10 Facts About High Blood Pressure

iStock.com/stockvisual
iStock.com/stockvisual

People with high blood pressure (hypertension) are at a greater risk for a host of medical issues, including heart failure and stroke. Despite the severe health threats it poses, high blood pressure often goes unnoticed or untreated by some who have it. From high blood pressure symptoms to what levels are considered normal, here are some facts about the condition.

1. High blood pressure symptoms are sometimes unnoticeable.

Blood pressure is a measurement of the force of blood moving through the circulatory system. High blood pressure, a condition in which blood is putting too much force on arteries and organs, is often called the “silent killer.” It contributes to hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, but only half of high blood pressure patients know they have it. In most cases, hypertension signs are difficult to detect, making it hard to diagnose and keep under control. Chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations are some of the most common hypertension signs in people who do show symptoms.

2. Anxiety causes some of the same symptoms as high blood pressure.

When it comes to managing high blood pressure symptoms, mental health is as important as physical health. Anxiety can lead to sudden spikes in blood pressure, and spikes that occur often enough can inflict serious damage on the heart and blood vessels the same way chronic high blood pressures does. Stress and anxiety also make people vulnerable to the top risk factors associated with chronic hypertension, such as smoking, excessive drinking, and overeating.

3. A normal blood pressure range is lower than it used to be.

If you haven’t had your blood pressure measured in a couple years, it’s time for a check-up: In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association updated its normal blood pressure guidelines. The two components that make up blood pressure are systolic pressure—the pressure in blood vessels, represented by the top number in test results—and diastolic pressure, the pressure in the heart between beats represented by the bottom number. According to the old guidelines, the threshold for normal blood pressure was 140 systolic pressure and 90 diastolic pressure, or 140/90. The new guidelines lowered that marker to 130/80. Now that the normal blood pressure range has dropped, 14 percent more people could diagnosed with hypertension in the U.S.

4. "White-coat hypertension" is real.

Not every patient who exhibits hypertension signs in the doctor’s office has high blood pressure. “White-coat hypertension” occurs when patients get nervous in a medical setting, leading to a spike in blood pressure that doesn’t necessarily reflect their true health. But this type of hypertension should be taken seriously, even if it is a product of nerves. According to one study, people with white-coat hypertension have a greater chance of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal blood pressure levels. This may be because people with white-coat hypertension are more prone to anxiety.

5. People with high blood pressure should consume less than one teaspoon of salt per day.

One of the worst things to eat if you have hypertension is food that’s high in salt. Sodium, which makes up 40 percent of table salt (sodium chloride), promotes water retention in the body. More water means more blood volume, which puts added pressure on the heart and blood vessels. Medical experts recommend consuming no more than 2300 milligrams of sodium per day, or just over 1 teaspoon of salt. If you have high blood pressure, the American Heart Association recommends an ideal limit at 1500 milligrams of sodium a day—equal to three-quarters of a teaspoon of salt.

6. Almost half of U.S. adults have high blood pressure ...

According to the American Heart Association, more than 100 million people in the U.S. have high blood pressure—that’s nearly half of American adults. The condition is so common that even if you don’t have it now, chances are you will develop it at some point in your life. The lifetime risk in the U.S. for hypertension in 90 percent.

7. ... and black Americans are most affected.

High blood pressure affects certain groups disproportionately. Black Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure than any other group in the country, and when they develop it, it’s usually more severe. Hypertension also affects black Americans earlier in life: Three in four black people in the U.S. will develop the condition by age 55. Health experts believe that the prevalence of high blood pressure is associated with the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among the black population.

8. A female hormone may protect against high blood pressure.

High blood pressure rates are pretty similar among men and women before middle age. But once women hit menopause, their chances of developing hypertension increase: 75 percent of postmenopausal in the U.S. have high blood pressure. This may have to do something with decreased levels of estrogen—a hormone that’s been shown to boost premenopausal women’s vascular health.

9. High blood pressure can be life-threatening ...

High blood pressure doesn’t kill people directly, but it can lead to some deadly complications. Hypertension adds potentially fatal stress to vital organs like the heart, kidneys, and brain. When you have high blood pressure, your risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic heart failure, kidney disease, and even blindness all significantly go up.

10. ... but improved with medications and healthy living.

The best way to reduce your blood pressure is to change your lifestyle. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, and eating too much salty food all increase your risk of developing hypertension, and doctors recommend avoiding these risk factors to keep blood pressure levels under control. Regular exercise and certain medications, like diuretics (to get rid of excess water in the body) and ACE inhibitors (which block an enzyme that tightens blood vessels), can also lower blood pressure.

7 Terrifying Historical Remedies for Migraine Headaches

George Marks/Getty Images
George Marks/Getty Images

Migraines are more than just splitting headaches. Migraine symptoms, which affect about one in seven people worldwide, can include throbbing pain on one side of the head, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances called auras. Today, several classes of drugs are prescribed to either prevent migraine headaches from happening or halt them once they’ve started. But in previous centuries, migraine treatments weren’t so convenient—or effective.

1. Bloodletting

Whether by scalpel or by leeches, bloodletting was the most common remedy for migraine headaches (and many other ailments) before the advent of modern medicine. Throughout most of history, Western physicians subscribed to the humoral theory, in which human health was governed by four fluids (humors) that must be kept in balance. Sickness was explained as an imbalance of humors, and bloodletting was thought to rebalance the system. The methods varied, though. In the case of migraine headaches, the Greek physician Aretaeus suggested sticking a barbed goose feather up the unfortunate patient’s nose and prodding around until blood flowed.

Even as late as the 18th century, bloodletting was still believed to help migraines. Swiss physician Samuel Auguste Tissot, who was the first to describe migraines as a discrete medical condition in the 1770s, recommended bleeding, better hygiene and diet, and drugs including infusions of orange leaves and valerian.

2. Garlic

The 11th-century physician Abu al-Qasim suggested sticking a clove of garlic into the migraine headache sufferer’s temple. He offered a handy recipe:

“Take a garlic; peel and cut at both extremities. Make an incision with a large scalpel in the temple and keep under the skin a cavity wide enough to introduce the garlic and to conceal it completely. Apply compresses and tighten, let it remain about 15 hours, then remove the device. Extract the garlic, leave the wound for two or three days, then apply cotton soaked in butter until it suppurates.”

Once the wound started oozing—which was considered a good sign—the physician would cauterize the incision with a hot iron. Cauterization was meant to prevent infection, although modern research has shown that it actually lowers the threshold for bacterial infections.

3. Cupping

Cupping—inverting hot glass vessels on the patients’ body—was thought to perform the same function as bloodletting. Prominent Dutch physician Nicolaes Tulp, depicted in Rembrandt’s 1632 painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, treated a migraine sufferer by cupping. She soon recovered.

A substance called cantharidin, a potent blistering agent secreted by the Meloidae family of beetles, was also applied as part of the cupping and blistering process to draw out bad humors. Unfortunately, if the cantharidin was left on too long, it could be absorbed into the body and cause painful urination, gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction, and organ failure. (Perhaps unrelatedly, cantharidin was also used as an aphrodisiac.)

4. Trepanation

One of the oldest types of surgery, trepanation is the practice of cutting away part of the cranium and exposing brain tissue to treat injuries or chronic conditions like migraine headaches. The 16th-century Dutch physician Petrus Forestus, who meticulously recorded the ailments and treatments of his patients, performed trepanation on a person with incurable migraines. In the brain tissue he found something he called a “black worm.” According to a 2010 study by neurologist Peter J. Koehler, the mass may have been a chronic subdural hematoma—a collection of blood between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering—and a possible cause of the patient’s agony.

5. Dead Moles

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal, the leading ophthalmologist of the medieval Muslim world, described more than 130 eye diseases and treatments in his groundbreaking monograph Tadhkirat al-kaḥḥālīn (The Notebook of the Oculists). While his descriptions of ocular anatomy were sound, he also touched on remedies for headaches, and here his prescriptions seem more suspect. To treat migraines, he suggested tying a dead mole to one’s head.

6. Electric Fish

Long before scientists fully understood the principles of electricity, ancient doctors recommended it as a remedy for migraines. Scribonius Largus, the court physician for the Roman emperor Claudius, saw that the torpedo fish—also known as the electric ray, native to the Mediterranean Sea among other areas—had the power to shock anyone who touched it. Largus and other doctors prescribed the shocks as cures for headache, gout, and prolapsed anus.

In the mid-18th century, a Dutch journal reported that the electric eel, found in South America, emitted even stronger shocks than the Mediterranean fish and were used for head pain. One observer wrote that headache sufferers “put one of their hands on their head and the other on the fish, and thereby will be helped immediately, without exception.”

7. Mud Foot-Baths

Compared to expired rodents, warm foot-baths must have sounded positively decadent to those afflicted with extreme pain. Nineteenth-century physicians suggested that migraine sufferers take the waters at Marienbad (now Mariánské Lázně) and Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary), two spa towns in what is now the Czech Republic. While the mineral waters were useful for alleviating congestive headaches, mud foot-baths were believed to draw blood toward the feet and away from the head, calming the nervous system. “The foot-bath ought not to be taken too hot, and the feet should be rubbed one over the other while washing the mud off, and afterwards with a coarse towel. A brisk walk may be used to keep up the circulation,” suggested Prussian Army physician Apollinaris Victor Jagielski, M.D. in 1873.

Recall Alert: King Arthur Flour Sold at Aldi and Walmart Recalled Due to E. Coli Concerns

iStock/KenWiedemann
iStock/KenWiedemann

A new item has been pulled from supermarket shelves in light of an E. coli outbreak, NBC 12 reports. This time, the product being recalled is King Arthur flour, a popular brand sold at Aldi, Walmart, Target, and other stores nationwide.

The voluntarily product recall, announced by King Arthur Flour, Inc. and the FDA on Thursday, June 13, affects roughly 114,000 bags of unbleached all-purpose flour. The flour is made from wheat from the ADM Milling Company, which has been linked to an ongoing E. coli outbreak in the U.S. Though none of the cases reported so far have been traced back to King Arthur flour, the product is being taken off the market as a precaution.

Five-pound bags of unbleached all-purpose flour from specific lot codes and use-by dates are the only King Arthur products impacted by the recall. If you find King Arthur flour in the grocery store or in your pantry at home, check for this dates and numbers below the nutrition facts to see if it's been recalled.

Best used by 12/07/19 Lot: L18A07C
Best used by 12/08/19 Lots: L18A08A, L18A08B
Best used by 12/14/19 Lots: L18A14A, L18A14B, L18A14C

E. coli contamination is always a risk with flour, which is why raw cookie dough is still unsafe to eat even if it doesn't contain eggs. The CDC warns that even allowing children to play or craft with raw dough isn't a smart idea.

[h/t NBC 12]

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