Division now captured the village of Zandvoorde, which gave them a good vantage point on British positions to the north, enabling them to wipe out whole British units with deadly accurate artillery fire.

But the diversionary attacks failed utterly and British troops tenaciously defended the eastern approaches to Ypres, falling back slowly while inflicting very heavy casualties on the advancing Germans with rifle and machine gun fire. By the early afternoon the Germans were shifting their main effort south towards the British cavalry near Messines, but achieved only modest success. At the end of the day the British had fallen back about two miles but still held the Messines Ridge, a key defensive position. 

The British had held off another all-out enemy assault, but Fabeck was determined to make one last push the following day – October 31, the critical day for the entire Battle of Ypres, when the Germans came closest to a major breakthrough. As before the main objective was the village of Gheluvelt.

At 6:45 a.m. the German attack began with yet another rolling bombardment followed immediately by the advance of the 54th Reserve Division, 30th Division, and 6th Bavarian Reserve Division against the British 1st Division. The Germans soon punched a hole in the center of the British line, where just 1,000 British troops, stretched to their breaking point and cut off from headquarters to the rear, staged a desperate defense against tens of thousands of German attackers; British rifle fire was so intense the Germans assumed, incorrectly, that they were facing machine guns. Unsurprisingly the massively outnumbered defenders were forced back, and around 10 am the Germans captured Gheluvelt, the last Allied defensive position on the way to Ypres and the English Channel beyond. 

Defeat was looming when a British officer, Brigadier General Charles FitzClarence, scraped together troops from the British 2nd Division to the north – the 2nd Battalion Worcesters, totaling just 364 officers and men, under Major Edward Hankey – and sent them to attack the Germans in Gheluvelt on their right flank. Over a quarter were wiped out in the first minutes of the advance across open fields, but the remaining attackers pounced on around 1,200 unsuspecting Germans (many drunk and looting the Gheluvelt chateau) who beat a panicked retreat from Gheluvelt, despite outnumbering the British by around six to one (top, British soldiers escort a German prisoner captured at Gheluvelt). The Worcesters made contact with the handful of beleaguered British troops holding out near the chateau and soon reestablished their defensive line. 

To the south fierce fighting was still going on, and attacks would continue along the entire front into November, leading up to one final German assault at Nonneboschen (the Nuns’ Woods) on November 11. But their hard-fought victory at Gheluvelt meant the British troops would enjoy the enormous advantage of defenders from now on, with predictably bloody consequences for the Germans. Private Edward Roe described one German attack on November 2: 

The Maxim on our right and the one on our left get going; they bring converging fire to bear on the advancing German lines. The lines wither and melt under the storm of well-directed fire It was too much for the Germans; they break and fall back in irregular lines and groups on their own trenches, leaving the… field strewn with dead, wounded, and dying in bear skin packs.

Meanwhile the psychological impact of unending combat, including the terror of infantry charges and the mind-numbing effects of relentless artillery fire, were becoming pronounced on both sides. Frederic Coleman, an American volunteering as a driver in the BEF, recalled: “The sensation was indescribable. A tearing at my nerve-centres seemed like to wrench apart some imaginary fabric of feeling and sensibility. It grew unbearable, but generally subsided with a lull in the shelling, leaving me tired, as if having suffered physical pain.” British war correspondent Philip Gibbs also noted the impact of shelling on ordinary soldiers:

… this shell-fire is not an ordinary test of courage. Courage is annihilated in the face of it. Something else takes its place – a philosophy of fatalism, sometimes an utter boredom with the way in which death plays the fool with men, threatening but failing to kill; in most cases a strange extinction of all emotions and sensations, so that men who have been long under shell-fire have a peculiar rigidity of the nervous system, as if something has been killed inside them, though outwardly they are still alive and untouched.

Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers 

As the fighting raged in Flanders, two thousand miles to the east the Allies suffered a giant setback with the Ottoman Empire’s entry into the war on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary, adding a whole new theater of war in the Middle East, where the Turks could threaten the Suez Canal, the lifeline of the British Empire, as well as Britain’s main source oil in Persia. Perhaps most importantly the Ottoman Empire’s closing of the Turkish straits meant the Western Allies could no longer deliver supplies, including much-needed ammunition, to Russia via the Black Sea. 

Led by War Minister Enver Pasha, the Young Turk triumvirate which effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire had signed a secret treaty of alliance with Germany back in August, just as the war was beginning – but then dragged their feet when it came to actually joining hostilities, partly because it took so long for the empire’s military to mobilize for action, and partly because they demanded five million Turkish gold pounds from the Germans as their price for entering the war. 

By late October the money had arrived and Enver Pasha believed the empire was ready, or at least as ready as it would ever be, but he still faced doubts from figurehead Grand Vizier Said Halim, not to mention his fellow triumvirs Djemal Pasha and Talaat Pasha, who wanted to ask the Germans for even more time to prepare (the other members of the Turkish cabinet opposed the decision to enter the war outright, but were sidelined by the triumvirs). 

Fearing that the Germans might decide to abandon their alliance, Enver decided to give his colleagues a fait accompli: on October 24 he authorized Admiral Souchon, the German commander of the Goeben and Breslau (sold to Turkey by Germany to complete the alliance, but still manned by German crews) to steam into the Black Sea and conduct a surprise attack on Russian naval facilities.

On October 27, 1914, the Goeben and Breslau sailed from Constantinople, supposedly on a training exercise, and on October 29 Souchon reported the ships had been attacked by Russian vessels without provocation – a total fabrication. This gave him the excuse he needed to bombard the Russian ports of Odessa, Sevastopol, and Novorossiysk (above, oil tanks burning at Novorossisysk). As expected, most of the Turkish cabinet resigned in protest, but were powerless to stop the Young Turk triumvirate, which already wielded dictatorial powers, from plunging the Ottoman Empire into the greatest conflagration the world had ever known. 

(Click to enlarge)

While the war would spell the empire’s doom in the long run, in the short term it presented an alarming escalation for the already-overtaxed Allies. Almost immediately the Turkish Fourth Army, based in Damascus, began moving south in preparation for an attack on the Suez Canal. Meanwhile the Russians mobilized their Caucasus Army to attack the Turks in eastern Anatolia. Unsurprisingly the Russians counted on the Christian Armenians who lived there as allies against their hated Turkish overlords – fueling Turkish suspicions of Armenian disloyalty. Before long the Young Turks began plotting a campaign of genocide to settle the “Armenian question” once and for all.

See the previous installment or all entries.

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8 Things We Know About Stranger Things Season 3
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[Warning: There are lots of Stranger Things season two spoilers ahead.]

Stranger Things season two is in the books, and like we all hoped, it turned out to be a worthy follow-up to an addictive debut season. Now, though, we’re left with plenty of questions, mysteries, and theories to chew on as the wait for a third season begins. But for everything we don’t know about what the next year of Stranger Things will bring us (such as an actual release date), there are more than enough things we do know to keep those fan theories coming well into 2018. While the show hasn't been officially greenlit for a third season by Netflix yet, new details have already begun to trickle out. Here’s everything we know about Stranger Things season three so far.

1. THERE WILL BE ANOTHER TIME JUMP.

The third season of Stranger Things won’t pick up right where the second one left off. Like the show experienced between the first two seasons, there will be a time jump between seasons two and three as well. The reason is simple: the child actors are all growing up, and instead of having the kids look noticeably older without explanation for year three, the Duffer Brothers told The Hollywood Reporter:

“Our kids are aging. We can only write and produce the show so fast. They're going to be almost a year older by the time we start shooting season three. It provides certain challenges. You can't start right after season two ended. It forces you to do a time jump. But what I like is that it makes you evolve the show. It forces the show to evolve and change, because the kids are changing.”

2. THE IDEA IS TO BE SMALLER IN SCALE.

If the series’s second season was about expanding the Stranger Things mythology, the third season won't go bigger just for the sake of it, with the brothers even going so far as to say that it will be a more intimate story.

“It’s not necessarily going to be bigger in scale,” Matt Duffer said in an interview with IndieWire. “What I am really excited about is giving these characters an interesting journey to go on.”

Ross Duffer did stress, though, that as of early November, season three is basically “… Matt and me working with some writers and figuring out where it’s going to go.”

3. THE MIND FLAYER WILL BE BACK.

The second season ended on a bit of a foreboding note when it was revealed that the Mind Flayer was still in the Upside Down and was seen looming over the Hawkins school as the winter dance was going on. Though we know there will be a time jump at the start of next season, it’s clear that the monster will still have a big presence on the show.

Executive producer Dan Cohen told TV Guide: "There were other ways we could have ended beyond that, but I think that was a very strong, lyrical ending, and it really lets us decide to focus where we ultimately are going to want to go as we dive into Season 3."

What does the Mind Flayer’s presence mean for the new crop of episodes? Well, there will be plenty of fan theories to ponder between now and the season three premiere (whenever that may be).

4. PLENTY OF LEFTOVER SEASON TWO STORYLINES WILL BE IN SEASON THREE.

The Duffer Brothers had a lot of material for the latest season of the show—probably a bit too much. Talking to Vulture, Matt Duffer detailed a few details and plot points that had to be pushed to season three:

"Billy was supposed to have a bigger role. We ended up having so many characters it ended up, in a way, more teed up for season three than anything. There was a whole teen supernatural story line that just got booted because it was just too cluttered, you know? A lot of that’s just getting kicked into season three."

The good news is that he also told the site that this wealth of cut material could make the writing process for the third season much quicker.

5. THERE WILL BE MORE ERICA.

Stranger Things already had a roster of fan-favorite characters heading into season two, but newcomer Erica, Lucas’s little sister, may have overshadowed them all. Played by 11-year-old Priah Ferguson, Erica is equal parts expressive, snarky, and charismatic. And the Duffer Brothers couldn’t agree more, saying that there will be much more Erica next season.

“There will definitely be more Erica in Season 3,” Ross Duffer told Yahoo!. “That is the fun thing about the show—you discover stuff as you’re filming. We were able to integrate more of her in, but not as much you want because the story [was] already going. ‘We got to use more Erica’—that was one of the first things we said in the writers’ room.”

“I thought she’s very GIF-able, if that’s a word,” Matt Duffer added. “She was great.”

6. EXPECT KALI TO RETURN.

The season two episode “The Lost Sister” was a bit of an outlier for the series. It’s a standalone episode that focuses solely on the character Eleven, leaving the central plot and main cast of Hawkins behind. As well-received as Stranger Things season two was, this episode was a near-unanimous miss among fans and critics.

The episode did, however, introduce us to the character of Kali (Linnea Berthelsen), who has the ability to manipulate people’s minds with illusions she creates. Despite the reaction, the Duffers felt the episode was vital to Eleven’s development, and that Kali won’t be forgotten moving forward.

“It feels weird to me that we wouldn’t solve [Kali’s] storyline. I would say chances are very high she comes back,” Matt Duffer said at the Vulture Festival.

7. OTHER "NUMBERS" MIGHT SHOW UP.

We're already well acquainted with Eleven, and season two introduced us to Eight (a.k.a. Kali), and executive producer Shawn Levy heavily hinted to E! that there are probably more Hawkins Laboratory experiments on the horizon.

"I think we've clearly implied there are other numbers, and I can't imagine that the world will only ever know Eleven and Eight," Levy said.

8. THERE MIGHT NOT BE MANY SEASONS LEFT.

Don’t be in too much of a rush to find out everything about the next season of Stranger Things; there might not be many more left. The Duffer Brothers have said in the past that the plan is to do four seasons and end it. However, Levy gave fans a glimmer of hope that things may go on a little while longer—just by a bit, though.

“Hearts were heard breaking in Netflix headquarters when the Brothers made four seasons sound like an official end, and I was suddenly getting phone calls from our actors’ agents,” Levy told Entertainment Weekly. “The truth is we’re definitely going four seasons and there’s very much the possibility of a fifth. Beyond that, it becomes I think very unlikely.”

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15 Things You Might Not Know About Mystery Science Theater 3000
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While the rest of America was slipping into a turkey coma on Thanksgiving Day in 1988, Minneapolis area residents lucky enough to get clear reception of local UHF channel KTMA were getting the first taste of what would soon become a Turkey Day tradition: Mystery Science Theater 3000, the classic cult television show which made a sport out of mocking schlocky movies of the past. The premise was simple: two mad scientists, Dr. Clayton Forrester and Dr. Laurence Erhardt, launch a janitor (local comedian Joel Hodgson, as Joel Robinson) into space to study the effect bad movies have on the human mind in order to determine the single film that can help them in their efforts toward world domination.

But as it turns out, human beings can withstand a whole lot of bad acting, sloppy pacing, and ridiculous dialogue. Rather than drive them to the brink of insanity, Joel and the robot friends he built while orbiting Earth—Tom Servo, Crow T. Robot, Gypsy, and Cambot—found a certain amount of pleasure in having to endure these B-movies, spending the bulk of the show offering their own bitingly funny analyses of the on-screen happenings. It didn’t take long for audiences to catch on, or for MST3K to migrate to a national stage.

1. MYSTERY SCIENCE THEATER 3000 WAS BORN FROM FINANCIAL RESTRAINTS.

After trying his luck on the grander Hollywood stage for a few years, comedian Joel Hodgson moved back to Minneapolis with the idea of launching his own television show. There was just one problem: he had no budget. “Basically, Mystery Science Theater came from me saying, ‘What’s the cheapest possible show I could create that would still be novel and bring something new, [and] kind of have a new angle of doing something funny?’” Hodgson told Flavorwire of the show’s origins. “It all just came together, basically, at that point when I realized it could be like hosting a movie show, and if I utilized the silhouette thing, the characters will kind of run not only through the host segments, but through the entire movie, and they’ll be, like, companions.” 

2. THE “3000” IN THE TITLE WAS MEANT TO BE CONFOUNDING.

“The 3000 was a joke on all the people that were attaching the year 2000 to various programs,” said Hodgson in a 2011 interview with Art of the Title. “In the late ’80s it was everywhere: ‘America 2000’ was something that George Bush Sr. was talking about a lot so I thought, ‘Wouldn’t it be cool if I name it 3000 just to confound people?’ But there was a lot of confusion about it. I never meant for the show to take place in the year 3000. That simply makes no sense! If it is the year 3000, then why are all the films and the references about the end of the 20th century? For the concept of the show, it’s just a series number like Galaxie 500 or HAL 9000. Fords aren’t from the year 500 and the HAL wasn’t from the year 9000. In hindsight, I think it’s likely that the Mads were trying to snazz up the name of the show by tacking on the 3000.” 

3. IN ORDER TO GAUGE THE AUDIENCE’S REACTION, THE PRODUCERS SET UP A PHONE LINE.

Even after its initial debut, the creators of MST3K had no idea whether the show had connected with audiences. So writer-producer Jim Mallon (who voiced Gypsy) suggested they set up a viewer hotline and run the number during the next airing. “When we checked the answering machine on Monday, it was full,” Hodgson told Flavorwire. “So people just reacted to it.” This led Hodgson and company to set up a local fan club for the show, which quickly acquired 1000 members.

4. MST3K’S (FIRST) CANCELLATION WAS ALSO BORN FROM FINANCIAL RESTRAINTS.

As MST3K’s popularity was rising, the fortunes of its broadcaster—KTMA—were moving in the opposite direction, which led to the show’s (first) cancellation in May of 1989. As a thank you to the many local fans who had tuned in religiously, the cast put on a live version of the show at the Comedy Gallery, which attracted an audience of more than 600.

As MST3K neared the end of its run on KTMA, the producers put together a short “best of” reel in order to pitch it to other networks. The show caught the attention of executives at The Comedy Channel, a brand-new, 24-hour comedy network owned by HBO, which premiered on November 15, 1989. Three days later, Mystery Science Theater 3000 made its national debut as one of the channel’s anchor programs.

5. AS PART OF THE COMEDY CHANNEL DEAL, HODGSON AND MALLON INSISTED ON KEEPING ITS PRODUCTION IN MINNEAPOLIS.

While the bulk of The Comedy Channel’s programming was produced on site in New York City, the channel agreed to let Hodgson and Mallon continue shooting in Minneapolis. They did, however, spruce up the look of the show with new sets, revamped robots, and a new opening title sequence. 

6. THE BIGGEST CHANGE TO THE MST3K FORMULA WAS IN TURNING TO A SCRIPTED FORMAT.


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The early episodes of MST3K were ad-libbed, but in 1989, Hodgson decided that the show should take a turn for the scripted. As part of this change, Hodgson hired writer (and future host) Michael J. Nelson. “I hired Mike based on his act at an open mic and a recommendation from Josh [Weinstein],” Hodgson told Mental Floss. “Also writing the eps was my call.”

7. IN 1991, MST3K BEGAN A NEW THANKSGIVING DAY TRADITION.

MST3K became Comedy Central’s signature series, with executives nearly doubling its run from 13 to 24 episodes per year in 1991. On Thanksgiving of the same year it launched what would become an annual event: a 30-hour MST3K marathon that came to be known as “Turkey Day,” featuring back-to-back episodes plus behind-the-scenes spots and interviews. In the four years it ran, several of the stars of the films the series mocked—including Adam West (star of Zombie Nightmare), Robert Vaughn (of Teenage Cave Man), and Mamie van Doren (of Untamed Youth and Girls Town)—hosted “Turkey Day.” In honor of the show’s 25th anniversary, Hodgson brought back “Turkey Day” in 2013. For 2017, the marathon will stream via Shout! Factory, beginning at 12 p.m. ET.

8. JOEL’S DEPARTURE IN 1993 WAS THE RESULT OF CREATIVE DIFFERENCES.

After sitting through his final test of cinematic endurance (Mitchell, starring Joe Don Baker—a skewering that led Baker to claim that if he ever met anyone from the show he would “kick their asses”), Joel managed to escape the Satellite of Love with the help of an office temp, Mike Nelson, who the Mads then captured in place of Joel. In a 1999 interview with The A.V. Club, Hodgson admitted that his decision to leave the show was because of disagreements with Jim Mallon. “You can't really be fighting with someone and doing all the stuff you have to do,” said Hodgson. “I think what made the show work for me was that I really loved it. I really liked the audience, and the whole process was ... I was really happy doing it, and I realized that I'd turn into Jerry Lewis or something if I started to kind of hate it. And that was starting to happen, just because of these conflicts I was having internally with Jim … The thing would have blown up if we both would have stayed there. I like to look at it like the story of King Solomon, when the baby was brought before him.”

9. WHEN COMEDY CENTRAL CANCELLED MST3K IN 1996, FANS (A.K.A. MSTIES) TOOK IT UPON THEMSELVES TO RESURRECT THE SERIES.

Viewers put pen to paper and began a massive letter-writing campaign to save the series. The fan outburst didn’t change Comedy Central’s mind, but executives at the Sci-Fi Channel (now Syfy) understood their plight. And so on February 1, 1997, MST3K began its eighth season on its third network. The episode introduced audiences to Professor Bobo, an ape from the year 2525.

In 1999, Mystery Science Theater 3000 was cancelled again, and fans once again launched a campaign to see the show resurrected, with Entertainment Weekly reporting that “efforts to save the show include more than a dozen ‘Save MST3K’ websites, a letter-writing push, and a pledge drive for ‘Save MST3K’ print ads.” The campaign led to a full-page ad in Daily Variety, but Sci-Fi Channel decision-makers remained unmoved, with then-VP of programming Bonnie Hammer citing low ratings coupled with the rising costs of securing film rights (for movies to be ridiculed by the cast) as the problem. Sensing the end was truly near, Nelson admitted: “I'm hoping to find a rich guy to just keep me in his living room and heckle live.” 

10. KURT VONNEGUT, JR. WASN’T A FAN.

In 1996, Jim Mallon and writers Trace Beaulieu and Kevin Murphy released the ultimate fan guide, Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Amazing Colossal Episode Guide. In it, Murphy shares the story about meeting his literary hero, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., and telling him about the show and its premise. Vonnegut was not impressed, telling Murphy that every artist deserves respect, even those who produce a bad movie. Still, Murphy couldn’t resist the opportunity to invite Vonnegut out to dinner, which the author politely declined, stating he had other plans. At dinner that night, Murphy and Vonnegut ended up dining at the same restaurant—except Vonnegut was alone, prompting Murphy to admit that he had been “faced ... but nicely faced.”

11. FRANK ZAPPA WAS A FAN.

Frank Zappa was an admitted monster movie fanatic, and wasn’t shy about his love of Mystery Science Theater 3000 during its run. A 1997 article in Total TV Online noted: “MST3K … made the late Frank Zappa an instant convert when he channel surfed into ‘this guy wearing a clown nose and a beanie copter roasting a puppet over an open fire.’ The clown was now-departed (and much beloved) Founding Father Joel Hodgson; the roasted puppet was plucky Tom Servo; and Zappa was equally bemused by the cinematic turkeys being roasted for the main course. ‘He just loved crummy old science fiction movies,’ says writer and voice of Servo Kevin Murphy, who thought ‘Frank Zappa on line one’ was a joke until he picked up the phone.” The show’s producers and Zappa had even discussed plans to collaborate on a giant spider movie; episode 523 was dedicated to Zappa following his passing. 

12. A HUMAN-LESS MST3K WEB SERIES DEBUTED IN 2007.

On November 5, 2007, Mallon debuted an animated Web series, The Bots Are Back!, which followed Tom Servo, Crow and Gypsy’s adventures in space. Fan response was not positive, and only four episodes were ever released.

13. THE WORLD HAS MST3K TO THANK FOR HOBGOBLINS 2.

While not every filmmaker whose worked featured on the series was happy about the development, Hobgoblins director Rick Sloane came to see the positive side of the skewering. "I met Mary Jo Pehl a number of years later and she said I was the only director who ever liked the MST3K treatment of their own film," Sloane told Esquire. "They improved the film dramatically. It was barely watchable in its original version. While I enjoyed every joke that was at an actor's expense, I was seriously horrified when they did the fake interview with me over the end credits. It's become a fan-favorite joke and is constantly quoted on the Internet." But there was an upside to the notoriety: Hobgoblins became so widely known, that it led to the opportunity for a sequel. "I admitted from day one that Hobgoblins 2 was only possible because of the success of MST3K's revival of the original," said Sloane. "I submitted Hobgoblins 2 to both Cinematic Titanic and Rifftrax, but they both thought it was too easy of a target."

14. THE SHOW'S TITLE SPAWNED A VERB.

MSTing” is a practice that exists in the fan fiction universe, typically written in a transcript format, in which the characters of one piece of fic (or MST3K’s own characters) commentate another piece of fic. The process is also referred to as sporking.

15. THE RIFFING LIVES ON.

When new episodes of Mystery Science Theater 3000 stopped being produced, the original cast kept riffing. In 2006, Mike Nelson, Kevin Murphy, and Bill Corbett introduced a Web series called RiffTrax, which allows customers to download commentary tracks to sync with a movie. Throughout the year, the group also presents several RiffTrax Live performances at cinemas around the country. In 2007, Joel Hodgson, Trace Beaulieu, Josh Weinstein, Frank Conniff, and Mary Jo Pehl launched Cinematic Titanic, offering a selection of riffed DVDs and a series of live events.

In 2017, a new generation of fans were introduced to Mystery Science Theater 3000 when—after a successful Kickstarter campaign to bring the series back—Netflix debuted Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Return, with Jonah Ray hosting.

An earlier version of this post originally appeared in 2013.

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