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6 Things You Might Not Know About Ebola

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More than 3300 people have died of an Ebola outbreak in Africa, and now, the virus has made the jump to United States: In Dallas, Texas, 100 people who came in contact with a Liberian national who has the disease have been quarantined. Here are some things you might not have known about the haemorrhagic fever.

1. It’s not even alive.

The criteria to be considered a living organism includes being able to eat and to reproduce on your own. Ebola can reproduce aggressively inside an infected host, but it needs to insert itself into the host cells to do it—no host cell, no more new viruses. (Just don’t call it a prion: bits of protein that influence other proteins to adopt their misshapen forms, causing diseases. Ebola has genetic material held inside a protective protein coat, while prions don’t.) Ebola doesn’t metabolize anything on its own, either, making it not dead but not really alive. Ebola is something like a zombie—a bundle of genetic programming with replication skills and bad intentions.

2. This is not the first U.S. outbreak.

There’s a whole family tree of Ebola. There are 5 species that have been identified, each named after the place they sprung up: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The current outbreak is the Zaire strain—which is creepy because the crisis is not in Zaire. The Reston subtype is named after a town in Virginia, where an outbreak occurred in 1989, followed by incidents in Texas and Pennsylvania. These all had one thing in common: infected monkeys exported by a single facility in the Philippines. These outbreaks are different than the current patient in Dallas for one big reason: No humans suffered illness in any of the previous cases.

3. It has a military mindset for invasion.

Researchers are finding out just how clever Ebola is as they reveal some of the virus' murderous Modus Operandi. One key to its lethal success is the stealth way it shuts down immune system defenses, the same way an air force will disable air defenses before sending in the bombers. Ebola obstructs parts of an immune system that are activated by molecules called interferons. These interferons have a vital role in fighting Ebola, usually with scorched earth tactics. “It makes a variety of responses to viral infection possible, including the self-destruction of infected cells,” says Christopher Basler, professor of microbiology at Mount Sinai and co-author of recent studies done by a consortium of Ebola researchers. That group also said, in a paper published in the August 13 edition of the journal Cell Host & Microbe, that they figured out exactly how Ebola craftily disables signals the cells use to defend against attack: An Ebola protein called VP24 binds to a specific protein that takes signaling molecules in and out a cell’s nucleus. Without communication, the cell can’t call for help or kill itself. The virus then hijacks the cell, uses it to make more viruses, and spreads them to more cells. Next thing you know, the infected victim is bleeding from every orifice.

4. No one knows how it came to infect people.

There is a lot we think we know about Ebola’s origins. For starters, human beings are not its natural host, what epidemiologists charmingly call a “reservoir.” Scientists believe that Ebola’s reservoirs are fruit bats. Infected bats can pass the virus to a bunch of other mammals, like rats, primates, and other bats. No one is sure how people became exposed to Ebola, but the best guess is that the monkeys were the conduit. Local hunters in Africa likely became infected while butchering the animals. Anyone who became sick likely infected their family and, if hospitalized in an unsanitary facility, other patients.

5. Gumshoe detective work is the only way to stop an outbreak.

For all the biotech and medical savvy, it takes the investigative skill of a homicide detective to stop an outbreak. Professionals call it “contact tracing,” but it’s really man hunting. Here’s how it works: Ebola victim A is isolated and interviewed. Anyone who had close contact with A is put into isolation for 21 days. (In Texas, there are emergency medical technicians in this quarantine limbo right now.) If they exhibit no symptoms, they’re free to go. If they come down with Ebola, they become victim B, and another contact trace begins. If the investigators miss anyone, the outbreak will continue. The CDC even put out a cool poster of the process.

6. You can order it from a catalog.

The home page of BEI Resources has an interesting tab that reads “Ebola reagents available.” With a couple of clicks of the mouse, you reach a catalog of infectious disease materials available for order. Just what is going on here?

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has set up BEI to make sure research facilities have access to microbiological materials that can help them develop diagnostics and vaccines for emerging diseases. Scientists must be registered with BEI to request materials. The real key here is the word “reagent,” which means the virus is not an active threat. For example, they have Gamma-irradiated Sudan Ebola virus that has been spun in a centrifuge to separate out cell fragments. Reagents won't spread, but they can serve as stand-ins during the development of tests. (On the Biosafety Level, or BSL, scale—which ranks the severity of infectious disease and sets baselines of which safety protocols need to be enforced to work with them in a lab—reagents are treated at Biosafety level 1; Ebola is a BSL-4, the top of the scale for risky bugs.) The best part of the catalogue is the disclaimer: “BEI Resources products are intended for laboratory research purposes only. They are not intended for use in humans.”

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CDC Traces Infectious Disease Outbreak in Seven States to Pet-Store Puppies
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Campylobacter bacteria have infected 39 people in seven states, and puppies sold at one chain of pet stores in Ohio are likely to blame. As NPR reports, a federal investigation is currently underway as to the exact cause of the outbreak of the intestinal infection.

The symptoms of Campylobacter include fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and in rare cases it can lead to death in victims with weakened immune systems. About 1.3 million people fall ill to it each year, but the bacteria can also infect animals like dogs.

Of those hit by the latest outbreak, 12 are employees of the national chain Petland in four states, according to the CDC. The other 27 have either bought a puppy from a Petland store recently or live with or visited someone who has. Eighteen cases have been reported in Ohio, and the rest have appeared in Florida, Kansas, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. While no deaths have been reported, nine victims have been hospitalized.

Puppies, like humans babies, are more likely to get sick than full-grown dogs, which may explain how the Petland animals caught the illness in the first place. But even apparently healthy adult dogs may be harboring the bacteria and spreading it through their feces. To avoid catching it from your canine companion at home, the CDC recommends washing your hands whenever you make physical contact. This also applies when handling their food and especially when picking up and throwing away their poop (with disposable gloves of course).

For the small percentage of people who do contract the infection each year, the best course of action is to wait it out if you're healthy otherwise: Symptoms take about a week to clear up.

[h/t NPR]

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10 Intriguing Facts About Joseph Lister
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Surgical patients once routinely died from their operations, as physicians believed that bad air—not bacteria—was responsible for their post-operative infections. This changed in the 19th century with a British physician named Joseph Lister (1827-1912), who dedicated his life to learning what caused infections and how to prevent them.

Get to know the quiet, studious doctor who is often called “the father of modern surgery"—and who has both a mountain and a popular mouthwash brand named after him.

1. JOSEPH LISTER'S FATHER HELPED USHER IN THE MODERN MICROSCOPE—AND HIS SON'S FUTURE CAREER.

As a child, Lister’s scientific curiosity was encouraged by his father, Joseph Jackson Lister, who was an English wine merchant and amateur scientist. The elder Lister's tinkering with early microscopes paved the way for today’s modern achromatic (non-color distorting) microscope—an accomplishment that would admit him to the Royal Society, the world’s oldest national scientific society.

In addition to dissecting small creatures, articulating their skeletons, and sketching the remains, the younger Lister—who knew from an early age that he wanted to be a surgeon—spent much of his childhood using his father's microscopes to examine specimens. He would rely on microscopes throughout his scientific career, using them to research the action of muscles in the skin and the eye, how blood coagulated, and how blood vessels reacted during an infection’s early stages.

2. LISTER WAS ENGLISH, BUT HE SPENT MOST OF HIS CAREER IN SCOTLAND.

Lister was born in the village of Upton, in Essex, England, and studied at University College, London. After graduating and working as a house surgeon at University College Hospital—where he became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons—the young doctor moved to Edinburgh, Scotland, to work as renowned surgeon James Syme's assistant at the Royal Infirmary [PDF].

The move was supposed to be temporary, but Lister ended up finding both professional and personal success in Scotland: He married Syme’s daughter, Agnes, and was eventually appointed Regius Professor of Surgery at the University of Glasgow.

3. HE THOUGHT ABOUT BECOMING A PRIEST INSTEAD OF A DOCTOR.

Like many young professionals, Lister sometimes had doubts about his career path. The physician received a devout Quaker upbringing, and at one point he considered becoming a priest instead of a surgeon. However, Lister’s father encouraged him to stay in medicine and serve God by helping the sick. Lister would ultimately leave the Quaker faith to marry Agnes Syme, who belonged to the Scottish Episcopal Church.

4. HE STRUGGLED WITH DEPRESSION.

While away at school, Lister came down with a mild case of smallpox. He recovered, but the health scare—along with the death of his older brother, who succumbed to a brain tumor—pushed him into a deep depression. The student left school in London and traveled around Britain and Europe for a year or so before returning to the university and pursuing his medical studies with renewed vigor.

5. LISTER IS THE REASON WE STERILIZE WOUNDS.

When Lister was a surgeon, bloodstained bed linens and lab coats weren’t washed, and surgical instruments were rarely cleaned. And even though Italian physician Fracastoro of Verona had theorized in 1546 that small germs could cause contagious diseases, nobody thought they had anything to do with wound infections. Instead, many surgeons believed that miasmas—or bad air—emanating from the wound itself were responsible.

Lister, however, trusted his own observations. As a young doctor-in-training, he noted that some wounds healed when they were cleaned and damaged tissue was removed. However, the problem of infection continued to plague Lister through his career until he encountered the work of French scientist Louis Pasteur, who discovered that microbes could cause infection.

Intrigued, Lister began using a formula of diluted carbolic acid—a coal-tar derivative used to kill parasites found in sewage—to sterilize medical instruments and wash his hands. He also applied this mixture to bandages, and sprayed carbolic acid in operating rooms where surgeries resulted in high mortality. He reported the results at a meeting of the British Medical Association in 1867: "my wards […] have completely changed their character, so that during the last nine months not a single instance of [blood poisoning], hospital gangrene, or erysipelas has occurred in them.”

While some physicians balked at his techniques, claiming they wasted time and money, Lister’s approach caught on. Soon, physicians in Germany, the U.S., France, and Britain were following his lead. As for Pasteur and Lister, the two scientists corresponded, and would finally meet in person for the first time in 1878. And at Pasteur's 70th birthday celebration in 1892, Lister gave a praise-filled speech about the life-saving benefits of Pasteur's research.

6. LISTER WAS KIND TO PATIENTS.

Lister referred to some patients as "this poor man" or "this good woman" (he refused to call them "cases"), and he always tried to keep them calm and comfortable pre-and post-operation. Once, the surgeon even sewed a doll's missing leg back into place for a young charge.

7. HE TREATED QUEEN VICTORIA ...

Lister's most famous patient was Queen Victoria: In 1871, the surgeon was called to the monarch's estate in the Scottish Highlands after the queen sprouted an orange-sized abscess in her armpit. Armed with carbolic acid, Lister lanced the mass, drained its pus, and dressed and treated the wound to prevent infection—but at one point, he accidentally sprayed his disinfectant in the displeased queen's face.

Lister would later joke to his medical students, "Gentlemen, I am the only man who has ever stuck a knife into the queen!"

8. ... WHO LATER MADE HIM A BARON.

As Lister's fame grew, Queen Victoria made him a baronet in 1883. Later, she elevated the physician to baron status. Lister would remain beloved among members of the royal family, including Edward VII, who was diagnosed with appendicitis two days before his royal coronation in 1902. His doctors consulted Lister before performing a successful surgery, and the king made sure to thank him once he was crowned. "I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I wouldn’t be sitting here today," the monarch told Lister.

9. LISTERINE MOUTHWASH IS—SURPRISE!—NAMED AFTER LISTER.

Even if you didn’t learn about Lister in science class, you’ve probably used his namesake formula: Listerine. The popular mouthwash brand—which is promoted with the slogan "Kills germs that cause bad breath"—was originally invented in 1879 by American physician Joseph Lawrence. Lawrence had created the green liquid as an alcohol-based surgical antiseptic, and he fittingly named the product after his pioneering predecessor. However, Listerine would ultimately be marketed for oral hygiene purposes, after first being peddled as a cigarette additive, a cure for the common cold, a dandruff treatment, and more.

10. LISTER ALSO HAS A MOUNTAIN NAMED AFTER HIM.

Lister has public monuments and hospitals dedicated to him around the world, but if you travel to Antarctica, you may also encounter a massive mountain named in his honor: At around 13,200 feet, Mount Lister is the highest point in the Royal Society Range, a mountain range in Victoria Land, Antarctica, that was first explored by the British during the Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904. This expedition was organized by the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society—and since Lister was the Royal Society’s president from 1895 to 1900, the range’s most majestic peak was named after him.

Additional Source: The Butchering Art: Joseph Lister's Quest to Transform the Grisly World of Victorian Medicine by Lindsey Fitzharris

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