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Thinkstock

What's The Difference Between Grasshoppers and Locusts?

Thinkstock
Thinkstock

There is something swarming in New Mexico. The infestation is so thick that clouds of insects are showing up on the radar like, well, real clouds.

“It is a nuisance to people because they fly into people’s faces while walking, running, and biking," John R. Garlisch, extension agent at Bernalillo County Cooperative Extension Service, told ABC News. "They are hopping into people’s homes and garages, they splatter the windshield and car grill while driving, and they will eat people’s plants." 

So what are they? Well, news outlets are calling them grasshoppers, but if they're swarming, does that make them locusts? A New York Times article from a similar occurrence last year went so far as to say that grasshoppers become locusts simply by swarming.

National Weather Service

In a 2010 article on locusts that was published in the Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Alexandre Vsevolo Latchininsky, Extension Entomologist for the State of Wyoming, explains that "all locusts are grasshoppers but not all grasshoppers are locusts." He defines locusts as "short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae), distinguished by their density-dependent behavioral, physiological, and phenotypic polymorphism."

The phenotype mutability refers to the fact that for some subspecies of locusts, the different stages of life are marked by different colors and even body shapes. However, it is the behavioral aspect—the mass grouping together—that is most notable. The act of swarming, or exhibiting a so-called "gregarious phase," is the most obvious characteristic that identifies a subspecies of grasshopper as a locust.

Latchininsky explains in his paper that "out of more than 12,000 described grasshopper species in the world, only about a dozen exhibit pronounced behavioral and/or morphological differences between phases of both nymphs and adults, and should be considered locusts." And in fact, the tendency to swarm together is a relatively recent phenomenon in grasshopper evolution.

However, what we have in New Mexico is an uncharacteristic swarming by members of the Acrididae family, which are the non-swarming members of the grasshopper designation. Latchininsky tells mental_floss that this has happened roughly a dozen times in evolutionary history. However, he cautions that, "these occasional gatherings do not mean that these grasshoppers are locusts! There are only a dozen or so true locust species in which the increase of density causes behavior changes followed by physiological, morphological and other phenotype changes." Based on extenuating factors—last year's monsoon season coupled with a dry winter—this current phenomenon seems to be a case of too many grasshoppers in too little space as opposed to a proclivity to swarm.

Still, Latchininsky speculates that it, "may be a first evolutionary step towards this species becoming a locust in a distant future."

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Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images
How a Hairdresser Found a Way to Fight Oil Spills With Hair Clippings
Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images
Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images

The Exxon Valdez oil tanker made global news in 1989 when it dumped millions of gallons of crude oil into the waters off Alaska's coast. As experts were figuring out the best ways to handle the ecological disaster, a hairdresser from Alabama named Phil McCroy was tinkering with ideas of his own. His solution, a stocking stuffed with hair clippings, was an early version of a clean-up method that's used at real oil spill sites today, according to Vox.

Hair booms are sock-like tubes stuffed with recycled hair, fur, and wool clippings. Hair naturally soaks up oil; most of the time it's sebum, an oil secreted from our sebaceous glands, but it will attract crude oil as well. When hair booms are dragged through waters slicked with oil, they sop up all of that pollution in a way that's gentle on the environment.

The same properties that make hair a great clean-up tool at spills are also what make animals vulnerable. Marine life that depends on clean fur to stay warm can die if their coats are stained with oil that's hard to wash off. Footage of an otter covered in oil was actually what inspired Phil McCroy to come up with his hair-based invention.

Check out the full story from Vox in the video below.

[h/t Vox]

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Bristly
A New Chew Toy Will Help Your Dog Brush Its Own Teeth
Bristly
Bristly

Few pet owners are willing to sit down and brush their pet's teeth on a regular basis. (Most of us can barely convince ourselves to floss our own teeth, after all.) Even fewer pets are willing to sit calmly and let it happen. But pet dental care matters: I’ve personally spent more than $1000 in the last few years dealing with the fact that my cat’s teeth are rotting out of her head.

For dog owners struggling to brush poor Fido’s teeth, there’s a slightly better option. Bristly, a product currently being funded on Kickstarter, is a chew toy that acts as a toothbrush. The rubber stick, which can be slathered with doggie toothpaste, is outfitted with bristles that brush your dog’s teeth as it plays.

A French bulldog chews on a Bristly toy.
Bristly

Designed so your dog can use it without you lifting a finger, it’s shaped like a little pogo stick, with a flattened base that allows dogs to stabilize it with their paws as they hack at the bristled stick with their teeth. The bristles are coated in a meat flavoring to encourage dogs to chew.

An estimated 80 percent of dogs over the age of 3 have some kind of dental disease, so the chances that your dog could use some extra dental attention is very high. In addition to staving off expensive vet bills, brushing your dog's teeth can improve their smelly breath.

Bristly comes in three sizes as well as in a heavy-duty version made for dogs who are prone to ripping through anything they can get their jaws around. A Bristly stick costs $29 and is scheduled to start shipping in October. Get it here.

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