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12 British Legal Terms Explained

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Does an arched eyebrow beneath a powdered wig set your heart racing? Do the words, "Objection, My Lord!" make you giddy? Although English courtroom dramas keep American fans riveted, some legal terms can be a bit of a muddle, leaving statesiders confused. We hope the testimony herein will set things to rights. (Note: The following explanations apply to England and Wales; Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own court systems.) 

1. SOLICITOR

You know solicitors and barristers are both lawyers, but what's the difference? If you have the idea that solicitors handle the paperwork—wills, contracts, and the like—and barristers do the courtroom work, you're partially right. By far the majority of lawyers are solicitors and, yes, the paperwork bit is correct. They may advocate for clients in the lower courts, and in some instances in higher courts. Nonetheless, in most court cases a client retains a solicitor, who in turn retains a barrister to present the case in court.

All prospective lawyers start on the same educational path: First, a bachelor's degree in law (LL.B.) or, if they read (majored in) another subject at university, a year or two of postgraduate education in law. After that, the paths diverge. Prospective solicitors must take a one-year Legal Practice Course, usually followed by two years' apprenticeship. 

2. BARRISTER

Following graduation, prospective barristers must first apply to join one of the four Inns of Court and then complete the one-year Bar Professional Training Course followed by a year's training in a set of barristers' chambers, known as "pupillage."

The primary function of barristers is to act as advocates, and they may do so in all courts. That said, usually a barrister may only act upon the instructions of a solicitor. Barristers are either Queen's Counsel (also called leaders or leading counsel) or junior barristers.

3. INNS OF COURT

The term “Inns of Court” refers both a set of buildings in central London and to the ancient legal societies based in them. Their origin is cloaked in mystery, but the Inns probably began as hostels for lawyers in the 14th century. Now, every barrister must join one of the four surviving Inns: Gray's Inn, Inner Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Middle Temple. According to the Oxford Dictionary of British History, the Temple was the London residence of the Knights Templar until their dissolution and was left to lawyers in the mid-14th century.

From an early date, the Inns played an important role in legal education. Although barristers no longer reside at the Inns, their attendance at a number of dinners given by their Inns are a social requirement and guest speakers at the dinners offer a form of continuing education. When new members are considered for a pupillage or an invitation into chambers, the dinners provide an opportunity to assess their compatibility.

4. CHAMBERS

Chambers, in addition to referring to the private office of a judge, can also mean the offices occupied by a barrister or group of barristers. The term is also used for the group of barristers practicing from a set of chambers.

5. QUEEN'S COUNSEL (QC)

In the late 16th century, these were barristers who were appointed to assist the law officers of the crown. During the 18th century, they lost their close connection with the crown and the title became merely a mark of honor for distinguished barristers. Now, a Queen’s Counsel is a senior barrister of at least ten years' practice who is appointed by an independent selection panel as “one of Her Majesty's counsel learned in the law.”

According to a former solicitor, “QCs are sort of higher paid consultants brought in by a junior barrister.” In court, they sit within the bar and wear silk gowns. Thus they are said to “take silk” and are familiarly referred to as “silks.” Junior barristers traditionally wear “stuff” (worsted wool) gowns. If the monarch is a king, silks are known as King's Counsel (KC).

6. CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE (CPS)

The CPS, which is organized on a regional basis, conducts most criminal prosecutions. The Chief Crown Prosecutor of a region is roughly equivalent to a district attorney in the U.S. 

7. CROWN COURT

The Crown Court has jurisdiction over all criminal cases tried on indictment. It also hears appeals from magistrates' courts.

8. CROWN PROSECUTOR 

A Crown prosecutor is a barrister or solicitor employed by the Crown Prosecution Service.

9. MAGISTRATE 

A magistrate is an unpaid volunteer without formal legal qualifications who serves in a magistrates' court. There are also, however, district judges (formerly called "stipendiary magistrates" and known in slang as “stipes”) in London and other major cities.

10. MAGISTRATES' COURT

A magistrates’ court consists of between two and seven magistrates or a single district judge. The magistrates' courts initiate all criminal prosecutions by considering whether there is sufficient evidence to justify committing the defendant to the Crown Court. Another function of the court is as a court of summary jurisdiction: a criminal court of trial without a jury. Magistrates' courts also have a limited jurisdiction in civil matters relating to debt and matrimonial proceedings.

11. CONSTABLE

All police officers hold the office of constable. 

12. OLD BAILEY

The Old Bailey is London's principal criminal court. The courthouse was first built in 1539, just outside the western wall of the city, next to Newgate Prison. The name comes from “bailey,” the external wall enclosing the outer court of a feudal castle. Reconstructed several times, the building now extends to cover the former site of the prison. Although the court's original jurisdiction included only serious crimes committed in the City of London and Middlesex, in 1972 it became part of the Crown Court with its jurisdiction no longer geographically constricted. Since 1981 it has been part of the Supreme Court. Famous trials conducted at the Old Bailey include those of William Penn (1670), Oscar Wilde (1895), and Peter Sutcliffe, the "Yorkshire Ripper" (1981).

Sources: New Oxford Companion to Law (2009); Gooch & Williams, Dictionary of Law Enforcement (Oxford U. Pr, 2007); Cannon, Dictionary of British History (2013); Oxford English Dictionary Online; Oxford Dictionary of Law (2013). (All sources except the last accessed via the website of Los Angeles Public Library.)

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Courtesy of Airpod
New Nap Pods—Complete with Alarm Clocks and Netflix—Set for A Trial Run at Airports This Summer
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Courtesy of Airpod

Sleepy travelers in Europe can soon be on the lookout for Airpods, self-contained capsules designed to help passengers relax in privacy.

For 15 euros per hour (roughly $18), travelers can charge their phones, store their luggage, and, yes, nap on a chair that reclines into a bed. The Airpods are also equipped with television screens and free streaming on Netflix, Travel + Leisure reports.

To keep things clean between uses, each Airpod uses LED lights to disinfect the space and a scent machine to manage any unfortunate odors.

The company's two Slovenian founders, Mihael Meolic and Grega Mrgole, expect to conduct a trial run of the service by placing 10 pods in EU airports late this summer. By early 2019, they expect to have 100 Airpods installed in airports around the world, though the company hasn't yet announced which EU airports will receive the first Airpods.

The company eventually plans to introduce an element of cryptocurrency to its service. Once 1000 Airpods are installed (which the company expects to happen by late 2019), customers can opt in to a "Partnership Program." With this program, participants can become sponsors of one specific Airpod unit and earn up to 80 percent of the profits it generates each month. The company's cryptocurrency—called an APOD token—is already on sale through the Airpod website.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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20 Facts About Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip's Wedding
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When you hear the term "royal wedding," Prince Harry and Meghan Markle, Prince William and Kate Middleton, and Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer might be the first couples who spring to mind. But what about Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip's big day?

While the couple recently celebrated their 71st wedding anniversary, their romance was far from a fairytale. Elizabeth's family wasn't thrilled with the pairing, and Philip's German heritage meant that he couldn't invite his sisters to attend. There was drama, and romance, and gifts galore—not to mention one ill-timed broken tiara. Read on for all the royally fascinating details about Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip's wedding.

1. THE COUPLE MET AT ANOTHER ROYAL WEDDING.

Weddings are known as a great place to meet potential mates, and Elizabeth and Philip prove that, though it would take more than 10 years for them to get together. Which is for the best, as (then-Princess) Elizabeth was only 8 years old when she first met Philip at the 1934 wedding of Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark (Philip's cousin) to Prince George, Duke of Kent (Elizabeth's uncle). The two, who are distant cousins, met again in 1939, and began a kind of courtship via written correspondence (the 1930s equivalent of texting).

2. HE POPPED THE QUESTION AT BALMORAL CASTLE.

The exterior of Balmoral Castle
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The couple didn't get to see much of each other during World War II, as Philip was a Royal Navy officer. In 1946, Philip was back in London and a regular visitor to Buckingham Palace. That same year, while spending a month at Balmoral Castle in Scotland, Philip proposed to Elizabeth—who happily, and immediately, accepted.

3. THEY KEPT THEIR ENGAGEMENT A SECRET FOR A WHILE.

Princess Elizabeth (future Queen Elizabeth II) and her Fiance Philip Mountbatten (also the Duke of Edinburgh) pose in the Buckingham Palace on July 09, 1947 in London, the day their engagement was officially announced.
AFP/Getty Images

While Elizabeth was quick to accept Philip's marriage proposal, that's not the way that royal marriages work. Elizabeth's parents—her father, the King, in particular—should have been consulted. When he learned of his daughter's plans, he agreed to let the marriage go forward—but only if the couple waited until after her 21st birthday to announce their engagement. They agreed. On July 9, 1947, the official public announcement was made. And the couple tied the knot on November 20, 1947, just over four months later.

4. ELIZABETH'S FATHER WAS NOT THRILLED ABOUT HER CHOICE OF MATE.

 From left to right, Princess Elizabeth, Queen Elizabeth, King George VI, and Princess Margaret Rose wave from the balcony of Buckingham Palace August 15, 1945 on VJ Day in London, England
Getty Images

Though they eventually came around, Elizabeth's parents were not overjoyed by her relationship with Philip. "Despite Philip's British background and his fine war record, George VI was deeply worried about how British opinion, particularly its left wing, would take to a Greek Prince as the husband of the heiress presumptive," according to a 1957 article in TIME Magazine. "There was also something about his daughter's brash young man with his loud, boisterous laugh and his blunt, seagoing manners that irritated the gentle King. Besides, the fellow couldn't shoot."

Shooting prowess aside, it was obvious that Elizabeth had no plans of backing down—or out. At the King's request, Lord Louis Mountbatten (Philip's uncle) began quietly sussing out what the public's opinion of the match might be. When a poll in the Sunday Pictorial (now the Sunday Mirror) showed that 64 percent of its readership was rooting for the couple, Elizabeth finally got her way.

It's worth noting that those in the direct line of succession to the throne must receive permission to marry from the reigning monarch. So if Elizabeth and Philip had not received her dad's blessing, their love story could have had a much different ending.

5. THEY WERE TOLD TO KEEP IT LOW-KEY.

 The title page of a bible dedicated to Princess Elizabeth to commemorate her marriage to Lietenant Phillip Mountbatten. A gift from the Young Women's Catholic Association of Great Britain
Reg Speller, Fox Photos/Getty Images

Given that the country was just emerging from World War II, many political insiders took it upon themselves to warn King George VI that it was important for the morale of England that the young couple keep it simple. According to David Kynaston's Austerity Britain, 1945-1951, the King was told that, "Any banqueting and display at your daughter's wedding will be an insult to the British people at the present time … and we would consider that you would be well advised to order a very quiet wedding in keeping with the times."

6. HER WEDDING DRESS WAS INSPIRED BY A FAMOUS BOTTICELLI PAINTING.

Sir Norman Hartnell had the honor of designing Princess Elizabeth's wedding gown, and he took his inspiration from Primavera, a large panel, 15th-century work by famed Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli. Specifically, according to the Royal Trust Collection, he believed that it symbolized "rebirth and growth after the war."

Hartnell's design for the dress was not approved until the middle of August, giving him less than three months to complete the dress, which was made of ivory silk and decked out with crystals and 10,000 carefully curated seed pearls.

7. SHE PAID FOR HER DRESS WITH RATION COUPONS.

A sketch of Princess Elizabeth's wedding dress by Norman Hartnell
Central Press/Getty Images

In the wake of World War II, severe rationing measures were in effect, which included clothing. And no exceptions were being made—not even for future queens. So Elizabeth, like so many other brides at the time, had to save up her ration cards in order to purchase the fabric required to create her dress. When the public caught wind of this, hundreds of people from around the country sent their own ration cards to the princess in order to pay for the material. (While she appreciated the gesture, it would have been illegal for her to use them, so she had to return them all.)

8. PHILIP DESIGNED THE RING WITH HIS MOTHER'S DIAMONDS.

A jeweler measures a diamond
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Though Philip Antrobus is the official jeweler responsible for the Queen's platinum engagement ring, Prince Philip had a prominent hand in its design. And the ring—a 3-carat round diamond stunner surrounded by 10 smaller pave diamonds—came with a very personal connection: the diamonds came from the tiara that Philip's mother, Princess Alice of Battenberg, wore on her wedding day (a gift from Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra of Russia). There were enough diamonds left over that the ring came with a matching bracelet, which Philip gave to Elizabeth as a wedding gift.

9. ELIZABETH HAD A LAST-MINUTE TIARA MALFUNCTION.

 Princess Elizabeth's wedding dress, designed by Norman Hartnell, is displayed at the 'Royal Wedding: 20 Novermber 1957' exhibition at Buckingham Palace on July 27, 2007 in London
Peter Macdiarmid, Getty Images

Speaking of tiaras: the one that Elizabeth wore on her wedding day belonged to her mother and was known as Queen Mary's Fringe Tiara. With its 47 distinctive diamond bars, it's perhaps one of the world's most famous tiaras. It was designed in 1919 by E. Wolff & Co. for Garrard & Co. using the diamonds from a fringe necklace Mary had received as a wedding gift from Queen Victoria. (Those royals sure do know how to recycle their fancy jewelry.) It's a versatile piece, too: the fringe can be removed from the frame and worn as a necklace. That proved to be a bit of a blessing on Princess Elizabeth's wedding day when the frame of the tiara snapped as she was putting it on. Fortunately, the court jeweler was standing right there in case of just such an emergency.

10. PHILIP HAD TWO STAG PARTIES.

Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, prior to his marriage to Princess Elizabeth, talking to a group of Naval officers on his return to Royal Navy duties, at the Petty Officers Training Centre in Corsham, Wiltshire, July 31st 1947
Douglas Miller, Keystone/Getty Images

While the couple agreed to keep the ceremony itself as low-key as possible, Philip's stag party was another story. The night before the wedding, Philip hosted a bachelor party at London's Dorchester Club … with media in attendance.

"An eager press had been invited, but it was meant to observe the protocol of the day, which respected the privacy of the royals," Claire Stewart wrote in As Long As We Both Shall Eat: A History of Wedding Food and Feasts. "The prince's group must have been having some kind of fun, because eventually the flash bulbs of the journalists' cameras were torn off and stamped on the ground, with the groom's party moving on to the closed doors of the Belfry Club."

11. THERE WERE LOTS OF TITLE CHANGES JUST BEFORE THE CEREMONY.

Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain and her husband Philip the Duke of Edinburgh, pose during their honeymoon, 25 November 1947 in Broadlands estate, Hampshire
AFP/Getty Images

There are certain rules that are required for marrying into the royal family, many of them set by the Act of Settlement, 1701. As a result, Philip had a bit of work to do before the wedding: in addition to renouncing his Greek and Danish titles, he took on the surname of his (British) mother's family. He was also required to convert from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism. King George made it worth his while though: the day before the wedding, he bestowed the "His Royal Highness" address styling on Philip. On the morning of their wedding, he gave him a whole mouthful of other titles: Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich.

12. THEY WERE MARRIED AT WESTMINSTER ABBEY.

London's Westminster Abbey
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Elizabeth and Philip followed in the footsteps of her parents when they married at Westminster Abbey at 10:30 a.m. on November 20, 1947. Nearly a quarter-century before, on April 26, 1923, Elizabeth's parents—King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (then known as the Duke and Duchess of York)—also married at Westminster Abbey. Princess Elizabeth was the tenth member of the royal family to be wed at the Abbey.

13. SHE CARRIED MYRTLE IN HER BOUQUET, WHICH IS A ROYAL TRADITION.

 A recreation of the Duchess of Cambridge's wedding bouquet is photographed before it goes on display at Buckingham Palace during the annual summer opening on July 20, 2011 in London, England.
Lewis Whyld, WPA Pool/ Getty Images

Princess Elizabeth's white orchid bouquet also included a sprig of myrtle from the garden at Osborne House, a former royal residence on the Isle of Wight. It was a tradition that began with Queen Victoria and has carried on through the ages: Lady Diana Spencer's bouquet included a sprig of the Osborne House myrtle, as did Kate Middleton's (pictured). Another royal tradition that Elizabeth followed: the day after her wedding, her bouquet was sent back to Westminster Abbey, where it was laid atop the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

14. THERE WERE 2000 GUESTS IN ATTENDANCE.

Queen Elizabeth II (in coach) and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh are cheered by the crowd after their wedding ceremony, on November 20, 1947, on their road to Buckingham Palace
AFP/Getty Images

While they tried to keep the lavishness to a minimum (there were few flowers or other shows of extravagance), the guest list was, in a word, enormous. There were 2000 guests invited to the ceremony, with plenty of royals from around the world in attendance including the King and Queen of Denmark, the King of Iraq, the Shah of Iran, and Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands.

15. THE DUKE OF WINDSOR (A.K.A. KING EDWARD VIII) WAS NOT ON THE GUEST LIST.

Wallis Simpson and the Duke of Windsor
Central Press/Getty Images

There's a lot of politics that go into who makes the cut for the guest list of any wedding, but Philip and Elizabeth had even more challenges to muddle through. Because the couple married so soon after World War II, it was deemed unacceptable for any of Philip's German relatives to be a part of the big day, which meant that he couldn't invite his three surviving sisters who had all married German princes. Also conveniently left off the guest list? George's brother, The Duke of Windsor, a.k.a. The Royal Formerly Known as King Edward VIII, who abdicated the throne in order to marry Wallis Simpson, thus changing the line of succession and making Elizabeth the heir presumptive.

16. 200 MILLION PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD LISTENED TO THE CEREMONY.

Four men and women gather closely together while listening to their home radio console, 1930s
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

While waking up early to watch the latest royal wedding may be the norm today (well, for as rarely as they occur), technology wasn't quite there at the time. Still, there was enough interest in the nuptials that more than 200 million people around the world listened to the couple exchange their vows via BBC Radio. Video footage of the event made its way into cinemas around the country shortly thereafter.

17. THEIR WEDDING CAKE WAS 9 FEET TALL.

A slice of a wedding fruitcake
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In keeping with royal tradition, Elizabeth and Philip's wedding cake was a fruitcake that earned the nickname "The 10,000-Mile Wedding Cake" because its ingredients were sourced from around the world, including sugar from Australia's Girl Guides. That designation could have just as easily referred to the confection's height: the four-tiered cake was 9 feet tall and weighed in at 500 pounds. It was decorated with the arms of both families and featured the monograms of both the bride and groom. In 2015, a 68-year-old slice of that very wedding cake sold for £500 (about $750 at the time).

18. THEY RECEIVED A LOT OF GIFTS AND WELL-WISHES.

 Wedding presents from Canada including silver candlesticks and a chest of drawers for Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten on view at St James' Palace
Central Press/Getty Images

Based on the number of gifts and well-wishes the couple received, it seemed as if the whole world was excited about Elizabeth and Philip's union. The couple received 10,000 telegrams and more than 2500 gifts from all around the world—including a piece of cotton lace from Mahatma Gandhi that he spun himself and had embroidered with the words "Jai Hind" ("Victory for India"). A box of home-grown apples, 500 tins of pineapple, two dozen handbags, 12 bottles of sloe gin, and 131 pairs of nylon stockings were also among the wedding loot.

19. THE GIFTS WENT ON DISPLAY—TWICE.

A visitor to the 'Royal Wedding: 20 Novermber 1957' exhibition looks at a selection of gifts given to the royal couple at Buckingham Palace on July 27, 2007 in London. Queen Elizabeth II will be the first reigning sovereign to celebrate a 60th wedding ann
Peter Macdiarmid, Getty Images

Rather than keep the generosity of their well-wishers to themselves, Elizabeth and Philip showed off the bulk of the many wonderful wedding gifts they received to benefit charity. Between 1947 and 1948, more than 200,000 people came to St. James's Palace to view the royal wedding gifts. Some of these same gifts were showcased again in 2007, to commemorate the couple's Diamond Wedding anniversary, as part of the "A Royal Wedding" exhibition.

20. ELIZABETH'S DRESS WAS PUT ON DISPLAY, TOO. THEN WENT ON TOUR.

Princess Elizabeth of England and Philip The Duke of Edinburgh pose on their wedding day, 20 November 1947 in Buckingham Palace
AFP/Getty Images

Princess Elizabeth's iconic dress was also put on display for the public at St. James's Palace for curious fashionistas. So that it wasn't just Londoners who had a chance to get an up-close look at the frock, it then went on a royal tour across the UK with stops in Liverpool, Bristol, Nottingham, Manchester, Leeds, and Glasgow.

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