For the First Time, Scientists Find Jellyfish-Like Animal With ‘Transient’ Anus

SaskiaAcht/iStock.com
SaskiaAcht/iStock.com

Compared to other parts of anatomy, the anus is underappreciated—but without a way to expel waste from the body, all the work that takes places at other stages of digestion wouldn't be good for much. Now scientists may have a better understanding of how the anus evolved after identifying the first "transient" anus in jellyfish, New Scientist reports.

As biologist Sidney L. Tamm reports in the journal Invertebrate Biology, the warty comb jelly (which is really a type of ctenophore, not a cnidarian like true jellyfish) doesn't have a visible anus most of the time. While studying the comb jelly, he discovered it forms one only when it needs to defecate. When waste builds up, the creature's gut or gastrodermis expands until it touches the outer layer known as the epidermis. At this point, the gastrodermis and the epidermis fuse together and form an orifice where there wasn't one before. Waste is disposed of through the newly opened anus, and once the jelly has finished its business, the hole closes up again and the gut and the epidermis go back to being two separate layers.

These two components each consist of a single cell layer, so the anal opening forms quickly. Mature warty comb jellies have to grow a new anus every hour or so, while their larvae do it about once every 10 minutes.

Jellyfish and comb jellies are simple organisms, with one inner tract instead of a more complex system of organs. Some jellies have one opening in their gastrodermis they use for eating, expelling waste, and exchanging reproductive materials. The discovery of the warty comb jelly's transient anus shows how this one-orifice system may have evolved into a tract with a permanent anus millions of years ago.

Comb jellies are some of the oldest animals on Earth, with ancestors appearing as far back as 700 million years ago. Scientists believe they helped set the evolutionary groundwork for systems that are essential to complex life today, such as the nervous system and digestive tract.

[h/t New Scientist]

A Nubian Goat Named Lincoln Was Just Sworn in as the Mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont

iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia
iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia

Lincoln the goat may not be housebroken, but she had no problem winning the race for mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont. The new mayor was officially sworn in on Tuesday, March 12, and before signing the oath of office with her hoof print, she marked the occasion by defecating on the town hall floor, the Boston Globe reports.

Prior to getting into politics, Lincoln the droopy-eared Nubian goat lived a simple life. A local family looking for a way to maintain the unruly vegetation on their property had purchased her two years ago when she was 1 year old. At age 3, Lincoln transitioned from munching grass full-time to running for public office.

Though Lincoln's win is impressive, her election didn't involve beating any human candidates. Town Manager Joseph Gunter came up with the idea to hold an election for honorary pet mayor of Fair Haven as way to raise money for a new playground. For a $5 fee, local kids were allowed to nominate the pet of their choice to be town mayor. Lincoln bested more than a dozen candidates, including a gerbil named Crystal and a pacifier-sucking dog named Stella, for the position.

The stunt didn't raise much money—the town came away with just $100 for the playground—but it did earn Fair Haven international attention. In order to go down in history as world's longest-serving animal mayor, Lincoln has to stick around for a while; Stubbs the cat was mayor of Talkeetna, Alaska for 20 years.

[h/t Boston Globe]

The 10 Most Popular Puppy Names of 2019

iStock.com/Lakshmi3
iStock.com/Lakshmi3

If you brought home a new dog or puppy recently and named it Luna, you’re far from the only one. The name, which means moon in Latin, is the most popular puppy name for 2019.

This analysis of cute canine monikers comes from Trupanion, a provider of medical insurance for pets. The company looked at its database of 500,000 dogs and crunched the numbers to identify the names that are currently having a moment. (Although some of the names that cracked the top 10 list, like Daisy and Max, have been around for quite some time.)

Interestingly, Luna wasn’t always popular. As Trupanion points out, “Looking back 10 years, Luna was barely a blip on the name game chart … not even cracking the list of top 20 names.” Nor did it appear on ​Banfield Pet Hospital's list of the 10 most popular dog names of 2018.

Often, there's some overlap between popular pet names and baby names. Luna was the 31st most popular baby name for girls in 2018. This is perhaps linked to the popularity of the Harry Potter character Luna Lovegood, as well as the publicity the name has received in recent years from celebrities like John Legend and Chrissy Teigen and Penélope Cruz and Javier Bardem, as both couples named their daughters Luna.

Second on the list of popular puppy names is Bella (its longer form, Isabella, was the fifth most popular baby name for girls last year). Check out the top 10 list below to see if your pooch’s name is trending right now.

1. Luna
2. Bella
3. Charlie
4. Bailey
5. Lucy
6. Cooper
7. Max
8. Daisy
9. Bear
10. Oliver

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER