The '95 Oldsmobile Eighty Eight had an optional in-car GPS system—the first of its kind, and way ahead of its time. Priced at $2,000 for the base system (with extremely limited map coverage) and hampered by the low-precision civilian access to the GPS network of the time, it was a flop, selling only 2,000 units by July 1996. Half of those units were installed in AVIS rental cars.
But the burning question is—what did it look like? Oh, it was amazing:
Here's how AVIS advertised it:
But wait, there's more. In an article from Jesda, the prototype hard-drive-based "TravTek" system from 1992 is shown—that system would evolve into Guidestar, the system shown in the first two videos above. Dig that Stephen Hawking-style speech synthesizer!
When you’re driving around looking for a spot to park on tight downtown streets, you’re probably not cursing city planners for mandating too much parking space. (You’re probably thinking the opposite.) But while some areas, depending on the time of day, are inundated with more cars than spaces, for the most part Americans lead lives of parking privilege, surrounded by empty spaces they don’t need to use. By one estimate, there are eight parking spots for every car in the U.S. (Others say it's more like three, which is still a lot considering that number doesn't take into account home parking.)
Why does the U.S. have so much extra parking? A new video explainer from Vox (spotted by Arch Daily) has the answer. It’s because laws mandate it.
In the video, Will Chilton and Paul Mackie of the transportation research initiative Mobility Lab explain the rise of the parking meter, which was invented in the 1930s, and the regulations that soon followed, called mandatory parking minimums. These city laws require that those building an apartment complex or shopping center or store have to provide a minimum number of spaces in off-street parking for customers to use. The cost of providing this service is carried by building developers—giving the city a free way to get new parking without having to manage their street parking situation closely. Go to any suburb in America, and the parking lots you leave your car in are probably the result of these parking minimum rules.
The ease of parking in America isn’t a good thing—though it may feel like it when you slide into an open spot right in front of the grocery store. Experts have been calling for an end to zoning laws like these for years, arguing that excess parking encourages unnecessary driving (why take the bus or carpool if it’s easy to drive yourself and park for free?) while simultaneously making it harder to walk around a city, since parking takes up a ton of land that’s difficult to traverse on foot, interrupting the urban fabric.
These parking minimum regulations take very specific forms by building type, including number of spaces required per hole at a golf course, per gallons of water in a public pool, and per beds in a nursing home. Before you cheer for free, plentiful parking, let the experts at Vox explain just why this is a problem for cities:
Black taxi cabs (or Hackney carriages, as they're often called) have been a fixture on London's streets for decades. A redesign from the London Taxi Company should ensure they stay that way well into the future. As The Guardian reports, the newly unveiled model of the city's black cab runs on gasoline and electric batteries.
The cabs most Londoners are used to hailing are currently powered by diesel fuel, which releases much more toxic emissions than regular gas. With London facing deadly air pollution levels, city officials are pushing to replace the smog-producers with cleaner modes of transport.
The new cab runs on an electric battery for the first 70 miles of its journey before switching to a fuel reserve for the next 400. (The average cab travels about 120 miles a day.) The London Taxi Company, which will soon rebrand as the London Electric Vehicle Company, plans to have as many as 150 cabs on the road by next year, with the first vehicles debuting in November.
Starting January 1, 2018, Transport for London will require all new taxis in London to be electric or have zero-emissions capabilities. Diesel cabs introduced before the cut-off will be allowed to stay, but after turning 15 they will need to be retired—therefore, the city should be completely diesel-free by 2032.
The black cab isn't the first four-wheeled London icon to receive an earth-friendly update. In 2016, Transport for London launched its inaugural fleet of all-electric double-decker buses, vehicles the agency claimed were the first of their kind.