10 Facts About Hepatitis

iStock.com/Hailshadow
iStock.com/Hailshadow

Even if you've been vaccinated against it, you may have a lot of unanswered questions about hepatitis. The condition, which is characterized by inflamed liver tissue, can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, an overactive immune system, and alcohol abuse. Hepatitis symptoms also vary widely, from a flu-like feeling that clears up in a few weeks to liver failure. Here are some facts worth knowing about every type of hepatitis—including the most common types, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

1. There are five types of viral hepatitis.

Every case of hepatitis is characterized by inflammation of the liver tissue. When looking at viral hepatitis specifically, the treatments, modes of transmission, and duration of symptoms vary from according to which virus strain is causing it. Hepatitis A is an acute illness that often goes away on its own over time. It spreads primarily via the oral-fecal route, usually when someone ingests food or water contaminated with the hepatitis A virus. The second type, hepatitis B, can be either acute or chronic, and it spreads through bodily fluids like blood and semen. Hepatitis C mainly spreads through blood and is most likely to develop into a chronic condition.

The fourth and fifth types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis D and E, though they aren’t talked about much in the U.S. Like hepatitis A, hepatitis E is mostly spread through oral-fecal contamination. Hepatitis D can only be contracted if the patient has already had hepatitis B. Both types are less common in the U.S. compared to countries that lack access to clean drinking water.

2. Non-viral hepatitis can be caused by alcohol and other factors.

Catching a virus isn’t the only way to contract hepatitis. Even if you’re up-to-date on your shots and practice good hygiene, you can get it from exposure to toxic chemicals, taking prescriptions or over-the-counter-drugs, or abusing alcohol. All of these conditions are known as toxic hepatitis. There’s also autoimmune hepatitis, which occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the liver and treats it like a hostile invader. Doctors aren’t entirely sure why this happens, but it’s more common in people with a history of infections or other immune diseases.

3. Chronic hepatitis may not show any symptoms.

Chronic hepatitis is diagnosed when the condition lasts longer than six months. Sometimes it develops following a bout of acute hepatitis, but more often it’s asymptomatic. Vague signs of this form of hepatitis may include malaise, fatigue, and nonspecific upper abdominal discomfort. It’s under-diagnosed, but if patients suspect they have hepatitis symptoms, they can get a liver function test, a viral serologic test, or other blood work done to confirm it’s there.

4. Yellow eyes and skin are common symptoms of acute hepatitis.

Unlike chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis quickly presents clear signs. These include pale stool, dark urine, fatigue, loss of appetite, and flu-like symptoms. One of the tell-tale symptoms of hepatitis is jaundice, which is characterized by yellowish skin or eyes. This occurs when bilirubin, an orange-colored waste material produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells, builds up in the blood because the liver isn’t functioning properly.

5. Some types of hepatitis can be prevented with vaccines.

Hepatitis types A and B can both be protected against with vaccines. The hepatitis A vaccine is administered in two doses six to 18 months apart and the hepatitis vaccine is doled out in three shots over six months. Cases of hepatitis B in the U.S. have dropped by as much as 73 percent since the vaccine was first introduced in the 1980s and hepatitis A cases have declined by 95 percent in the same time period.

6. There's no vaccine for Hepatitis C—but doctors are working on it.

Hepatitis C is the most common form of viral hepatitis, but there's still no vaccine for it. Scientists have identified at least six genetically distinct types of the virus, and about 50 different subtypes. This makes it difficult to develop a one-size-fits-all vaccine for hepatitis C, but medical experts have been working on one since the disease was first detected 25 years ago.

7. Some types of hepatitis can be cured.

There’s no specific therapy for hepatitis A once you contract it, but treating it is simple: With plenty of bed rest and hydration, the symptoms should clear up on their own within a few weeks or months. Hepatitis B, on the other hand, has a cure. Pegylated interferon-alphaA, a weekly shot administered over six months, eradicates hepatitis B in 25 percent of people. When it doesn’t work, patients can take oral medications, like amivudine and adefovir, that suppress symptoms. People with hepatitis C can take a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin tablets to recover from the condition, but this treatment doesn’t always work and can cause harsh side effects that are hard for some patients to tolerate.

In people with non-viral hepatitis, avoiding the cause—whether it’s drugs, alcohol, or toxic chemicals in their environment—is the first and most important step toward protecting their liver. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis may need to take drugs like Prednisone that lower their immune activity. If chronic hepatitis has gone untreated for a long time and the liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may be the only option.

8. Long-term effects of hepatitis can be deadly.

If left untreated for too long, chronic hepatitis can have severe health effects. Even when symptoms aren’t immediately apparent, hepatitis takes its toll on the liver. One of the more dire outcomes of this condition is cirrhosis, a deadly liver disease that occurs when scar tissue starts to overtake healthy tissue inside the liver. This stops the liver from functioning properly and can lead to gallstones, swelling of the legs and feet, increased blood pressure, chronic bruising and bleeding, and poisoning of the brain. Liver cancer is another potential long-term side effect of chronic hepatitis.

9. Baby boomers are more likely than other age groups to have hepatitis C.

Baby boomers, a.k.a. people born between 1945 and 1965, are five times more likely to have hepatitis C than the rest of the population [PDF]. Transmission of hepatitis C reached its peak in the 1960s through the 1980s, before regular screenings for the virus became common, which is when most Boomers living with the disease today likely contracted it. Health experts recommend that everyone in this age group be tested for hepatitis C even if they don’t exhibit symptoms.

10. Viral hepatitis kills more people than malaria.

There are more than 325 million people around the world living with viral hepatitis today—that’s roughly equivalent to 4 percent of Earth's population. Every year, the disease leads to 1.34 million fatalities, which makes it deadlier than HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. While the death rates associated with those diseases are on the decline, deaths caused by viral hepatitis increased 22 percent between 2000 and 2015. In 2017, Charles Gore, then president of the World Hepatitis Alliance, said the spike can be blamed on a lack of funding and prioritization of hepatitis compared to other global health threats. Lack of awareness is also a problem: Just 5 percent of people with viral hepatitis realize they have it.

A Simple Skin Swab Could Soon Identify People at Risk for Parkinson's

iStock.com/stevanovicigor
iStock.com/stevanovicigor

More than 200 years have passed since physician James Parkinson first identified the degenerative neurological disorder that bears his name. Over five million people worldwide suffer from Parkinson’s disease, a neurological condition characterized by muscle tremors and other symptoms. Diagnosis is based on those symptoms rather than blood tests, brain imaging, or any other laboratory evidence.

Now, science may be close to a simple and non-invasive method for diagnosing the disease based on a waxy substance called sebum, which people secrete through their skin. And it’s thanks to a woman with the unique ability to sniff out differences in the sebum of those with Parkinson's—years before a diagnosis can be made.

The Guardian describes how researchers at the University of Manchester partnered with a nurse named Joy Milne, a "super smeller" who can detect a unique odor emanating from Parkinson's patients that is unnoticeable to most people. Working with Tilo Kunath, a neurobiologist at Edinburgh University, Milne and the researchers pinpointed the strongest odor coming from the patients' upper backs, where sebum-emitting pores are concentrated.

For a new study in the journal ACS Central Science, the researchers analyzed skin swabs from 64 Parkinson's and non-Parkinson's subjects and found that three substances—eicosane, hippuric acid, and octadecanal—were present in higher concentrations in the Parkinson’s patients. One substance, perillic aldehyde, was lower. Milne confirmed that these swabs bore the distinct, musky odor associated with Parkinson’s patients.

Researchers also found no difference between patients who took drugs to control symptoms and those who did not, meaning that drug metabolites had no influence on the odor or compounds.

The next step will be to swab a a much larger cohort of Parkinson’s patients and healthy volunteers to see if the results are consistent and reliable. If these compounds are able to accurately identify Parkinson’s, researchers are optimistic that it could lead to earlier diagnosis and more effective interventions.

[h/t The Guardian]

7 Smart Cleaning Devices to Help Keep Your Allergies at Bay

iStock
iStock

Just because you hate cleaning doesn’t mean you need to live in filth. You may not be able to buy a robot maid straight out of The Jetsons (yet), but there are plenty of automated ways to clean your house, if you’re willing to shell out a few extra dollars for the joy of watching a machine do your work for you. Here are seven pieces of technology that can help you combat dust, dirt, and allergens at home without lifting a finger.

1. iRobot Roomba

A robot vacuum skirts the wall of a room with wooden floors.
iRobot

The Roomba has long been the gold standard in robotic vacuuming. While it may not be as effective as the human hand at getting into tight corners and over thick rugs, there’s no better way to clean the entire house while you sit on the couch watching television. You can preschedule cleanings so that your handy helper tidies up while you’re at work, and acoustic sensors help the robot flag particularly dirty patches of floor for extra attention. Newer versions are compatible with the Amazon Echo, meaning you can vacuum your home without even pressing a button. The higher-end models offer even more features: Roomba 900 series maps out its route through your home in the iRobot app to give you precise data on where it cleaned and what areas it spent the most time on, while the Roomba i7+ can empty its own dust bin.

Buy it on on Amazon starting at $270. In addition to Amazon, you can get the budget Roomba 675 from Best Buy, Walmart, or the retailers below:

2. Hoover REACT Vacuum

A Hoover React vacuum
Hoover

Hoover's REACT series of vacuums takes the upright to new heights. Outfitted with FloorSense technology, these smart vacuums know when you move from carpet to hard wood to tile, and can adjust the brush speed accordingly: On carpet, it'll use a faster brush speed to lift out stubborn dirt; when you move from the bedroom to the kitchen, the brush will slow down to prevent dirt debris from spreading. The REACT line is also Bluetooth compatible, so you can connect to the Hoover app in order to customize your FloorSense settings and monitor your machine's filter. The icing on the cake (for the pet-loving Mental Floss staff) is its superior suction and sealed allergen system that banishes pet hair from your upholstery and floor (at least temporarily).

Buy it on Amazon ($174), Walmart ($174), or from one of the retailers below:

3. Braava Jet

A Braava jet mops a hardwood floor while a dog looks on.
The Braava Jet 240

While iRobot’s foray into automated mopping isn’t as advanced as its vacuuming products, the Braava jet mopping ‘bot, first released in 2016, makes a decent pass at cleaning kitchens, bathrooms, and wood floors. Designed for any hard surface, the Braava 240 comes with three different settings—wet mopping, damp sweeping, and dry sweeping—and can be controlled using the iRobot app. The petite cube vibrates stains and dirt away using disposable pads ($8 for a 10-pack or $14 for two reusable pads) specific to the cleaning setting. The pricier, newer model, the Braava 380t, has just two settings—dry or a wet—but it can mop for up to 150 minutes on a single charge and is compatible with Swiffer and other cleaning cloths.

Buy it on Amazon ($170), Walmart ($185), or at one of the retailers below:

4. Everybot

A robot mop navigates around a planter in a living room.
Everybot

Funded on Indiegogo in 2017, the Korean-made Everybot packs more power than the Braava. It’s a little bigger and can’t be controlled by an app, but its dual-spinning mops are designed to tackle spills and tough stains across the house with one touch of a button. It comes equipped with six different cleaning patterns as well as the ability to control its direction manually with a remote control. The mopping pads can be thrown in the washing machine or scrubbed by hand. It can also function as a duster: The robot has a handle on top, and you can grab it and run it over any surface, including windows.

Buy it on Amazon for $304 or from one of the retailers below:

5. Litter-Robot

A cat sits inside the mouth of the Litter-Robot.
Litter-Robot

No one likes a full litter box—not even your cat. So unless you’ve trained your cat to go in the toilet, you could probably use a litter box robot to keep your scooping duties to a minimum. The Litter-Robot looks a little like a kitty rocket ship and can save you some major smells. When the cat steps on the sensor upon entering the box, it triggers a countdown clock to the next cleaning cycle. Seven minutes later, when your cat is long gone, the orb-like litter box rotates, sifting the waste down into a filtered storage bin below. You only need to empty out the waste bin every few days as it fills up, and there’s never a smell—perfect for a house with multiple cats. Some reviewers note that it cuts down on their litter-and-dust triggered allergies, too.

Buy it from Litter-Robot for $449.

6. Awair Air Quality Monitor

Awair air quality monitor
Awair

Get to the root of your airborne allergy problem by cleaning up the air you breathe. Awair tracks the five main factors contributing to the air quality in your home—temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels, chemicals, and dust—and provides recommendations for changes you can make in order to improve your air quality. Awair is also compatible with Amazon Echo, Next, and IFTTT, which means it can direct your smart switch to turn on your humidifier if the humidity level drops, turn on the AC if your home gets too hot, or notify you if carbon dioxide levels rise. (The company also makes a smaller version called the Awair Glow that doubles as a smart plug.)

Buy it on Amazon for $163 or from one of the retailers below:

7. GermGuardian 4-In-1 Air Cleaning System

GermGuardian smart air filtration system
GermGuardian

Outfitted with a True HEPA filter, this air cleaning system from GermGuardian captures 99.97 percent of allergens and asthma triggers, including pet dander and pollen, as well as reduces airborne bacteria. Use the corresponding app to monitor and control your home’s air quality from anywhere.

Buy it on Amazon ($148), Walmart ($144), or one of the retailers below:

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