The Meteorologists Who Helped Plan D-Day

Getty Images
Getty Images

Today would have been the 70th anniversary of D-Day, if not for an unfavorable weather forecast. In 1994, Lawrence Hogben wrote for the London Review of Books about his experience 50 years prior trying to predict the weather that would determine the date of the attack. He was 28 at the time; after receiving a Distinguished Service Cross for his time in the Royal Navy, he became part of a meteorological committee for advising Dwight Eisenhower. There were three teams of two men: Hogben and Geoffrey Wolfe from the Royal Navy, as well as pairs selected from the United States military and the Met Office. James Stagg, from the British Royal Air Force, was responsible for mediating the three teams and reporting their decisions to Eisenhower.

Hogben's LRB account describes the specific meteorological circumstances the military required for the landing, saying:

That left just four possible days: 5, 6, 19 or 20 June. We worked out the odds on the weather on any one of these four dates conforming to requirements as being 13 to one against. So meteorologically, D-Day was bound to be a gamble against the odds.

But predictions had to be made. Two-day forecasts, understandably, proved to be more reliable than those made five days out, so the ships and troops had to be ready to go on short notice. As the first window in June approached, Eisenhower planned to launch on the June 5, and backed by a favorable forecast from the U.S. military team, "they were for ‘go’ on Monday the 5th; the cautious Met Office were for ‘no go’; so were the pragmatic Royal Navy."

As Sunday the 4th slipped into early Monday morning, Eisenhower and meteorologists watched the weather.

At a hairy 4 a.m. meeting on Sunday morning, faced by a unanimous prediction of strong winds, low clouds and rough seas for the Monday, Ike postponed the operation for 24 hours, only two hours before the main body was due to sail ... The decision had been an emotional drain on all the participants, military and meteorological, and the whole nerve-racking process had now to continue for yet another day.

The postponement proved crucial as a storm swept in. But the 6th, the last option for several weeks, was just a day away, and a decision had to be made. The U.S. military team again voted "go" and the Met Office stuck their guns with "no go." It was Hogben and Wolfe who swapped sides, giving the "go's" the majority and setting the stage for June 6: D-Day.

And we all know now how that turned out: "The gamble that the weather would be both suitable and forecastable had come off." How slim was the margin for one of the most important attacks in history? If they hadn't given a "go" for the 6th, the next option for the Normandy Landing was June 19th. On the 17th, all three teams predicted there would be fine weather that day, only to be what could have been disastrously wrong when a massive storm hit.

Writing in 1994, Hogben considered how much meteorological technology had improved.

For shorter periods, the accuracy of today’s forecasts is most impressive. In 1944 we only just got the most important weather forecast in history right. But we steered the invading army away from a potential disaster at sea and helped to make ultimate victory feasible.

Possible Star Wars: Episode IX Leak Predicts a Traitor Within the First Order

Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm

by Natalie Zamora

A rumored leak circulating the internet recently is a fresh take on most theories for the upcoming Star Wars: Episode IX, as it has nothing to do with Rey's true ​parentage, how Luke Skywalker will ​come back, or Poe Dameron's ​sexuality. Instead, this new bit of possibly real information is about the First Order.

An unknown source has revealed to ​​Express.co.uk that there is a traitor within the First Order, as part of the Episode IX storyline will involve Kylo Ren trying to find a mole in his team, after becoming suspicious someone is giving out information to the Resistance.

This plot point "will have a cat and mouse element to it, similar to Revenge of the Sith where the Jedi were trying to find out who the Sith lord is—which turned out to be Palpatine.”

Domhnall Gleeson in Star Wars: Episode VIII - The Last Jedi (2017)
Lucasfilm

The report also references a different leak from May 2018, which claimed General Hux would be a mole inside the First Order. This wouldn't be too surprising, as Kylo and Hux have had quite the rivalry since The Force Awakens. Both parties competed to be Supreme Leader Snoke's favorite, and now with Snoke gone, the relationship between the two men should be interesting. It wouldn't be hard to see Hux turning on Kylo.

However, Hux obviously despises the Resistance. Would he help them just to betray someone who has more power than him? It might be more believable to think he would find other ways to steal the power away
from Kylo rather than disturbing the First Order. Hux wants to defeat both Kylo and the Resistance, and we don't see him compromising.

This is an interesting "leak" to keep in mind as we get more details about Episode IX, however. At the moment, we really don't have much information about the final film in the Skywalker Saga, so any rumors are worth exploring.

Star Wars: Episode IX hits theaters December 20, 2019.

LeBron James Enlists Black Panther Director Ryan Coogler to Produce Space Jam Sequel

Pascal Le Segretain, Getty Images
Pascal Le Segretain, Getty Images

by Dana Samuel

According to The Hollywood Reporter, Black Panther director Ryan Coogler is teaming up with LeBron James to finally make a Space Jam sequel. The original, released in 1996, starred Michael Jordan, with cameos from other NBA stars and characters from Looney Tunes; it grossed more than $250 million worldwide (making it the highest-grossing basketball movie of all time, according to THR).

THR reports that the film is reportedly going to begin production in 2019, during the NBA off-season; Coogler will be the producer of the sequel and Random Acts of Flyness creator Terence Nance will direct.

Coogler's work on Black Panther was not only groundbreaking, but the film broke several box office records and it has become the highest grossing film by a black director.

James is a huge Black Panther fan. “I loved his vision," he told THR, "so for Ryan to be able to bring that to kids, it’s amazing. ... The Space Jam collaboration is so much more than just me and the Looney Tunes getting together and doing this movie ... I'd just love for kids to understand how empowered they can feel and how empowered they can be if they don't just give up on their dreams. And I think Ryan did that for a lot of people.”

This project has been highly anticipated for years, and we have our fingers crossed for more details to be revealed soon.

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