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10 Facts About Ankylosaurus

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Whenever Ankylosaurus is mentioned—in basic cable documentaries, cheap time-travel novels, or elsewhere—you might as well just start counting the seconds until somebody inevitably compares it to a tank. Equipped with defensive plating and a formidable tail club, this dino was certainly built like one. Today, we’ll be taking a closer look … from a safe distance, of course!

1. It Was Named by A Future Military Operative (and Fur Coat Enthusiast).

Meaning “fused lizard,” the word “Ankylosaurus” was coined in 1908 by paleontologist Barnum Brown (1873-1963). Brown himself was named after bombastic showman P.T. Barnum and, like the great magician, had a knack for exuberance. Mindful of his wardrobe, he could often be seen wearing a dapper top hat and knee-length beaverskin coat, even while digging up fossils miles away from civilization. Years later, Brown gathered intelligence for the American armed forces during World War II. His second wife, Lillian, went on to write a wildly entertaining memoir titled I Married a Dinosaur about their exploits.

2. Ankylosaurus Was Covered in Thick, Protective Knobs.

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Like a modern alligator, Ankylosaurus’ back was littered with bony plates which would’ve been all but bite-proof to even the toughest of carnivores. These structures (scientifically known as “osteoderms”) also decorated much of the animal’s sides, tail, and skull, though—like most ankylosaurs—its naked belly seems to have lacked this line of protection entirely.

3. It Belonged to a Diverse Group of Heavily-Armored Dinos.

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The ankylosauria was an incredibly successful lineage whose members once populated every continent except Africa. Many, like the majestic Sauropelta, had imposing shoulder spikes; a very special English species dubbed Hylaeosaurus was one of the first dinosaurs ever discovered.

4. Its Tongue Was (Theoretically) Quite Muscular.

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If you take a finger and gently press the area above your Adam’s apple, you may feel a solid lump. This is a u-shaped object called the “hyoid bone,” which helps anchor the tongue. These are usually very large in Ankylosaurus’ relatives, suggesting that hefty, flexible tongues inhabited their maws.

5. Ankylosaurus’ Clubbed Tail May Have Shattered Tyrannosaur Bones.

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T. rex shared its habitat with Ankylosaurus, but this giant herbivore wielded a weapon which might have made the “tyrant lizard king” take a few steps back. Interlocking vertebrae encased in worryingly-large osteoderms combined to form an almost tire-sized “club.” In large specimens with well-endowed tails, it’s been estimated that these instruments could “generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts” (however, smaller ankylosaurs likely couldn’t do so).

6. Some of its Relatives Even Had Armored Eyelids.

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Euoplocephalus tutus had specialized osteoderms covering its eyelids, shielding those precious pupils from marauding predators and/or the Three Stooges.

7. Ankylosaurus has been Confusing Artists for Decades.

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At the end of the day, those plates are darn hard to draw. The fact that scientists have spent over half a century re-imagining how they were arranged doesn’t help. Today, well-intentioned artists frequently err by putting a row of conical spikes along Ankylosaurus’ sides. Additionally, that aforementioned club was relatively flat, yet many have given it the shape of a spherical meatball over the years.

8. Ankylosaurus Had Tiny Teeth.

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Despite being the biggest-known ankylosaurid, this creature’s chompers were fairly miniscule. In fact, Ankylosaurus had the smallest teeth relative to its body size of any known member of its family.

Speaking of Ankylosaurus’ pearly whites, what was on the menu? The creature’s muzzle was rather wide and featured a strong beak, suggesting that it fed indiscriminately on low-lying vegetation.

9. Ankylosaurus Made a Big Splash at the 1964-65 World’s Fair.

Sinclair Oil, famous for their green Apatosaurus logo, decided to create a pack of life-sized dinosaur statues as a prehistoric publicity stunt for the event. Since then, this gang (which also included Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus) has been scattered across the country, with the original Ankylosaurus eventually settling down at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

10. Ankylosaurus Also Inspired one of Godzilla’s Most Beloved Co-Stars.

Despite having a long snout, hedgehog-like spines, and sharp fangs, the monster called Anguirus was loosely based on Ankylosaurus. First appearing in 1955’s Godzilla Raids Again, this pugnacious beast went on to star in half a dozen other films opposite the Big G, becoming a fan favorite en route.

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Tyrannosaurus and Edmontosaurus, Ely Kish, c. 1976. © Canadian Museum of Nature
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10 Ways Artists Imagined Dinosaurs Before the 21st Century
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In paleoart, “the lines between entertainment and science, kitsch and scholarship, are often vague," Ford writes in the preface to Paleoart. "This book is like a twofold time machine from a science-fiction comic i would have loved as a child. It allows us to go back in time to see what going back in time used to look like.”

Tyrannosaurus and Edmontosaurus, Ely Kish, c. 1976. © Canadian Museum of Nature

Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past explores the first 160 years of illustrating extinct species.

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Art
Cephalopod Fossil Sketch in Australia Can Be Seen From Space

Australia is home to some of the most singular creatures alive today, but a new piece of outdoor art pays homage to an organism that last inhabited the continent 65 million years ago. As the Townsville Bulletin reports, an etching of a prehistoric ammonite has appeared in a barren field in Queensland.

Ammonites are the ancestors of the cephalopods that currently populate the world’s oceans. They had sharp beaks, dexterous tentacles, and spiraling shells that could grow more than 3 feet in diameter. The inland sea where the ammonites once thrived has since dried up, leaving only fossils as evidence of their existence. The newly plowed dirt mural acts as a larger-than-life reminder of the ancient animals.

To make a drawing big enough to be seen from space, mathematician David Kennedy plotted the image into a path consisting of more than 600 “way points.” Then, using a former World War II airfield as his canvas, the property’s owner Rob Ievers plowed the massive 1230-foot-by-820-foot artwork into the ground with his tractor.

The project was funded by Soil Science Australia, an organization that uses soil art to raise awareness of the importance of farming. The sketch doubles as a paleotourist attraction for the local area, which is home to Australia's "dinosaur trail" of museums and other fossil-related attractions. But to see the craftsmanship in all its glory, visitors will need to find a way to view it from above.

[h/t Townsville Bulletin]

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