What's the Difference Between a Button-Up and a Button-Down Shirt?

iStock.com/LightFieldStudios
iStock.com/LightFieldStudios

As you probably already know, collared shirts with buttons running down the middle are typically referred to as either button-ups or button-downs. Some people have a strong preference for one term over the other; others use them interchangeably, believing (erroneously) that they’re synonymous.

Last November, model and author Chrissy Teigen took to Twitter and asked in a poll, “Is it a button up or button down?” Of the 220,000-plus respondents, 66 percent said button-up, and 34 percent said button-down. On the other hand, button-down appears to be the more searched-for term overall, according to Google Trends.

So which one is right? As it turns out, the two terms actually refer to two different garments. The button-down shirt came to be in the late 1800s, thanks to British polo players. Their uniform typically consisted of flannel pants, a wool sweater, and a long-sleeve shirt—all in white. It looked pretty snappy, but the players quickly became irritated by their collars flapping in the wind as they rode around on their horses.

According to Charles Panati’s book on the Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things, “Players routinely asked seamstresses to batten down their collars, and two buttons became the most popular solution to the problem.” This was called a polo collar at the time, and the style was soon popularized by John Brooks, whose father founded the Brooks Brothers clothing line. (Oddly, polo shirts as we know them today were actually made for tennis, not polo.)

This is all to say that button-down shirts have buttons attached to the collar, while button-up shirts do not. Here’s where it gets a little confusing, though: All shirts with buttons can be called button-ups. However, only some button-ups (the ones with buttons on the collars) can be called button-downs.

A man in a button-down shirt
A man wearing a button-down shirt
iStock.com/azndc

As Megan Collins of Style Girlfriend explained it to the Today show, it’s kind of like how “an apple is a fruit, but not all fruits are apples.”

If you ever get mixed up, just keep in mind that the collars of a button-down can be buttoned down. As for their sartorial differences, button-down shirts are less common these days, especially among women's styles. They also tend to be slightly more casual than shirts with free-flapping collars, according to Collins.

If ties aren't your thing, but you're still trying to win style points, you should stick with the more versatile button-up shirt, according to Mainline Menswear.

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What Is the Shelf Life of Donated Eyes?

iStock.com/Pedro_Turrini
iStock.com/Pedro_Turrini

Zoe-Anne Barcellos:

I can only answer for cornea and eye donation.

The FDA does all oversight (no pun intended) of organ disposition.

The main organs—heart, liver, pancreas, lungs, etc.—are transplanted within hours. They are just not viable if they are not being perfused constantly.

The other tissues—like bone, skin, tendons, etc.—do not need to be transplanted immediately. But I am not sure on the regulations of when they need to be transplanted.

With the eyes, there are four tissues that can be recovered.

We recover whole eyes for research and education purposes. These usually go much faster, but we can hold them up to a year.

Conjunctiva can also be recovered; conjunctiva is a clear covering over most of the eye (it is what gets irritated when you have pink eye). I have been working as a recovery tech for five years, and our office has not had a request for "conj" in all that time. I believe it is mostly used for research, but I could be wrong.

Sclera is the white area of your eye. It is fairly thick and flexible. If you have ever touched a reptile egg, that is what it reminds me of. We recover sclera for transplant. They use it for several things, but mainly to patch punctures. Similar to if you pop the inner tube of your bike and repair it. Sclera can also be used to repair ear drums. We can hold on to this for up to a year.

The main thing we recover is corneas. In the U.S., we must transplant these within seven days of recovery. (Recovery is usually within hours of death, but we can push it up to 20 hours after if needed.) Sometimes we have more corneas than we need, and then they are shipped overseas and transplanted up to 14 days after recovery. There is no real different outcome with the later transplant time, but the FDA in the U.S. made the rules. (You can sign up to be an organ, tissue, and eye donor here.)

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

Why Are There No Snakes in Ireland?

iStock
iStock

Legend tells of St. Patrick using the power of his faith to drive all of Ireland’s snakes into the sea. It’s an impressive image, but there’s no way it could have happened.

There never were any snakes in Ireland, partly for the same reason that there are no snakes in Hawaii, Iceland, New Zealand, Greenland, or Antarctica: the Emerald Isle is, well, an island.

Eightofnine via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Once upon a time, Ireland was connected to a larger landmass. But that time was an ice age that kept the land far too chilly for cold-blooded reptiles. As the ice age ended around 10,000 years ago, glaciers melted, pouring even more cold water into the now-impassable expanse between Ireland and its neighbors.

Other animals, like wild boars, lynx, and brown bears, managed to make it across—as did a single reptile: the common lizard. Snakes, however, missed their chance.

The country’s serpent-free reputation has, somewhat perversely, turned snake ownership into a status symbol. There have been numerous reports of large pet snakes escaping or being released. As of yet, no species has managed to take hold in the wild—a small miracle in itself.

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