7 Weird Graveyard Inventions

iStock
iStock

If necessity is the mother of invention, death is its eccentric aunt. For centuries, humankind has been preoccupied with what happens to our bodies after we die. The result has been a grim procession of inventions intended to make our graves safer, sturdier, and in some cases, easier to flee. Some of these grave innovations are practical, but others border on the bizarre and downright creepy. Here are seven of the strangest.

1. THE SAFETY COFFIN

Leave it to the Victorians to fear being buried alive more than death itself. In the late 19th century, books and newspapers were full of stories of terrifying premature internments, although it's not clear how many actually occurred. The solution to the possibly-made-up problem was the safety coffin, or coffin alarm. These devices—of which there were several—most often employed a bell or other noise-making apparatus that could be manipulated by a person trapped inside a buried coffin to alert those aboveground. Many also included a hatch that would let fresh air into the coffin, allowing the prematurely buried victim to breathe until rescue came. One of the more famous of these devices was created by the Russian Count Michel de Karnice-Karnicki, and included a spring-loaded compartment atop the grave that would pop open like a jack-in-the box if there were any bodily movement below.

2. THE ESCAPE COFFIN

A more elaborate cousin of the safety coffin, escape coffins were built for those prematurely declared dead who didn’t have the patience to wait for someone else to come to the rescue. One such coffin, patented in 1843 and intended for use in vaults, had a spring-loaded lid that could be opened with the merest movement of a head or hand. Another more extreme example was the burial vault retired firefighter Thomas Pursell designed for himself and his family at a cemetery in Westport, Pennsylvania. The ventilated vault could be opened from the inside by a patented wheel lock. Pursell was indeed buried there in 1937, but so far he has not emerged.

3. THE WAITING MORTUARY

The waiting mortuary, a slightly more practical approach to avoiding premature burial, was most popular in Germany in the 19th century. Corpses were laid out inside these stately halls and monitored day and night for signs of revival or, more often than not, decomposition. Sometimes, strings attached to bells would be tied around fingers and toes—a precursor to the coffin alarm. When Mark Twain visited one in Munich in 1880, he wrote:

"There were 36 corpses of adults in sight, stretched on their backs on slightly slanted boards, in three long rows—all of them with wax-white, rigid faces, and all of them wrapped in white shrouds. Along the sides of the room were deep alcoves, like bay windows, and in each of these lay several marble-visaged babes, utterly hidden and buried under banks of fresh flowers ... Around a finger of each of these fifty still forms, both great and small, was a ring, and from the ring a wire led to the ceiling, and thence to a bell in a watch-room yonder, where, day and night, a watchman always sits alert and ready to spring to the aid of any of that pallid company who, waked out of death, shall make a movement."

4. CAST-IRON COFFINS

Inventor Almond D. Fisk was less concerned with premature burial than he was with delayed burial, such as when someone died overseas and transporting the body home would take weeks. In 1848, he patented his cast-iron coffin, which could preserve bodies for extended periods of time. Similar in shape to an Egyptian sarcophagus, these ornate coffins also included hinged faceplates, which could be opened to reveal the face of the deceased through a pane of glass.

5. REUSABLE COFFINS

Around 1784, Austria’s Emperor Joseph II grew so concerned about Vienna’s extravagant funerals (not to mention dwindling wood supplies and cemetery space) that he instituted the use of a reusable coffin. The wooden coffin contained a trap door in the bottom through which corpses, wrapped in sacks, would be discreetly dropped into their graves. The coffin could then be reused for other funerals, which would save wood and hasten decomposition of Vienna’s dead. The Viennese, however, were outraged at such an invention, and the drop-bottom coffin order was rescinded, meaning that reusable coffins never actually became part of Viennese funeral customs.

6. MORTSAFES

A mortsafe on a mossy grave at St Mary's Churchard, Holystone, England
A mortsafe at St Mary's Churchard, Holystone, England

In the 19th century, grave robbers known as "resurrection men" prowled UK and American cemeteries looking for fresh corpses to sell to medical schools. The problem was especially grave, pun intended, in Scotland. Thus came the mortsafe, a heavy wrought-iron cage or stone placed over gravesites to prevent the theft of corpses. It would be placed over the grave for a few weeks until the robbers lost interest, and then sometimes moved to a new grave. Although the practice of grave robbing diminished in the UK after the Anatomy Act of 1832, which gave medical schools a legal way to obtain cadavers for study, mortsafes would survive a few more decades. They can sometimes still be seen on older burials, and are occasionally misinterpreted as cages meant to keep vampires from rising from their graves.

7. COFFIN TORPEDOS

When incidents of corpse stealing increased after the U.S. Civil War, trigger-happy Americans had a more explosive way of theft-proofing their graves—the coffin torpedo. Contrary to what its name implies, a coffin torpedo was either a greatly modified firearm that shot lead balls when triggered by the opening of the coffin lid or a landmine-like device that sat atop the coffin and would detonate if the grave was disturbed.

A version of this story originally ran in 2014.

All 73 Game of Thrones Episodes Ranked, According to IMDb Users

Kit Harington in "The Battle of the Bastards" episode of Game of Thrones
Kit Harington in "The Battle of the Bastards" episode of Game of Thrones
HBO

Next time you're in the middle of a large gathering of Game of Thrones fans, try this little experiment: Ask them to rattle of their five favorite episodes of the series, in order of preference. While you'll likely hear some of the same titles—"The Rains of Castamere" and "Battle of the Bastards" are practically givens—the order in which each person's favorite episodes rank will surely vary, as entertainment is a subjective thing.

Though it may be impossible to create a definitive ranking of the best Game of Thrones episodes, you can find a general consensus—just like IMDb has. And according to the online movie database's users, "The Rains of Castamere" (a.k.a. The Red Wedding episode), "Hardhome," "Battle of the Bastards," and "The Winds of Winter" each score a near-perfect 9.9 out of 10.

At the bottom of the list for these same users? "The Iron Throne," the series finale that has audiences divided and only managed to score a 4.6 rating on the site so far (though that's according to more than 100,000 people—and growing).

Where does your favorite episode rank? Check out IMDb's ranking of all 73 episodes of the series below to find out.

  1. “The Rains of Castamere,” Season 3, Episode 9 // 9.9
  2. “Hardhome,” Season 5, Episode 8 // 9.9
  3. “Battle of the Bastards,” Season 6, Episode 9 // 9.9
  4. “The Winds of Winter,” Season 6, Episode 10 // 9.9
  5. “The Spoils of War,” Season 7, Episode 4 // 9.8
  6. “Blackwater,” Season 2, Episode 9 // 9.7
  7. “The Children,” Season 4, Episode 10 // 9.7
  8. “The Laws of Gods and Men,” Season 4, Episode 6 // 9.7
  9. “The Mountain and the Viper,” Season 4, Episode 8 // 9.7
  10. “The Lion and the Rose,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 9.7
  11. “The Door,” Season 6, Episode 5 // 9.7
  12. “Baelor,” Season 1, Episode 9 // 9.6
  13. “And Now His Watch Is Ended,” Season 3, Episode 4 // 9.6
  14. “The Watchers on the Wall,” Season 4, Episode 9 // 9.6
  15. “Fire and Blood,” Season 1, Episode 10 // 9.5
  16. “The Dance of Dragons,” Season 5, Episode 9 // 9.5
  17. “The Dragon and the Wolf,” Season 7, Episode 7 // 9.5
  18. “Valar Morghulis,” Season 2, Episode 10 // 9.4
  19. “Home,” Season 6, Episode 2 // 9.4
  20. “You Win or You Die,” Season 1, Episode 8 // 9.3
  21. “The Queen’s Justice,” Season 7, Episode 3 // 9.3
  22. “A Golden Crown,” Season 1, Episode 6 // 9.2
  23. “Mhysa,” Season 3, Episode 10 // 9.2
  24. “Mockingbird,” Season 4, Episode 7 // 9.2
  25. “Book of the Stranger,” Season 6, Episode 4 // 9.2
  26. “Winter is Coming,” Season 1, Episode 1 // 9.1
  27. “The Wolf and the Lion,” Season 1, Episode 5 // 9.1
  28. “The Pointy End,” Season 1, Episode 8 // 9.1
  29. “The Old Gods and the New,” Season 2, Episode 6 // 9.1
  30. “Kissed by Fire,” Season 3, Episode 5 // 9.1
  31. “Second Songs,” Season 3, Episode 8 // 9.1
  32. “Two Swords,” Season 4, Episode 1 // 9.1
  33. “The Gift,” Season 5, Episode 7 // 9.1
  34. “Mother’s Mercy,” Season 5, Episode 10 // 9.1
  35. “Beyond the Wall,” Season 7, Episode 6 // 9.1
  36. “A Man Without Honor,” Season 2, Episode 7 // 9.0
  37. “Stormborn,” Season 7, Episode 2 // 9.0
  38. “The North Remembers,” Season 2, Episode 1 // 8.9
  39. “What Is Dead May Never Die,” Season 2, Episode 3 // 8.9
  40. “Garden of Bones,” Season 2, Episode 4 // 8.9
  41. “The Ghost of Harrenhal,” Season 2, Episode 5 // 8.9
  42. “The Prince of Winterfell,” Season 2, Episode 8 // 8.9
  43. “The Climb,” Season 3, Episode 6 // 8.9
  44. “Valar Dohaeris,” Season 3, Episode 1 // 8.9
  45. “Walk of Punishment,” Season 3, Episode 3 // 8.9
  46. “Breaker of Chains,” Season 4, Episode 3 // 8.9
  47. “Oathkeeper,” Season 4, Episode 4 // 8.9
  48. “Eastwatch,” Season 7, Episode 5 // 8.9
  49. “The Kingsroad,” Season 1, Episode 2 // 8.8
  50. “Cripples, Bastards, and Broken Things,” Season 1, Episode 4 // 8.8
  51. “The Bear and the Maiden Fair,” Season 3, Episode 7 // 8.8
  52. “First of His Name,” Season 5, Episode 5 // 8.8
  53. “Sons of the Harpy,” Season 5, Episode 4 // 8.8
  54. “Oathbreaker,” Season 6, Episode 3 // 8.8
  55. “Lord Snow,” Season 1, Episode 3 // 8.7
  56. “Dark Wings, Dark Words,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 8.7
  57. “Kill the Boy,” Season 5, Episode 5 // 8.7
  58. “The Broken Man,” Season 6, Episode 7 // 8.7
  59. “Dragonstone,” Season 7, Episode 1 // 8.7
  60. “The Night Lands,” Season 2, Episode 2 // 8.6
  61. “The Wars to Come,” Season 5, Episode 1 // 8.6
  62. “The House of Black and White,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 8.6
  63. “High Sparrow,” Season 5, Episode 3 // 8.6
  64. “The Red Woman,” Season 6, Episode 1 // 8.6
  65. “Blood of My Blood,” Season 6, Episode 6 // 8.5
  66. “No One,” Season 6, Episode 8 // 8.5
  67. “A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms,” Season 8, Episode 2 // 8.2
  68. “Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken,” Season 5, Episode 6 // 8.1
  69. “Winterfell,” Season 8, Episode 1 // 7.9
  70. “The Long Night,” Season 8, Episode 3 // 7.8
  71. “The Bells,” Season 8, Episode 5 // 6.5
  72. “The Last of the Starks,” Season 8, Episode 4 // 5.9
  73. “The Iron Throne,” Season 8, Episode 6 // 4.6

6 Things You Might Have Missed in 'The Iron Throne,' Game of Thrones's Series Finale

Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Helen Sloan, HBO

No matter how you feel about "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale, it goes without saying that many fans of the show are in a state of mourning right now. One of the greatest shows in television history has come to an end. And while the ending, unsurprisingly, didn't please everyone, we're still sad to see the series go.

You can, of course, re-watch Game of Thrones at any time—and a repeat viewing of the finale might be a good idea. Emotions were running high during the final episode, which means that you might have missed a few small-but-important details.

1. The Opening Sequence Tweak that Signified the End of the Lannisters' Reign

Game of Thrones's opening credits are regularly tweaked to illustrate changes within the Seven Kingdoms. So it would make sense that the finale’s opening credits contained a few adjustments to account for the destruction of King’s Landing in "The Bells." One change that might have gone unnoticed by many was that above the Iron Throne, the lion head representing House Lannister was absent, signaling that Cersei Lannister was no longer the queen.

2. Daenerys's Depiction as the Angel of Death

Many fans on social media were quick to point out how beautiful the shot of Drogon flying up behind Daenerys was toward the beginning of the episode, which momentarily made it look as if the Mother of Dragons had her own wings. But it also made her look like an angel of death, with the dark lighting and considering the darker tone of the scene. This, of course, seemed to foreshadow her death, which came shortly thereafter at the hands of Jon Snow.

3. An Obvious Nod to The Lord of the Rings

There are multiple references to The Lord of the Rings throughout Game of Thrones, but the finale saw one major parallel between the two fantasy franchises. As Vanity Fair predicted, Game of Thrones's Iron Throne basically became the ring from The Lord of the Rings. And unfortunately, that brings up a comparison between Daenerys and Gollum.

“Like Tolkien’s Ring of Power, the Iron Throne seems to corrupt and breaks all who touch it and all that would possess it. You win the game of thrones, or you die. Daenerys may want the throne the most, and, arguably, has done the most to get it,” Vanity Fair wrote.

Ultimately, the final episode showed the Iron Throne being destroyed—just as the ring was in The Lord of the Rings—and Daenerys was brought down with it. While it’s difficult to see similarities between Dany and a character like Gollum, they did meet very similar fates.

4. Brienne’s Callback to Season 4

Although Brienne of Tarth had her heart broken by Jaime Lannister, she still took it upon herself to fill out his history in the White Book during the finale. We saw the pair discuss this “duty of the Lord Commander” back in season 4, as Vanity Fair pointed out. In the scene, Jaime told Brienne that there was “still plenty of room” on his page. So after his death, Brienne, now the head of the Kingsguard, respectfully recorded all of Jaime’s heroic acts, concluding with how he “died protecting his queen.”

5. Tormund's Prediction of Jon’s Fate

As a fan on Reddit had theorized earlier in the season, it seems Tormund knew that Jon would be back at Castle Black after the battle at King’s Landing. During their farewell at Winterfell, the wildling was not convinced the two would never see each other again. After embracing, Tormund told Jon, “You got the north in you, the real north.” Some thought the conversation hinted at Jon’s fate in the finale, and they were spot-on.

6. The Series' Final Scene Mirroring the Series' First Scene

While countless events have happened between the show’s pilot and its finale—events that changed Westeros forever—the final moments of "The Iron Throne" were almost identical to the opening scene in Game of Thrones's pilot episode. As the finale saw Jon going back up north with the wildlings, we get a scene of them traveling beyond the wall. This is similar to how the series started, which showed a few members of the Night’s Watch treading into the same unknown territory.

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