6 Things You Might Not Know About Ebola

iStock
iStock

There's been a new outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Eleven people have been sickened by the disease, and one has died. Here are some things you might not have known about Ebola.

1. THERE'S MORE THAN ONE KIND OF EBOLAVIRUS.

Five species of Ebolavirus have been identified, each named after the place they sprung up: Ebola (formerly Zaire), Bundibugyo, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Reston. All but one—Reston—arose in Africa. The Reston subtype is named after a town in Virginia where an outbreak occurred in 1989, followed by incidents in Texas and Pennsylvania; all three were tied to infected monkeys exported by a single facility in the Philippines. All Ebolavirus species affect people and nonhuman primates—monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees—but Reston doesn't cause detectable disease in humans.

2. EBOLA HIJACKS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

Researchers are finding out just how clever Ebola is. One key to its lethal success is the stealth way it shuts down immune system defenses, the same way an air force will disable air defenses before sending in the bombers. Ebola obstructs parts of an immune system that are activated by molecules called interferons. These interferons have a vital role in fighting Ebola, usually with scorched-earth tactics such as apoptosis, or cell self-destruction. A 2014 study found that Ebola disables signals the cells use to defend against its attack using a protein called VP24, which binds to a specific protein that takes signaling molecules in and out a cell's nucleus. Blocked from communication, the cell can't call for help or get the order to self-destruct. The virus then hijacks the cell, uses it to make more viruses, and spreads them to more cells. It also produces ebolavirus glycoprotein, which binds to cells inside blood vessels, increasing their permeability and leading to leakage. This contributes to the catastrophic bleeding characteristic of late-stage Ebola infection.

3. BATS ARE THOUGHT TO BE THE KEY HOSTS OF EBOLA.

CDC illustration of cycle of ebola infection from bats to humans and animals

Scientists believe that Ebola's natural host species, or "reservoir hosts," are bats. Infected bats can pass the virus to other mammals, including rats, primates, and us. No one is sure how people first became exposed to Ebola, but the best guess is that monkeys were the conduit. Local hunters in Africa likely became infected while butchering the animals. Anyone who became sick likely infected their family and, if hospitalized in an unsanitary facility, other patients. When the illness spreads from person to person, it does so through direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone who is sick with or has died from Ebola.

4. MEDICAL DETECTIVE WORK IS THE ONLY WAY TO STOP AN EBOLA OUTBREAK.

It takes the investigative skill of a homicide detective to stop an outbreak. Professionals call it contact tracing. Here's how it works: Ebola victim A is isolated and interviewed. Anyone who had close contact with A is put into quarantine for 21 days. If they exhibit no symptoms, they're free to go when the three weeks are up. If they come down with Ebola, they become victim B, and another contact trace begins. If the investigators miss anyone, the outbreak will continue.

5. HAVING MALARIA AND EBOLA AT THE SAME TIME MAY HELP PEOPLE SURVIVE.

Researchers analyzing the the 2014 outbreak of Ebola in West Africa made a surprising finding: patients who had an active malaria parasite infection were actually more likely to survive the Ebola virus, and by a significant degree. While just over half (52 percent) of Ebola patients not infected with malaria survived, those co-infected with malaria had a survival rate of 72 to 83 percent, depending on their ages and the amount of Ebola virus in their blood. The researchers aren't yet sure why, but the prevailing theory is that malaria somehow modifies the immune response to Ebola by toning down a phenomenon called the "cytokine storm"—the body's own response to an Ebola infection, which inadvertently kills the host while attempting to eliminate the pathogen. If malaria can dampen this response, infected patients may have a better chance of surviving.

6. IF YOU'RE A SCIENTIST, YOU CAN ORDER EBOLA ONLINE.

We do not yet have a vaccine or antiviral drug to treat Ebola, but many scientists are working to find one. One source is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)'s BEI Resources, which gives research facilities access to microbiological materials called reagents that can help them develop diagnostics and vaccines for emerging diseases, including Ebola. Scientists must be registered with BEI to request materials. Reagents are not active viruses, so they can't spread; on the biosafety level, or BSL, scale—which ranks the severity of infectious disease and sets required safety protocols for working with them in a lab—the Ebola-related reagents are considered BLS 1—the lowest risk. (Live Ebola virus is BLS 4—the highest.) Ordering is limited to one Ebola-related reagent at a time, and can be ordered only twice per year.

5 Holiday Foods That Are Dangerous to Pets

iStock/svetikd
iStock/svetikd

One of the best parts of the holiday season is the menu of indulgent food and drinks that comes along with it. But while you enjoy that cup of spiked hot cocoa, you’ve got to be careful your dog or cat doesn’t nab a lick. Here are five holiday treats that are dangerous for your pets, according to Vetstreet.

1. COFFEE

Any coffee lover will agree that there’s nothing quite like an after-dinner cup of joe on a cold night. But pups, kitties, and other pets will have to sit this tradition out. Caffeine can prompt seizures and abnormal heart rhythms in pets, and can sometimes be fatal. Other caffeinated drinks, such as soda or tea, should also be kept away from your four-legged family members.

2. BREAD DOUGH

We know the threat that bread dough poses to the appearance of our thighs, but it’s much more dangerous to our furry little friends. Holiday bakers have to be careful of unbaked bread dough as it can expand in animal stomachs if ingested. In some dogs, the stomach can twist and cut off the blood supply, in which case the pup would need emergency surgery.

3. CHOCOLATE

Cat and dog in Santa hats chowing down on plates of food
iStock/TatyanaGl

A little chocolate never hurt anybody, right? Wrong. The sweet treat can cause seizures and even be fatal to our pets. Darker chocolate, such as the baker’s chocolate we love to put in our holiday cookies, is more toxic to our pets than milk or white chocolate. The toxic ingredients include caffeine and theobromine, a chemical found in the cacao plant.

4. MACADAMIA NUTS

Macadamia nuts, which are a common ingredient in holiday cookies and often put out to munch on as an appetizer, can be toxic to dogs. While poisoning might not always be easy to detect in a pet, clinical warning signs include depression, weakness, vomiting, tremors, joint stiffness, and lack of coordination.

5. ALCOHOL

Think back to when you first started drinking and how much less alcohol it took to get you tipsy, because you likely weighed less than you do now. Well, your pet probably weighs a lot less than you did, even back then, meaning it takes much less alcohol to make them dangerously sick. Keep those wine glasses far out of reach of your pets in order to avoid any issues. Well, maybe not any issue: We can’t promise that this will stop you from getting embarrassingly drunk at a holiday party this year.

L’Oréal’s New Wearable Sensor Keeps Track of Your Daily UV Exposure

L'Oréal USA
L'Oréal USA

Anyone who has ever suffered a sunburn knows that too much exposure to UV radiation is bad for your skin. But in the moment, it can be hard to tell when you’ve gotten too much sun—especially during the winter, when you might not think you need sunscreen. (In reality, snow reflects up to 80 percent of the sun’s UV light, so you may end up getting hit with the same rays twice.) A new wearable sensor spotted by Wired aims to make understanding your sun exposure a whole lot easier.

L'Oréal’s new La Roche-Posay My Skin Track UV sensor pairs with a smartphone app to alert users when they’ve had high levels of UV exposure. Developed by L'Oréal’s Tech Incubator in collaboration with Northwestern University engineering professor John Rogers and Swiss designer Yves Béhar, the sensor measures UVA rays (which are associated with skin aging and skin cancer) and uses an algorithm to calculate UVB exposure (which is associated with sunburn and skin cancer).

The UV sensor
L'Oréal USA

At only half an inch tall and 1.3 inches long, the waterproof sensor is designed to be discreetly attached to your clothes, watchband, or sunglasses. The sensor's LED detector measures UV rays as sunlight passes through a small window in the device, then transfers the data to your phone via a near-field communication (the same technology in some hotel key cards). It stores the photons from the UV rays in a capacitor, eliminating the need for a battery.

Based on this data, the My Skin Track app can tell you how close you're getting to the maximum limit of UV exposure doctors recommend per day. It also provides updates about the air quality, pollen count, and humidity wherever you are at any given moment. Based on this information, as well as data about your specific skin type and skin tone, the app's Skin Advice feature will provide customized tips for keeping your skin healthy. It also recommends specific products—La Roche-Posay items can be bought directly through the app, should you desire.

The sensors are exclusively available through Apple stores. You can order one online for $59.95.

[h/t Wired]

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