How a Deaf-Blind Person Watches the World Cup

YouTube, Hélio Surdos
YouTube, Hélio Surdos

Brazilian Sign Language interpreter Hélio Fonseca de Araújo woke up on the day before the opening of the World Cup in 2014 thinking about how he could help his friend Carlos, who is deaf and blind, get access to all the excitement. So he hit the hardware store, rigged up a tabletop model of the field, and enlisted his friend Regiane to provide extra interpretation for all the complex information that needs to come through in a game. He recently brought the setup out again for this World Cup.

Here you can see Carlos watching the Brazil vs. Croatia match live, while Hélio provides Brazilian Sign Language interpretation (which Carlos follows by feeling it with his own hands—this is called tactile signing), and Regiane relays information about fouls, cards, times, and player jersey numbers with social-haptic communication on Carlos’s back.

This is the moment in the second half when it appeared that Brazil had scored a goal, but a foul was called. Hélio later makes sure Carlos can see how Neymar covered his face with his shirt.

And here is Coutinho’s game-turning goal for Brazil.

If you're wondering why Carlos occasionally looks at the screen, many deaf blind people have some residual sight (or hearing). Many deaf-blind people become fluent in sign language as deaf people, before they begin to lose their sight.

See the entire video at Hélio’s YouTube channel here.

A version of this story ran in 2014.

Does the University of Florida Still Make Money Off Gatorade?

George Frey, Getty Images
George Frey, Getty Images

In September 1965, 10 freshmen players on the University of Florida's Gators football team agreed to let the school's kidney disease specialist, Robert Cade, assess their hydration levels during practices. He took urine samples. He interviewed athletes. He asked to take their rectal temperature during games.

The players agreed to all but the last request. In analyzing his results, Cade discovered that the wilting heat, coupled with a lack of hydration, resulted in subjects who were very low on electrolytes like sodium and potassium, sometimes losing six to nine pounds of water per practice session—with some footballers having anecdotes of 15 to 20 pounds lost during games. Cade felt that players suffered from low blood volume and low blood sugar. Many, in fact, were being hospitalized after overexerting themselves without drinking enough water, traditionally seen as a way of building toughness in players. Those who remained on field were surely not playing up to their potential.

Cade mixed water, sugar, salt, and lemon juice, then ordered them to drink the solution to keep their bodies in balance. By 1967, the Gators were all consuming "Gatorade," and incidences of heat stroke fell sharply. The Gators secured a 9-2 record in 1966; the team became renowned for their renewed energy during the second half, and ignited a transformation in sports science. Decades later and backed by a massive promotional machine, Gatorade has permeated both professional sports and amateur athletics alike, replenishing electrolytes lost during physical activity. Roughly 632 million cases were sold in 2013 alone.

With the sports drink having been born on the Gators's playing field and invented by a University of Florida employee, it's not hard to see why both Cade's estate (he died in 2007) and the school get a percentage of royalties from sales, an agreement that's still in place today. But if they had their way, the university would be getting all of it.

A University of Florida coach is soaked in Gatorade by his players after a win
Donald Miralle, Getty Images

After Cade and his co-researchers finalized Gatorade’s formula, Cade approached the school's head of sponsored research to see if they wanted to come to an arrangement over the rights to the drink (Cade wanted $10,000) and determine if they wanted to try and sell it to a national distributor. According to Cade, University of Florida (UF) officials weren't interested, so he struck a deal with beverage maker Stokely Van-Camp in 1967.

Stokely's offer was for Cade and his cohorts—now known as the Gatorade Trust—to receive a $25,000 cash payment, a $5000 bonus, and a five-cent royalty on each gallon of Gatorade sold. When UF realized that they had been shortsighted in assessing the brand's mass market appeal—and that they were missing out on profits—they allegedly told Cade that the drink belonged to them.

"Go to hell," Cade responded, a statement that kicked off several years of litigation.

While Cade was a university employee, funds for his work actually came from the government—specifically, the Department of Health. He also managed to avoid signing an agreement solidifying his inventions as school property. For these reasons, and because both sides anticipated an endless and costly legal jiu-jitsu match in their futures, the two accepted a federal ruling in 1972. The Gatorade Trust would continue to receive their royalties, and the school would take 20 percent of the disbursement.

Initially, that meant one cent for every gallon of Gatorade sold, a fraction of the five cents owed to the Trust. In September 1973, following the first full year of the agreement, UF made $115,296 in royalties and earmarked the funds for kidney research and marine science.

Gatorade cups are shown stacked in a locker room
J. Meric, Getty Images

That's a considerable sum, but it's nothing compared to what poured out in the decades to come. When Stokely Van-Camp was purchased by Quaker Oats in 1983, they kicked off a heavy promotional campaign that highlighted Gatorade in commercials and sponsored teams. Coaches began getting doused with jugs full of Gatorade following big victories. When PepsiCo bought Quaker for $13.4 billion in 2000, they leveraged their marketing muscle to further engender the brand.

Consequently, both the Gatorade Trust and UF have profited immensely. As of 2015, the Trust had earned well over $1 billion in royalties, with 20 percent, or about $281 million, going to UF. The five-cent per gallon formula has been replaced by a percentage: between 1.9 percent and 3.6 percent depending on how much Gatorade is sold annually, according to ESPN's Darren Rovell, with the University taking a fifth of that. The funds have been invested in the school's Genetics Institute, the Whitney Marine Laboratory in St. Augustine, and to help disperse seed money for grants.

The school naturally has an affinity for the stuff, but that can occasionally come into conflict with other marketing deals. In 2016, the University of Florida’s women's basketball team played in the NCAA Tournament, which was sponsored by Powerade, a competing sports drink made by Coca-Cola. As a compromise, the players dumped their Gatorade into Powerade bottles and cups. The beverage born on campus—one that's netted them nearly $300 million to date—always comes first.

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4 Old Men Who Played College Football

iStock
iStock

College football is usually a young man’s game, but occasionally an old timer finds his way onto the field. With this fall’s schedule finally in full swing, let’s take a look at four players who didn’t let their relatively advanced ages keep them off of the gridiron.

1. TOM THOMPSON // AUSTIN COLLEGE

In November 2009, Tom Thompson cemented his place as the grand old man of college football when he booted an extra point for the Austin College Kangaroos in a game against Division III power Trinity. Thompson, a 61-year-old graduate student at Austin, had been a backup kicker in high school, but he dusted off his kicking skills for the first time in four decades to make the big boot. The story would have been something right out of a movie if not for the final score: Trinity waxed Austin 44-10.

2. ALAN MOORE // HOLMES COMMUNITY COLLEGE/FAULKNER UNIVERSITY

Alan Moore kicked as a freshman at Jones County Junior College in 1968. At the end of the season he headed off to fight in the Vietnam War, and once his tour of duty was over Moore never managed to get back onto the gridiron ... until 2010, that is.

After getting laid off from his job in 2009, Moore moved to Mississippi to be near his grandchildren and found he once again had the urge to kick. He bought kicking shoes, built a goal post in his daughter’s yard, and started practicing. After a failed attempt to rejoin his old squad at Jones County, the 60-year-old kicker with 40-plus-yard range suited up for Holmes Community College for the 2010 season. In 2011—at age 61—Moore made the squad at Faulkner University in Montgomery, Alabama, becoming the oldest person to ever step on the field.

3. MIKE FLYNT // SUL ROSS STATE

Back in 2007, Mike Flynt told his pals that his biggest regret was getting kicked off of his college football team. When a friend challenged Flynt to do something about it, the 59-year-old grandfather sprang into action. After establishing that he still had remaining eligibility, Flynt set about rejoining the team at his alma mater, Division III Sul Ross State in Texas.

Flynt wasn’t your average 59-year-old ex-jock, either. He had spent his career working as a strength and conditioning coach at schools like Tennessee and Nebraska, so he’d stayed in shape. He ended up making the Sul Ross State squad as a linebacker.

4. TIM FRISBY // UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

When Tim Frisby tried out for the University of South Carolina’s squad in 2004, he wasn't exactly an old man. But he wasn’t exactly the typical walk-on, either. At age 39, he was a former U.S. Army Ranger who had served in the first Gulf War and in Kosovo. He had six children. (Gamecocks coach Lou Holtz joked that putting Frisby on the roster would at least boost attendance if his whole family came to games.)

Stranger still, Frisby wanted to try out for one of the fastest spots on the roster: wide receiver. Luckily, his years in the military had preserved both his NCAA eligibility and his body; Frisby still ran a 4.6-second 40-yard dash. In 2005 Frisby notched his first career catch, a nine-yard reception, and won the team’s offensive GPA award with a 3.6 mark in his journalism major.

The NCAA doesn’t keep age stats, but at the time researchers pegged Frisby as the oldest man to ever play Division I football. Both Holtz and his successor, Steve Spurrier, insisted that Frisby was on the team as a deserving possession receiver, not a novelty, but the man his teammates called “Pops” got to have some fun with his unusual age. He made it onto the couch for both David Letterman and Jay Leno in that first season!

This story originally ran in 2011.

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