CLOSE
Original image
HarpWeek

Can You Decipher These 11 Historical Political Cartoons?

Original image
HarpWeek

A challenge, Flossers! Few things are more baffling than an outdated political cartoon. Jokes about history lessons you don’t remember are presented in a style that is usually disturbing, if not flat-out terrifying. So here’s the game: We encourage historically inclined readers to explain the cartoons to the rest of us in the comments section. But, no search engines or wikis. Can you explain these peculiar entertainments from your own current knowledge?

I played the game fairly myself, using only my existing knowledge to try and decode these pictures. I failed fantastically. Let’s see if you can do better!

1. London, 1795 // "The Night Mare"

Yale Library

Components: There is a stoner Frenchman wearing a guillotine in the window. Then there is a fat man in a bed, with the Tax Goblin about to smother him with bread in his sleep. The chamber pot under the bed represents John Bull. I don’t know who John Bull is. Someone very English, I think.

Interpretation: Taxes will sit on your chest and press the life out of your inert body. We don’t need a cartoon to tell us that. Maybe that French beatnik is afraid he’ll be next and so he wears a guillotine to remind us that French people chop off the heads of leaders who try to force things the people don’t like, like taxes, or whole wheat.

2. American, 1840 // "The Political Dancing Jack"

Components: A drawing of two men who look a lot like the Smothers Brothers pulling the strings on a puppet who also looks like them. The puppet is a great “Holiday Gift for Sucking Whigs.”

Interpretation: I thought I had this one (some political guy named Jack is just a puppet for two other political guys) right up to the “Sucking Whigs.” Whigs are a political party, but I don’t know what they would be sucking. Maybe it’s an earlier interpretation of “You suck, Whigs! You’re a bunch of sucking Whigs! TORIES RULE!”

3. London, 1819 // "Royal Hobby’s, or the Hertfordshire Cock-horse"

British Library

Components: A Queen, evidenced by a crown and a queenly physique, is having a good time riding someone who I think may be the King. He’s not having as much fun, because he is a human bicycle. There is another military-ish, regal looking man in the background who is riding a non-human bike, and grumbling at the Royals.

Interpretation: I bet the signposts have something to do with it—the Royals are heading to Hertford and the Redcoat to Windsor. And what in the world is a Cock-horse? And I can’t imagine that magnificent dead-center bosom of the queen doesn’t bear heavily on the message of this satire. I just can’t fit it all together.

4. New York, 1871 // "The Ring Arithmetic – As Taught by the Modern Ceasers."

Components: A creepy man-head in children’s pajamas is doing math, which is in some way related to a ring. He is being supervised by a fat man who looks like a chicken. There are many bills on the wall. The fat man is a modern person who is trying to stop, or cease something. Or they might have meant “Caesar.” Either way, it’s just not coming together for me.

Interpretation: I zoomed in as far as I could and I still can’t make out what the two … men (?) are muttering at each other. But I think the man-head is upset. And the chicken man has the bloated belly often associated with corruption in old political cartoons. So whatever this cease-er/Caesar is trying to pull is probably jacked up. Don’t fall for it, man-head!

5. American, 1804 // "The Prairie Dog Sickened at the sting of a hornet or a diplomatic puppet exhibiting his deceptions."

HarpWeek

Components: Oh wow. Lot going on here. Well, the prairie dog has been stung in the rump by a hornet that is possibly French. He is vomiting what appear to be coins through his human mouth. Meanwhile, he is being cheered on in map-semaphore by a man with dainty feet and lovely sock garters who is saying, “A gift for the people!”

Interpretation: Maybe the maps represent the Louisiana Purchase? That would explain the hornet being French and the maps … but pretty much nothing else. Especially not the dainty feet.

6. American, 1840 // "The People’s Line"

HarpWeek

Components: There is a wooden train, and it has a face on it. It’s taking hard cider and log cabins … somewhere. Meanwhile the old man sitting on top of Uncle Sam’s carriage has crashed into clay, or something representing a man named Clay (likely the latter).

Interpretation: My intimacy with cable costume-dramas tells me that 1840 was a time of great railroad expansion. Maybe this was a flier telling people that houses and booze come by railroad, so support the railroad and give up on the broken down carriage routes. Cuz Clay or clay is just going to throw you off balance anyway.

7. London, 1809 // "John Bull Correcting His Child for Making a Wrong Use of the Mammon of this World"

British Museum 

Components: Oh! It’s John Bull again! He’s fat here, too, dressed like a goob, and disciplining a British solider, who may be the Duke of York. Two women look on sympathetically. One frets that the soldier is the color of Morocco, which is not an immediately identifiable hue.

Interpretation: After this I must find out who John Bull is. Is he a real guy or like England’s Uncle Sam? And the Duke of York has irritated him. And if we kept current with early 19th century London broadsheets, we’d probably know why.

8. London, 1788 // "The Morning after Marriage -or- A scene on the Continent"

Components: It’s the morning after some rich British guy’s marriage, they’re probably in France, and it would seem things went fairly well. Lots of stuff knocked over, that’s good. Some breakfast coming through the door, that’s always nice. The only thing that there is to really puzzle over is whether the groom is stretching and yawning … or has been terribly startled by something.

Interpretation: It all depends on the stretching/startling dichotomy. If he’s stretching, I’m not sure what the point of this picture is save that marriage and love-making are swell. If he’s startled, that opens a rich vein of curiosities. Could his wife have just shown him something appalling? Did the maid not knock? Are things upturned because he’s been fighting all night to get away from his bride and her disgusting demands? And in either case, what’s the political message here?

9. London, 1796 // "Fashionable Jockeyship"

British Museum

Components: Horrific, every one of them. A fat, flushed face man in regal dress is riding a skinny old man like a horse, demanding the man, possibly named Buck, to tell him how many fingers he is holding up. The horse-man answers, and doesn’t look too put out about it, “As many as you please!” And the whole thing is being watched over by an old lady in a big bed with a sly look.

Interpretation: No freakin’ clue. I suppose the old themes of the rich riding on the backs of the misfortunate is present here, but I don’t know why they’re doing it in front of this lady, or why they all seem to be having such a good time during their freak-out. Extra credit to the Flosser that deciphers this unsettling scene.

10. American, 1861 // "Modern Idolatry"

NY Public Library

Components: It shows four common European immigrants to America, or at least their “idols.” So we have a drunk Irish pig with a beating stick. We have some Scotsmen who are rubbing themselves against scratching posts, muttering something about argyle. A British … penguin? Cucumber in a cummerbund? He’s just standing there being fat. And then the German Idol, a friendly walrus sort who has come equipped with music, sausage, tobacco, and lager. The German dude rocks.

Interpretation: I get the idea of funny ethnic stereotypes … I’m just puzzled by the details chosen to represent those stereotypes. Are the Scottish known for rubbing their bottoms on posts? And come now, the Irish were fleeing a famine, a pig isn’t a good representation of that! He should be a lean angry badger or somesuch. Also why are the Scots still human? That’s the most insulting thing. A pig, a penguin-pickle, a walrus, and a Scotsman.

11. American, 1892 // "The Darwinian Theory – Variation from Environment"

NY Public Library

Components: A lady, possibly the same one, wore two dresses. One “knocked ‘em in the Old Kent Road!” which might be slang for something, hard to say. And the other “attracted al eyes at the church parade.” And it all ties into Darwinian Theory. Which suggests I know less about Darwinian Theory than I thought.

Interpretation: I’m not even sure this is supposed to be a joke. Maybe it’s a dress advertisement? “We can make dresses to make you adaptable to any environment! It’s a science!” I don’t know. That first dress is a real clunker, is that part of the joke? Actually I’m starting to think that the joke here is that it took me 10 minutes to realize there probably isn’t one.

12. American, 1892 // "The Bugaboo of Society and Theatrical Management"

NY Public Library

Components: Two little men, who have politician-faces, are being harassed by naked hobgoblins named McAllister and Gerry. They all have something to do with the bugaboos of society and …theatrical management. I do not know what a bugaboo is.

Interpretation: Actually this one is pretty straightforward. McAllister and Gerry are demons risen from Hell’s swollen shores, and the two men below them are about to become part of their Black Feast of the Damned. Nothing much left to add, I’d say.

Note: You will notice everyone in the cartoons I’ve chosen is white, and the subjects are all Euro-American. That’s not to say there weren’t cartoons featuring other races. There were reams of satires devoted to different ethnicities, Blacks and Native Americans particularly. But even the gentlest lampooning of these people comes across cruel and stupid by modern standards. Plus, they seldom needed interpreting. So, though they do have historical value and should not be overlooked in a more serious study, I chose to omit them here.

Original image
Ramones Karaoke, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0
arrow
Lists
Fake It Until You Make It: 10 Artificial Ruins
Original image
Ramones Karaoke, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

The love of ruins, sometimes called ruinophilia, has for centuries inspired the creation of clever fakes—a host of sham facades and hollowed-out castle shells found on grand English, European, and even American estates. The popularity of constructing artificial ruins was at its peak during the 18th and 19th centuries, but architects occasionally still incorporate them today.

Why build a structure that is already crumbling? Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the popularity of counterfeit ruins was influenced by two factors—a classical education that enforced the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome, and the extended tour of Europe (known as The Grand Tour) that well-to-do young men and women took after completing their education. Travelers might start in London or France and roam as far as the Middle East, but the trip almost always included Italy and a chance to admire Roman ruins. More than a few wealthy travelers returned home longing to duplicate those ruins, either to complement a romantic landscape, to demonstrate wealth, or to provide a pretense of family history for the newly rich.

Here are a few romantic ruins constructed between the 18th and 21st centuries.

1. SHAM CASTLE // BATHAMPTON, ENGLAND

Sham Castle (shown above) is aptly named—it’s only a façade. The "castle," overlooking the English city of Bath, was created in 1762 to improve the view for Ralph Allen, a local entrepreneur and philanthropist as well as to provide jobs for local stonemasons. From a distance it looks like a castle ruin, but it's merely a wall that has two three-story circular turrets and a two-story square tower at either end. The castle is not the only folly (as such purely decorative architecture is often called) that Allen built. He also constructed a sham bridge on Serpentine Lake in what is now Prior Park Landscape Garden—the bridge can't be crossed, but provides a nice focal point for the lake. Today, Sham Castle is part of a private golf course.

2. WIMPOLE FOLLY // CAMBRIDGESHIRE, ENGLAND

Building a structure that looks as if it's crumbling does not preclude having to perform regular maintenance. The four-story Gothic tower known as Wimpole Folly in Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, was built 1768-72 for Philip Yorke, first Earl of Hardwicke and owner of the Wimpole Estate. Owned by Britain’s National Trust, the ruin threatened to truly crumble a few years ago, so restoration efforts were needed. The last restoration was so well done it won the 2016 European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage. The Wimpole Estate is now open to the public for walks and hikes.

3. CAPEL MANOR FOLLY // ENFIELD, ENGLAND

Capel Manor at Bulls Cross, Enfield, England has been the site of several grand homes since the estate’s first recorded mention in the 13th century, so visitors might be tempted to believe that the manor house's ruins date back at least a few centuries. But that sense of history is an illusion: The faux 15th-century house was built in 2010 to add visual appeal to the manor gardens, which have been open to the public since the 1920s.

4. ROMAN RUIN // SCHONBRUNN PALACE, VIENNA, AUSTRIA

The Roman Ruin was built as a garden ornament for the 1441-room Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, one of the most important monuments in Austria. The ruin was once called The Ruins of Carthage, after the ancient North African city defeated by Roman military force. But despite the illusion of antiquity, the ruins were created almost 2000 years after Carthage fell in 146 B.C.E. The ruin’s rectangular pool, framed by an intricate semi-circle arch, was designed in 1778 by the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg, who modeled it on the Ancient Roman temple of Vespasian and Titus, which he had seen an engraving of.

5. THE RUINEBERG // POTSDAM, GERMANY

One of the earliest examples of artificial ruins in Germany was the complex of structures known as The Ruinenberg. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, had a summer palace in Potsdam, near Berlin, that was said to rival Versailles. In 1748 Frederick commissioned a large fountain for the palace complete with artificial ruins. The waterworks part of his plan proved too difficult and was soon abandoned, but not before designer Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff constructed the ruins. The complex includes Roman pillars, a round temple, and the wall of a Roman theatre. Since 1927 the site has belonged to the Prussian Gardens and Palaces Foundation, Berlin-Brandenburg.

6. PARC MONCEAU // PARIS, FRANCE

Elegant Parc Monceau is located in the fashionable 8th arrondissement of Paris near the Champs-Elysees and Palais de l’Elysée. In 1778, the Duke of Chartres decided to build a mansion on land previously used for hunting. He loved English architecture and gardens, including the notion of nostalgic ruins, so he hired the architect Louis Carrogis Carmontelle to create an extravagant park complete with a Roman temple, antique statues, a Chinese bridge, a farmhouse, a Dutch windmill, a minaret, a small Egyptian pyramid, and some fake gravestones. The most notable feature of the park is a pond surrounded by Corinthian columns, now known as Colonnade de Carmontelle.

7. HAGLEY PARK CASTLE // WORCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND

The ruins of the medieval castle at Hagley Park in Worcestershire are definitely fake, but they were built with debris from the real ruin of a neighboring abbey. The folly was commissioned by Sir George Lyttelton in 1747 and designed by Sanderson Miller, an English pioneer of Gothic revival architecture. The castle has a round tower at each corner, but by design only one is complete and decorated inside with a coat of arms. The grounds, which also feature a temple portico inspired by an ancient Greek temple, some urns, and obelisks, are now privately owned and not open to the public.

8. TATA CASTLE RUINS // TATA, HUNGARY

French architect Charles de Moreau (1758-1841) was a scholar of classical Roman architecture known for his ability to counterfeit impressive ruins. Nicholas I, Prince Esterhazy of Hungary, hired him to work on Tata Castle and to create the ruins of a Romanesque church for the palace’s English Garden. Even though the ruin Moreau created was fake, he built it with the stones of a real ruin, the remnants of the early-12th-century Benedictine and later Dominican abbey of Vértesszőlős. A third-century ancient Roman tombstone and relief were placed nearby.

9. BELVEDERE CASTLE // MANHATTAN, NEW YORK

Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux designed Central Park in the mid-1800s, and their plan for creating romantic vistas included the construction of a folly known as Belvedere Castle. The Gothic-Romanesque style hybrid, overlooking Central Park’s Great Lawn, was completed in 1869. Although the folly was designed as a hollow shell and meant to be a ruin, it eventually served a practical purpose, housing a weather bureau and exhibit space. The castle also provides a beautiful backdrop for Shakespeare in the Park productions, evoking the royal homes that play prominent roles in the Bard’s works.

10. FOLLY WALL IN BARKING TOWN SQUARE // LONDON

In a borough known for its real historic buildings, the ancient wall found in London’s Barking Town Square might look centuries old. It’s not, and ironically, the wall is part of the square’s renovation efforts. The wall was built by bricklaying students at Barking College using old bricks and crumbling stone items found at salvage yards. Known as the "Secret Garden," named after the children’s book about a walled garden, the wall was designed to screen a nearby supermarket and was unveiled in 2007.

Original image
IA Collaborative
arrow
Design
Lovely Vintage Manuals Show How to Design for the Human Body
Original image
IA Collaborative

If you're designing something for people to hold and use, you probably want to make sure that it will fit a normal human. You don't want to make a cell phone that people can't hold in their hands (mostly) or a vacuum that will have you throwing out your back every time you clean the house. Ergonomics isn't just for your office desk setup; it's for every product you physically touch.

In the mid-1970s, the office of legendary industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss created a series of manuals for designers working on products that involved the human body. And now, the rare Humanscale manuals from Henry Dreyfuss Associates are about to come back into print with the help of a Kickstarter campaign from a contemporary design firm. Using the work of original Henry Dreyfuss Associates designers Niels Diffrient and Alvin R. Tilley, the guides are getting another life with the help of the Chicago-based design consultancy IA Collaborative.

A Humanscale page illustrates human strength statistics.

The three Humanscale Manuals, published between 1974 and 1981 but long out-of-print, covered 18 different types of human-centric design categories, like typical body measurements, how people stand in public spaces, how hand and foot controls should work, and how to design for wheelchair users within legal requirements. In the mid-20th century, the ergonomics expertise of Dreyfuss and his partners was used in the development of landmark products like the modern telephones made by Bell Labs, the Polaroid camera, Honeywell's round thermostat, and the Hoover vacuum.

IA Collaborative is looking to reissue all three Humanscale manuals which you can currently only find in their printed form as historic documents in places like the Cooper Hewitt design museum in New York. IA Collaborative's Luke Westra and Nathan Ritter worked with some of the original designers to make the guides widely available again. Their goal was to reprint them at a reasonable price for designers. They're not exactly cheap, but the guides are more than just pretty decor for the office. The 60,000-data-point guides, IA Collaborative points out, "include metrics for every facet of human existence."

The manuals come in the form of booklets with wheels inside the page that you spin to reveal standards for different categories of people (strong, tall, short, able-bodied, men, women, children, etc.). There are three booklets, each with three double-sided pages, one for each category. For instance, Humanscale 1/2/3 covers body measurements, link measurements, seating guide, seat/table guide, wheelchair users, and the handicapped and elderly.

A product image of the pages from Humanscale Manual 1/2/3 stacked in a row.

"All products––from office chairs to medical devices—require designs that 'fit' the end user," according to Luke Westra, IA Collective's engineering director. "Finding the human factors data one needs to achieve these ‘fits' can be extremely challenging as it is often scattered across countless sources," he explains in a press release, "unless you've been lucky enough to get your hands on the Humanscale manuals."

Even setting aside the importance of the information they convey, the manuals are beautiful. Before infographics were all over the web, Henry Dreyfuss Associates were creating a huge compendium of visual data by hand. Whether you ever plan to design a desk chair or not, the manuals are worthy collectors' items.

The Kickstarter campaign runs from July 25 to August 24. The three booklets can be purchased individually ($79) or as a full set ($199).

All images courtesy IA Collaborative

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios