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Bob Travis

Sweet Honeysuckles

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Bob Travis

Photograph by Flickr user Bob Travis.

When I bought my first house, it came with a cement pond that the realtor didn’t even know about, because it was covered with honeysuckle vines. It took me months to remove all the honeysuckle, because the roots were thicker than my arm! In the US, Lonicera japonica is an invasive species that grows uncontrolled in moderate climates. It can cover buildings like kudzu, but it is also strong enough to strangle trees. However, when the blooms expose the sweet nectar inside, it can make the whole neighborhood smell like heaven.

Photograph by Flickr user Manuel M. Ramos.

There are about 180 species of honeysuckle plant, but most of those are native to Asia. Only a couple dozen belong naturally to Europe, India, and North America. The problem with honeysuckle is that travelers want to take the beautiful flowering vines away from their native habitat, and that's when they become invasive species. Honeysuckles that know their place behave much better.

Photograph by Flickr user Anita Gould.

Bell’s honeysuckle (Lonicera x bella) is a hybrid with lovely pink flowers that was cultivated from a Siberian species (Lonicera tatarica) and an Asian species (Lonicera morrowii). This beauty has a price, as Bell’s honeysuckle has become an invasive species in Wisconsin, New England, and other parts of the U.S. The seeds are spread by birds that eat the honeysuckle’s red berries. The blooms can also be white, so it is sometimes difficult to identify.

Photograph by Flickr user Emma Cooper.

The blue-berried honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) is one of the few honeysuckle species that produces edible fruit. It is also known as a honeyberry bush. You might not even recognize it as a honeysuckle; it grows as a shrub instead of a vine. The plants are cultivated for food in Russia and Japan.

Photograph by Bob Bors.

The berries are blue and come in varied shapes, and the fruit inside is purplish-red when the berries are ripe. The flavor is said to be similar to that of raspberries or blueberries, depending on the variety.

Photograph by Flickr user InAweofGod’sCreation.

Trumpet vine (Lonicera sempervirens) is a honeysuckle species native to the eastern United States. If conditions are right, trumpet vine can grow out of control. They are sometimes planted to compete with the invasive L. japonica. The bright red flowers attract hummingbirds to the sweet nectar inside as well as insects.

Photograph by Flickr user Paul Williams.

The gold flame honeysuckle (Lonicera x heckrottii) is a hybrid cultivar developed for its beautiful colors, which range through yellow and pink to orange, purple, and red. In warmer climates, these plants bloom all year round! Though it is a vining plant, gardeners who trim them can get them to grow like a shrub.

Photograph by Walter Siegmund.

Orange honeysuckle (Lonicera ciliosa) is native to the American West. It produces red berries that are edible, but are not widely used.

Photograph by Flickr user Hindrik Sijens.

Honeysuckles are beautiful and fragrant when they bloom, but as many species are invasive, you should always check and make sure any plants you buy are native to your country. A friend with an existing honeysuckle vine might let you take cuttings and propagate your own. If you live in an area where the common Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) grows, you can wait and they'll probably invade your yard sooner or later. But beware: if you want them in your yard, you should to give them something sturdy to grow over besides trees. And a healthy plant will send out shoots to places you may not want them to go. 

Photograph by Instructables member Falaco Soliton.

This is how you get at the honeysuckle nectar if you don’t have a hummingbird beak: Carefully pinch the bottom of the flower, not all the way through, just enough to cut the petals. Then gently pull the end, which should pull the style through. The style will scrape the nectar from the inside of the petal, and you’ll see a tiny drop of nectar, which is all sugar water with a tiny amount of fragrance. See more pictures of the process at Instructables. Keep in mind that the flowers of Lonicera japonica are also edible, in case you want to add a sweet tidbit to your salad. If you aren’t sure what type of honeysuckle you have, it’s best to avoid eating the flowers or berries, because many are toxic.

Honeysuckle almost demands a love/hate relationship, but in May and June, or whenever they bloom in your area, it's hard to hate them.

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science
10 Fascinating Facts About Corpse Flowers

Big, smelly, rare, phallic—these adjectives all describe Amorphophallus titanum, commonly known as the corpse flower. While native to western Indonesia, the plant is currently taking Washington, D.C. by smelly storm: The last of three—count 'em, three—corpse flowers to bloom this summer began its stinky blossoming this week at the United States Botanic Garden. In honor of the occasion, here's some trivia to celebrate one of nature's stinkiest plants.

1. THE CORPSE FLOWER'S LATIN NAME IS NSFW (OR BRITISH TV).

No, it's not just you: Amorphophallus titanum really does look like a large, lumpy penis. In fact, the plant gets its scientific name from three roots: amorphos (without form), phallos (penis), and titanum (giant).

Can't say the plant's Latin name in polite company without blushing? Thanks to David Attenborough, the English naturalist and TV personality, you can also opt to use its common name, Titan arum. While narrating BBC nature documentary series "The Private Life of Plants," Attenborough thought the corpse flower's proper name was too improper to say on TV, so he coined a less-scandalous moniker. Or, you could simply go with its Indonesian name, bunga bangkai.

2. A 19TH-CENTURY ITALIAN BOTANIST 'DISCOVERED' THE CORPSE FLOWER.

Western scientists first learned of Amorphophallus titanum in 1878, when Italian botanist Odoardo Beccari came across the enormous plant growing in the rainforests of Sumatra, a large island in western Indonesia. The specimen he recorded had a circumference of around 5 feet, and its height was around 10 feet.

Beccari tried to ship the flowering shrub's corms, or giant underground tubers, back to Europe, but French customs ended up holding them under an order designed to prevent the spread of the grapevine pest Phylloxera. Still, a few seeds survived against the odds, and a single seedling was sent to the Kew Botanic Gardens in England, where Beccari had once studied. There, it flowered in 1889. In 1926, when the same corpse flower bloomed again, the crowds were so large that police were brought in to control them.

3. THE CORPSE FLOWER GROSSED OUT THE ENGLISH (IN MORE WAYS THAN ONE).

Not surprisingly, the corpse flower quickly gained notoriety in Europe: An English artist hired to illustrate the plant is said to have become ill from the odor, and governesses forbade young ladies from looking at it, for obvious reasons.

4. A CORPSE FLOWER ISN'T REALLY A SINGLE FLOWER.

Technically, a corpse flower isn't a single flower; it's a flowering plant with clusters of blooms. The plant consists of a thick central spike, known as a spadix, with a base that's encircled by two rings of "male" and "female" flowers. A large, frilly leaf called a spathe envelops these flowers to protect them.

5. CORPSE FLOWERS ARE, AS THEIR LATIN NAME SUGGESTS, ENORMOUS.

Aside from its smell, a corpse flower's most noticeable quality is its sheer size. The plant holds the record for the world's largest unbranched inflorescence (a fancy term for describing a floral structure made of many smaller individual flowers), and it can reach heights of up to 12 feet in the wild. Cultivated corpse flowers are smaller, measuring anywhere from 6 to 8 feet.

6. THEY DON'T HAVE AN ANNUAL BLOOMING CYCLE.

Years, or even decades, can pass before a corpse flower reaches peak bloom. As the big moment finally approaches, the plant's bud grows several inches per day before slowing down its growth. Two protective leaves, called bracts, shrivel and fall off the spathe's base. Then, the spathe unfurls over roughly 24 to 36 hours, giving curious onlookers just a small window to see (and smell) its maroon-colored insides for themselves.

7. THERE'S SCIENCE BEHIND THE CORPSE FLOWER'S TERRIBLE SMELL.

When a corpse flower blooms, the spadix heats up to temperatures of up to 98°F as the plant unleashes a stench akin to rotting flesh. "Those pulses of heat cause the air to rise, like a chimney effect," Ray Mims, a spokesperson for the U.S. Botanic Garden, explained to Washingtonian magazine. "It gets the stench up in the air" to attract pollinating dung beetles and carrion beetles, who are drawn to the scent of rotting flesh.

Experts have identified different molecules responsible for titan arum's stink, including dimethyl trisulfide (like limburger cheese), trimethylamine (rotting fish), and isovaleric acid (sweaty socks).

8. CORPSE FLOWERS GROW FRUIT WHEN THEY'RE POLLINATED.

Once a corpse flower finishes blooming, it doesn't die. The spathe withers and collapses after a few days, and if pollinated, the plant soon produces hundreds of small, golden-colored fruits. These berry-like seeds are eaten and dispersed by animals such as birds and the rhinoceros hornbill, or harvested in captivity by garden conservation scientists. (No word on how they taste, as they're reportedly not suitable for human consumption.)

Once the seeds ripen from gold to dark orange, and then to dark red—a stage that lasts for five or six months—the corpse flower goes dormant. Then, it sprouts as a tree-like leaf during its next few life cycles as it stores away energy from the sun. Each cycle, the leaf grows bigger and bigger, before dying. Once the plant's corm is fully replenished, it finally blooms again.

9. THE CORPSE FLOWER WAS ONCE THE BRONX'S OFFICIAL FLOWER.

In 1937, the New York Botanical Garden became the proud home of America's first recorded corpse flower bloom. Two years later, yet another flower bloomed in the Bronx garden. Borough president James J. Lyons was so tickled, he designated Amorphophallus titanum as the Bronx's official flower. ''Its tremendous size shall be symbolic of the fastest-growing borough in the City of New York,'' Lyons said, according to The New York Times. Meanwhile, news crews covering the event are said to have nearly fainted from the smell.

The Bronx used the corpse flower as a symbol until 2000, when then-borough president Fernando Ferrer, aiming to overhaul the municipality's image, changed its official flower to the day lily. "I hate to think of the corpse flower as the Bronx flower, because people would think the Bronx and think, 'The Bronx stinks,'" Michael Ruggiero, then senior curator for horticulture at the New York Botanical Garden, told the Times. "The Bronx is a people place, and the corpse flower is not a people plant. The day lily is, and therefore is a good fit for the Bronx."

10. THE CORPSE FLOWER IS THREATENED BY HABITAT LOSS.

Corpse flowers aren't just rare—they're also vulnerable to habitat loss and destruction, as vast swaths of Sumatra's rainforests are chopped down for timber and to clear ground for oil palm plantations. According to one estimate provided by the Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Indonesia has now lost around 72 percent of its original rainforest cover. This contributes to the flower's demise, and also threatens important pollinators like the rhinoceros hornbill.

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Naonobu Noda/NARO
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Japanese Scientists Engineer 'True Blue' Chrysanthemums
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Naonobu Noda/NARO

The land of the square watermelon has done it again: Japanese scientists have created the world's first blue chrysanthemums. They described their process and results in the journal Science Advances.

Nature doesn't make a whole lot of blue things. Out of the 280,000 species of flowering plants on Earth, less than 10 percent make blue flowers. But these are hipster flowers, flying low under the public radar. There's no real market for them. Blue roses, carnations, lilies, or chrysanthemums, though: now those are products florists could take to the bank.

Or they could, if scientists could get them to work. Flower experts have been trying to breed blue flowers for centuries, to no avail. The horticultural societies of Britain and Belgium even put up a cash prize in the 1800s for the first person to breed a true blue rose. Nobody won.

But bioengineering is a lot more sophisticated than it used to be. Today's plant experts can tinker with an organism's genetic code to coax it into doing things nature never intended it to do. By 2005, scientists sponsored by the Japanese company Suntory had that blue rose—although "blue" may be a generous term.

Next up for researchers was the chrysanthemum, a species that may be even more significant than the rose in Japan. Chrysanthemums are everywhere there, appearing on coins, passports, clothing, and art. They symbolize autumn, but also the monarchy, the imperial throne, and the nation of Japan itself. Making a blue mum would be a huge cultural achievement (not to mention a potential goldmine).

Researchers from Suntory and Japan's National Agriculture and Food Research Organization decided to swipe a few tricks from two preexisting blue flower species, Canterbury bells and the butterfly pea. Both species owe their color to pigments called anthocyanins. These pigments appear in chrysanthemums, too, but a slightly different molecular structure means that they make red and purple petals, not blue ones.

By swiping multiple genes from the two blue species and adding them to the mum's genetic blueprint, the scientists were able to reshape the chrysanthemum anthocyanins to make what botanists call "true blue."

Blue color swatches among blue chrysanthemum flowers.
Naonobu Noda / NARO

Once again, "blue" may be a generous term.

"Their flowers are like a cool lavender at best," artist and biohacker Sebastian Cocioba, who is trying to genetically engineer a blue rose, told Gizmodo. "I could never feel comfortable calling that blue."

The researchers acknowledge that they've got more work to do, and say they have ideas for how to create a bluer flower. "However," lead author Naonobu Noda noted to Gizmodo, "as there is no [single] gene to realize it, it may be difficult."

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