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10 Fleet-Footed Facts About Coelophysis

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Matt Celeskey

Coelophysis was but a humble player in an ecosystem teeming with strange and wonderful creatures. Yet this early dino proved to be remarkably successful, leaving not only a treasure trove of fossils in its wake, but also a hunter’s-eye look at the world it called home.

1. Some of the Oldest-Known Wishbones Belonged to Coelophysis.

Technically known as “furculae,” these forked structures are formed when an animal’s collar bones fuse. Sadly, as of this writing, the actual wish-granting ability of Coelophysis furculae has yet to be empirically verified.

2. Its Name Means “Hollow Form.”

Ryan Somma

Like most modern dinosaurs (a.k.a.: birds), this agile predator had hollow limb bones which lightened its frame.

3. … And, By the Way, Coelophysis is Also Part of a Heated Naming Controversy.

Wikimedia Commons

The whole thing started as a bad joke. In 1969, paleontologist Mike Raath discovered a new carnivorous dino he called Syntarsus (“Fused Ankle”). Years later, a group of insect scientists—led by Michael Ivie of Montana State University—learned that the name Syntarsus had already been given to a beetle. Since they’d caught the blunder, Ivie’s team had the right to formally rechristen Raath’s dinosaur.

So what new moniker did they come up with? “Megapnosaurus,” which literally means “Big, Dead Lizard.” Raath wasn’t amused. Apart from failing to contact him before tampering with his animal, these would-be comedians added insult to injury by giving it a purposefully stupid name. However, many specialists now contend that “Megapnosaurus” and Coelophysis really belonged to the same genus. If true, the word Coelophysis (being considerably older) has seniority and—hence—would cancel out Ivie and company’s infamous alternative. 

4. It’s the Official State Fossil of New Mexico.

Wikimedia Commons

Coelophysis first came to scientific light in the “Land of Enchantment” during America’s gilded age and is prominently displayed at museums and colleges all over the 47th state.

5. Coelophysis Shared its Habitat With Some Truly Incredible Animals.

Wikimedia Commons

Back in the late Triassic period (roughly 227-205 million years ago), North America was also home to an eclectic array of non-dinosaurian reptiles, including the heavily-armored aetosaurs, semi-aquatic phytosaurs, and ferocious rauisuchians. Some bore a striking resemblance to present-day critters while others seem like the products of a cheesy sci-fi flick. As biologist Kevin Padian once put it, “Being in the Triassic [would have been] like visiting the intergalactic bar that Luke Skywalker encounters in the original Star Wars movie: the characters look weird but vaguely familiar … and most of them would kill you as soon as look at you.” 

6. Georgia O’Keeffe Found Coelophysis Intriguing.

Ryan Somma

Located in northern New Mexico, Ghost Ranch has become one of the western hemisphere’s most famous bone beds thanks to the discovery of several hundred Coelophysis specimens in the property’s rocky outcrops. O’Keeffe purchased a house there in 1940, and used to enjoy visiting local paleontologists at the ranch’s dig sites.

7. Coelophysis Was Briefly Acquitted of Cannibalism.

NHM

Talk about bad press! In 1947, two well-preserved specimens were exposed with what appeared to be the corpses of smaller Coelophysis lodged in their guts. Before you could shout “Hannibal Lecter,” journalists leapt to label the dinosaur a cannibal.

Decades later, Coelophysis was seemingly absolved of this charge. A 2002 re-examination showed that one defendant in our trial had merely fallen onto a nearby juvenile before expiring. Meanwhile, it turned out that the other suspect’s belly actually contained a crocodile-like reptile and not a member of its own species. Case closed, right? Not so fast.

Fossilized feces peppered with bits of baby Coelophysis bones have also turned up inside other skeletons’ intestinal cavities, practically proving that the dino was guilty as charged all along.

8. According to Some Experts, Coelophysis Bit like a Komodo Dragon.

Wikimedia Commons

Pointing to the dimensions of its jaws and the blade-like shape of its teeth, paleontologist Stephen E. Jasinski argues that Coelophysis’ mouth was designed to inflict “slashing” bites as these man-sized monitor lizards do today.

9. Coelophysis Was Originally Unearthed During an Ugly Showdown Called “The Bone Wars.”

Ryan Somma

This fossil-hunting feud was so epic that it frankly deserves its own grandiose HBO miniseries (“Game of Bones”, anyone?). Edward Drinker Cope and Othneil Charles Marsh were rival scientists based on the east coast. From 1877 to 1892, each man toiled to out-perform his adversary in the field—and tarnish his reputation back at home. Underhanded briberies abounded, precious fossils were deliberately destroyed, and even the federal government was dragged into their fray. Before the dust finally settled, several now-iconic dino species—including Coelophysis, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus—had been discovered.

10. NASA once Launched a Coelophysis Skull Into Orbit.

We defy anyone to come up with a topic cooler than dinosaurs in space. On January 22nd, 1998, the Endeavor shuttle took off for an eight-day mission. Aboard this vessel was one of the oddest hitchhikers imaginable: a Coelophysis skull sent to “symbolize the bond between Earth’s history and mankind’s future.” After visiting Russia’s Mir station, the prehistoric passenger was returned to its native planet.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief
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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief

Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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