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10 Weird Resuscitation Techniques From 200 Years Ago

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If you have a cardiac arrest today, and are revived by the wonders of modern medicine, you should thank your lucky stars that you’re alive. You should also give thanks that your resuscitation took place today, rather than 200 years ago. Because back then, techniques of bringing back the dead were far less effective. And much more bizarre.

Many of those odd approaches to bringing back the dead come from the efforts of a London physician named William Hawes (1736–1808) to revive drowning victims. Hawes wanted corpses to experiment on, so he hit on the somewhat ghoulish expedient of paying anyone who would bring him a body rescued from the water “within a reasonable time of immersion.” Think of it as the human version of a deposit on bottles.

Shocked: Adventures in Bringing Back the Recently Dead is about the strange new science of resuscitation and CPR, but I’ve discovered that much of today’s exciting science is distantly related to Hawes’ early experiments. His forays into the science of resuscitation led to the formation of the British Royal Humane Society—which is still around today—which devoted itself to trying (and reporting on) all sorts of methods of bringing back the dead. A few of those methods worked, but many were uncomfortable, a few were dangerous, and a couple were just plain crazy. Yet somewhere in that mix of goodhearted efforts, the strange new science of bringing back the dead was born.

1. Rubs and marinades

One of the earliest resuscitation techniques recommended by the Society was the application of friction with “rough cloth or flannel.” A variant involved using a combination of vinegar, wine, and liquor. Descriptions of this technique read less like a resuscitation manual and more like a grilling cookbook.

2. Sticks and whips

A less attractive version required "rescuers" to beat the victim with whips or sticks. I suppose it’s hard to see a downside to this approach. If the victim wakes up, presumably he’ll thank you. If he doesn’t, well, no harm done.

3. Blowing smoke

Early rescuers were advised to light up a pipe and blow smoke directly into the victim’s mouth or nostrils. A variant (fortunately, rejected by the Royal Humane Society) involves blowing smoke first into an animal bladder, and then releasing the smoke into the victim’s rectum. If we set aside that last option—and please let’s do—there’s a certain appeal to arriving at a scene of crisis, only to pause, remove a briarwood pipe from one’s waistcoat pocket, and embark on the little rituals of filling, tamping, lighting, and puffing. That sort of routine would surely have a calming effect on panicked bystanders and family members—reason enough to use it, even if it didn’t work.

4. Barrel-rolling

Another technique used by early rescuers involved rolling a victim back and forth over a wine barrel. Why you’d want to do this is anyone’s guess. Maybe it helped the victim to breathe. Maybe it helped to extract water from the lungs of a drowning victim. Who knows? On the bright side, though, if the resuscitation is effective, you could always tap into the barrel for the ingredients of a celebration. And if resuscitation fails, well, solace is near at hand, too.

5. Ivory nostril pipes

For a while, ivory nostril pipes were all the rage. The Royal Society describes this device as “a short ivory pipe inserted into one of the nostrils, pressing back the lower part of the larynx upon the commencement of the oesophagus, to prevent the air from passing down into the stomach.” The tube would be inserted through the nose and down into the trachea, and attached to bellows. To be fair, there’s some solid reasoning to support this. Even now, when passing a breathing tube is difficult—as it is when a patient is overweight—a nasal tube is often much easier. It’s also a more reliable technique when the person trying to inflate a victim’s lungs is inexperienced, as most doctors in the 18th century no doubt were.

6. Arm-flapping

Alas, other maneuvers the Society recommended have much less science to justify them. A case in point: “Grasp the patient's arms just above the elbows, and draw the arms gently and steadily upwards, until they meet above the head.” Next, “turn down the patient's arms, and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest.” No doubt this energetic flapping put on quite a show for bystanders, but it probably did nothing to bring anyone back from the dead.

7. Feathers

Another questionable technique was tickling the back of a victim’s throat with a feather. Like beating a victim with whips, this one is a little difficult to justify. In fact, it’s likely to do more harm than good. For instance, activating the gag reflex when someone is unconscious, or semi-conscious, can lead to vomiting and subsequent inhalation of stomach contents (aspiration pneumonitis). That is known in medical circles as A Very Bad Thing.

8. Strange bedfellows

The Royal Humane Society offered strident recommendations that the apparently dead should be warmed in the quickest way possible. Immersion in warm water was a common suggestion, as were blankets, warm sand, or placing the victim next to a fire. The Society—forgetting for a moment its Victorian moral code—even advocated the use of volunteers who would climb into bed with the apparently dead. It’s not clear whether these volunteers were supposed to be fully clothed, but that’s probably best left to the imagination.

There is something to be said for warming, because cold temperatures make the heart’s normal rhythm unstable and unreliable. Indeed, there’s a saying in emergency medicine that cardiac arrest victims shouldn’t be declared dead until they’re warm and dead.

9. The Russian Method

On the other hand, what was known somewhat ominously as The Russian Method focused on cold. Rather than putting the victim in bed with his or her fellows, the Russians apparently believed that cold was better. So they would pack victims in ice or cold water ... or they would simply toss them outside. Although cold does make it more difficult to restart a heart, cold can also slow metabolism, which can help cardiac arrest victims be less susceptible to brain damage caused by low levels of oxygen.

10. Horseback riding lessons

By far my favorite resuscitation option involves … a horse. The steps are simple: 1) Throw the victim over the back of a spirited but cooperative horse; 2) Slap the horse’s rump; 3) Repeat as necessary. The logic of this maneuver is not entirely clear. But apparently the up-and-down motion of the horse’s back was supposed to produce an effect not unlike what is accomplished today with CPR, albeit with considerably more panache. (Full disclosure: I’ve actually tried this technique, playing the role of a victim. I can assure you that it is entirely as unpleasant as it sounds. Do not try this at home).

All images courtesy of iStock.

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IA Collaborative
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Design
Lovely Vintage Manuals Show How to Design for the Human Body
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IA Collaborative

If you're designing something for people to hold and use, you probably want to make sure that it will fit a normal human. You don't want to make a cell phone that people can't hold in their hands (mostly) or a vacuum that will have you throwing out your back every time you clean the house. Ergonomics isn't just for your office desk setup; it's for every product you physically touch.

In the mid-1970s, the office of legendary industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss created a series of manuals for designers working on products that involved the human body. And now, the rare Humanscale manuals from Henry Dreyfuss Associates are about to come back into print with the help of a Kickstarter campaign from a contemporary design firm. Using the work of original Henry Dreyfuss Associates designers Niels Diffrient and Alvin R. Tilley, the guides are getting another life with the help of the Chicago-based design consultancy IA Collaborative.

A Humanscale page illustrates human strength statistics.

The three Humanscale Manuals, published between 1974 and 1981 but long out-of-print, covered 18 different types of human-centric design categories, like typical body measurements, how people stand in public spaces, how hand and foot controls should work, and how to design for wheelchair users within legal requirements. In the mid-20th century, the ergonomics expertise of Dreyfuss and his partners was used in the development of landmark products like the modern telephones made by Bell Labs, the Polaroid camera, Honeywell's round thermostat, and the Hoover vacuum.

IA Collaborative is looking to reissue all three Humanscale manuals which you can currently only find in their printed form as historic documents in places like the Cooper Hewitt design museum in New York. IA Collaborative's Luke Westra and Nathan Ritter worked with some of the original designers to make the guides widely available again. Their goal was to reprint them at a reasonable price for designers. They're not exactly cheap, but the guides are more than just pretty decor for the office. The 60,000-data-point guides, IA Collaborative points out, "include metrics for every facet of human existence."

The manuals come in the form of booklets with wheels inside the page that you spin to reveal standards for different categories of people (strong, tall, short, able-bodied, men, women, children, etc.). There are three booklets, each with three double-sided pages, one for each category. For instance, Humanscale 1/2/3 covers body measurements, link measurements, seating guide, seat/table guide, wheelchair users, and the handicapped and elderly.

A product image of the pages from Humanscale Manual 1/2/3 stacked in a row.

"All products––from office chairs to medical devices—require designs that 'fit' the end user," according to Luke Westra, IA Collective's engineering director. "Finding the human factors data one needs to achieve these ‘fits' can be extremely challenging as it is often scattered across countless sources," he explains in a press release, "unless you've been lucky enough to get your hands on the Humanscale manuals."

Even setting aside the importance of the information they convey, the manuals are beautiful. Before infographics were all over the web, Henry Dreyfuss Associates were creating a huge compendium of visual data by hand. Whether you ever plan to design a desk chair or not, the manuals are worthy collectors' items.

The Kickstarter campaign runs from July 25 to August 24. The three booklets can be purchased individually ($79) or as a full set ($199).

All images courtesy IA Collaborative

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Space
NASA Is Posting Hundreds of Retro Flight Research Videos on YouTube
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If you’re interested in taking a tour through NASA history, head over to the YouTube page of the Armstrong Flight Research Center, located at Edwards Air Force Base, in southern California. According to Motherboard, the agency is in the middle of posting hundreds of rare aircraft videos dating back to the 1940s.

In an effort to open more of its archives to the public, NASA plans to upload 500 historic films to YouTube over the next few months. More than 300 videos have been published so far, and they range from footage of a D-558 Skystreak jet being assembled in 1947 to a clip of the first test flight of an inflatable-winged plane in 2001. Other highlights include the Space Shuttle Endeavour's final flight over Los Angeles and a controlled crash of a Boeing 720 jet.

The research footage was available to the public prior to the mass upload, but viewers had to go through the Dryden Aircraft Movie Collection on the research center’s website to see them. The current catalogue on YouTube is much easier to browse through, with clear playlist categories like supersonic aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. You can get a taste of what to expect from the page in the sample videos below.

[h/t Motherboard]

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