6 Things You Might Not Know About Ebola

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There's been a new outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Eleven people have been sickened by the disease, and one has died. Here are some things you might not have known about Ebola.

1. THERE'S MORE THAN ONE KIND OF EBOLAVIRUS.

Five species of Ebolavirus have been identified, each named after the place they sprung up: Ebola (formerly Zaire), Bundibugyo, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Reston. All but one—Reston—arose in Africa. The Reston subtype is named after a town in Virginia where an outbreak occurred in 1989, followed by incidents in Texas and Pennsylvania; all three were tied to infected monkeys exported by a single facility in the Philippines. All Ebolavirus species affect people and nonhuman primates—monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees—but Reston doesn't cause detectable disease in humans.

2. EBOLA HIJACKS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

Researchers are finding out just how clever Ebola is. One key to its lethal success is the stealth way it shuts down immune system defenses, the same way an air force will disable air defenses before sending in the bombers. Ebola obstructs parts of an immune system that are activated by molecules called interferons. These interferons have a vital role in fighting Ebola, usually with scorched-earth tactics such as apoptosis, or cell self-destruction. A 2014 study found that Ebola disables signals the cells use to defend against its attack using a protein called VP24, which binds to a specific protein that takes signaling molecules in and out a cell's nucleus. Blocked from communication, the cell can't call for help or get the order to self-destruct. The virus then hijacks the cell, uses it to make more viruses, and spreads them to more cells. It also produces ebolavirus glycoprotein, which binds to cells inside blood vessels, increasing their permeability and leading to leakage. This contributes to the catastrophic bleeding characteristic of late-stage Ebola infection.

3. BATS ARE THOUGHT TO BE THE KEY HOSTS OF EBOLA.

CDC illustration of cycle of ebola infection from bats to humans and animals

Scientists believe that Ebola's natural host species, or "reservoir hosts," are bats. Infected bats can pass the virus to other mammals, including rats, primates, and us. No one is sure how people first became exposed to Ebola, but the best guess is that monkeys were the conduit. Local hunters in Africa likely became infected while butchering the animals. Anyone who became sick likely infected their family and, if hospitalized in an unsanitary facility, other patients. When the illness spreads from person to person, it does so through direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone who is sick with or has died from Ebola.

4. MEDICAL DETECTIVE WORK IS THE ONLY WAY TO STOP AN EBOLA OUTBREAK.

It takes the investigative skill of a homicide detective to stop an outbreak. Professionals call it contact tracing. Here's how it works: Ebola victim A is isolated and interviewed. Anyone who had close contact with A is put into quarantine for 21 days. If they exhibit no symptoms, they're free to go when the three weeks are up. If they come down with Ebola, they become victim B, and another contact trace begins. If the investigators miss anyone, the outbreak will continue.

5. HAVING MALARIA AND EBOLA AT THE SAME TIME MAY HELP PEOPLE SURVIVE.

Researchers analyzing the the 2014 outbreak of Ebola in West Africa made a surprising finding: patients who had an active malaria parasite infection were actually more likely to survive the Ebola virus, and by a significant degree. While just over half (52 percent) of Ebola patients not infected with malaria survived, those co-infected with malaria had a survival rate of 72 to 83 percent, depending on their ages and the amount of Ebola virus in their blood. The researchers aren't yet sure why, but the prevailing theory is that malaria somehow modifies the immune response to Ebola by toning down a phenomenon called the "cytokine storm"—the body's own response to an Ebola infection, which inadvertently kills the host while attempting to eliminate the pathogen. If malaria can dampen this response, infected patients may have a better chance of surviving.

6. IF YOU'RE A SCIENTIST, YOU CAN ORDER EBOLA ONLINE.

We do not yet have a vaccine or antiviral drug to treat Ebola, but many scientists are working to find one. One source is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)'s BEI Resources, which gives research facilities access to microbiological materials called reagents that can help them develop diagnostics and vaccines for emerging diseases, including Ebola. Scientists must be registered with BEI to request materials. Reagents are not active viruses, so they can't spread; on the biosafety level, or BSL, scale—which ranks the severity of infectious disease and sets required safety protocols for working with them in a lab—the Ebola-related reagents are considered BLS 1—the lowest risk. (Live Ebola virus is BLS 4—the highest.) Ordering is limited to one Ebola-related reagent at a time, and can be ordered only twice per year.

6 Dreaded Tasks That Are Actually Great For Managing Stress

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High levels of the stress hormone cortisol can wreak havoc on your body. (According to a recent study on middle-aged adults, stress not only impairs memory but may even cause the brain to shrink!) Thankfully, some commonly dreaded activities can help reduce your frazzled state.

1. Washing the Dishes

According to a 2014 study published in the journal Mindfulness, a “mindful” approach to dishwashing could reduce stress. “A sample of 51 college students engaged in either a mindful or control dishwashing practice before completing measures of mindfulness, affect, and experience recall,” the study states. “Mindful dishwashers evidenced … increases in elements of positive affect (i.e., inspiration) [and] decreases in elements of negative affect (i.e., nervousness)." In other words, with the right mindset, zoning out in front of a sudsy sink is basically Nirvana.

2. Decluttering Your Home

Research suggests that clutter is more likely to stress out women. In 2010, a study in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology looked to see how married couples dealt with (and felt about) messy homes [PDF]. “The wives in the study who perceived themselves as having a cluttered home or a home that needed work tended to have increased levels of cortisol throughout the day,” Emilie Le Beau Lucchesi wrote in The New York Times. "Those who weren’t feeling cluttered, which included most of the men in the study, had cortisol levels that tended to drop during the days.” So tidy up!

3. Exercising In A Group

Working out can feel like a chore, and exercising with a group can be a tad embarrassing—especially if you’re not on the same fitness level as everybody else. But according to research in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, exercising with a group is more beneficial at reducing stress than working out alone. “Researchers found that working out in a group lowers stress by 26 percent,” according to the press release. Go ahead and book that spin class!

4. Sniffing Your Partner’s Laundry

No sane person puts “sniff your significant other's dirty socks” on their to-do list, but perhaps they should. A 2018 study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology shows that sniffing a loved one’s clothes can reduce stress. In the study, 96 women sniffed one of three scents—a neutral smell, their romantic partner’s scent, or the scent of a stranger. The stranger’s smell caused cortisol to spike. But their partner’s smell? It reduced stress.

5. Dwelling On Your Failures

The title of this study, which appeared in the journal Frontiers in 2018, says it all: “Writing About Past Failures Attenuates Cortisol Responses and Sustained Attention Deficits Following Psychosocial Stress.” According to the study, “[W]riting about a previous failure may allow an individual to experience a new stressor as less stressful, reducing its physiological and behavioral effects.” It sounds paradoxical, but the next time you're facing a crazy situation, just reflect on a time when it all went wrong—and things might not feel so bad.

6. Singing For All to Hear

For the shy and tone-deaf, singing in a group might be a anxiety-fueled nightmare—but they should try it anyway. A pilot study presented at the Society for Neuroscience conference last year showed that, in people with Parkinson's disease, singing in a group can reduce heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol levels. (Researchers cautioned that this is preliminary data.) The findings jibe with a 2016 study from Drexel University that found, no matter your skill level, making art usually reduces cortisol levels [PDF].

Nearly Half of American Adults Don't Know Their Own Blood Type

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iStock.com/nzphotonz

If you know your blood type, you’re better off than nearly half of Americans. Of the 1004 adults in the U.S. who answered a recent Quest Diagnostics survey, only 57 percent said they knew whether they have type A, B, AB, or O blood.

This is roughly the same number of people who could recall their childhood phone number (55 percent), the survey revealed. By comparison, 74 percent of respondents remembered their lengthy Wi-Fi password, and 75 percent knew how much money was in their bank account.

For many, other personal health information was even murkier. Fewer than two in five people knew their cholesterol or blood sugar levels. Considering that these details provide important insights into one’s risk for certain diseases, survey administrators said this is a cause for concern.

“With consumers increasingly engaged in their own and their loved ones’ health care, it’s critical that they ‘know their numbers’—and have those numbers readily accessible—to ensure productive communication with their healthcare provider for both routine and critical care,” Cathy Doherty of Quest Diagnostics said in a press release.

With the exception of emergencies, at which time you may receive a universal donor's O-negative blood, doctors will almost always conduct blood typing and cross-matching tests to determine your blood type and identify minor antigens in your blood before conducting a transfusion or surgery.

It’s still important to know your blood type for other reasons. Newborn babies, for example, can develop hemolytic disease if their Rh blood type (meaning whether it's positive or negative) doesn’t match their mother's. And depending on your blood type, you may also have an increased risk for blood clots, heart disease, certain types of cancer, and even severe diarrhea and mosquito bites.

If you know your blood type, you’re also in a better position to donate blood and help people in need if there’s a natural disease or emergency, or if blood banks simply have a low supply. O blood tends to be the highest in demand (and O-positive is the most common blood type), but blood banks may issue public notices from time to time if they need a particular type.

If you’re unsure of your blood type, clinical labs like Quest Diagnostics offer blood type tests. You can also order test kits online from Amazon.

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