11 Facts About Anemia

David Gregory & Debbie Marshall, Wellcome Collection // CC BY 4.0
David Gregory & Debbie Marshall, Wellcome Collection // CC BY 4.0

Anemia is so pervasive that the word anemic has become synonymous with a lack of vitality, substance, or flavor. But anemia symptoms go beyond the common signs of pallor and fatigue. The disorder is characterized by a lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body that arises from a variety of underlying conditions—some that are serious and others that are barely noticeable. Anemia causes can even include pregnancy, poor diet, and cancer in rare cases. Here are some more facts worth knowing about anemia symptoms and treatments.

1. The most common type is iron deficiency anemia.

The body needs iron to produce hemoglobin—the protein that allows red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body—and when it doesn’t get enough of it, iron deficiency anemia can develop. Vitamin deficiency anemia works in a similar way. The vitamins B12 and folate are also essential to producing healthy red blood cells, and deficiencies in either vitamin can contribute to anemia. Patients may be lacking iron, B12, or folate because they’re not getting enough of the vitamins or mineral from their diet, or because their body has trouble absorbing them, either due to gastrointestinal surgery, a genetic disorder, or some other issue. In contrast, sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition in which malformed hemoglobin can't carry enough oxygen, causing blood cells to take on a crescent shape and impede blood flow.

2. Even mild anemia symptoms should be taken seriously.

There are roughly 400 different anemia causes. Some are relatively benign, like not including enough leafy greens in your diet, while others are more serious, like blood cancers or aplastic anemia, a condition that develops when bone marrow stops producing red blood cells at a healthy rate. Mild anemia may be one of the first signs of a serious condition that impedes your blood cell production, so even if the symptoms of the anemia itself are manageable, it shouldn’t be brushed off as nothing.

3. Anemia is Greek for lack of blood.

Put simply, someone with anemia doesn’t have a healthy amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin in their bloodstream. The word is a Latinized version of the Greek word anaimia, which means lack of blood (an meaning "without" and haima meaning "blood").

4. The fatigue comes from a lack of oxygen.

Even with a healthy respiratory system, the tissues of people with anemia may not get enough oxygen—a phenomenon known as hypoxia. This can lead to symptoms like headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. While these symptoms can be debilitating in patients with severe anemia, they may be mild or even nonexistent in people with less severe cases. The signs are also hard to measure and can overlap with those of several chronic conditions, which means mild anemia often goes undiagnosed.

5. Anemia compels some people to chew ice.

Constantly craving an ice cube to chew on may be a sign your blood is at anemic levels. Pica is the medical term for the compulsion to chew substances devoid of nutritional value, like ice, dirt, and paper, and it's one of the more distinctive symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. Doctors still aren't entirely sure why the craving afflicts so many anemic patients. One explanation is that ice calms inflammation in the mouth that sometimes comes with iron deficiencies, while additional research suggests that chewing on ice is one way for fatigued people to stay alert.

6. It’s diagnosed with a simple blood test.

Though the symptoms can be tricky to identify, testing for anemia is simple once a doctor suspects a patient has it. After taking a sample, doctors calculate the complete blood count, or CBC, which measures the percentage of red blood cells (a measurement called the hematocrit) and hemoglobin in a patient’s blood. By looking at red blood cell and hemoglobin percentages specifically, they can determine if the patient’s blood is healthy or anemic. The typical adult man has blood with 40 to 52 percent red blood cells (the rest is plasma), and for the typical adult woman, it’s 35 to 47 percent, according to the Mayo Clinic.

7. Anemia is more common in developing nations.

Approximately 25 percent of the world population—almost 2 billion people—is affected by anemia. In about half of these cases, iron deficiency is the root cause. Anemia is more common in developing parts of the world where malnutrition is also rampant, while in the U.S., just under 6 percent of the population is anemic. In the U.S., the prevalence of anemia varies by group: Women, elderly people, African Americans, and Latino Americans are all more likely to have it, with black women between ages 80 and 85 developing the condition at rates 6.4 times higher than the national average, according to a 2016 study. The majority of anemia cases around the world are moderate or mild, and at those levels the lack of healthy blood cells itself doesn’t pose significant health risks (though an underlying disease that's causing it might).

8. Anemia also has a surprising benefit.

Having a low amount of iron in your body has an unexpected effect: It makes it harder for infections to develop. Most bacteria depends on iron to gain strength and spread throughout a host, and in the bodies of people with iron deficiency anemia, bacteria has a greater chance of dying before it multiplies into a dangerous infection. Studies have shown that people with low iron counts have a smaller risk of contracting malaria, tuberculosis, and certain respiratory conditions. Iron deficiency anemia can also boost survival rates in patients with HIV and lower the risk of cancer (like bacteria, cancer cells need iron to grow). Denying pathogens iron is such an effective way of killing them that our bodies naturally slow iron production when they detect an infection.

9. Pregnant people are more likely to have anemia ...

People who are pregnant have a much higher risk of becoming anemic. According to the World Health Organization, anemia affects over 40 percent of pregnant women worldwide. The bodies of pregnant women naturally produce about 20 to 30 percent more blood to supply oxygen to the baby, but it isn’t always enough for the mother to maintain healthy red blood cell and hemoglobin levels. Anemia is especially common during the second and third trimesters when the baby needs the most blood. Pregnant patients with anemia are usually prescribed iron supplements to prevent birth defects and complications during delivery.

10. … and so are vegetarians.

Many people get their iron by eating meat like beef, chicken, pork, and shellfish. Without meat in their diet, people have a greater chance of developing iron deficiency anemia: A small Indian study published in the Journal of Nutrition & Food Science found that approximately 60 percent of vegetarian women were anemic. But it is possible to consume healthy amounts of iron while adhering to a meat-free diet. In addition to dietary supplements, legumes, dried fruits, and leafy greens are great sources of the mineral.

11. Anemia treatments range from vitamins to blood transfusions.

Treatments for anemia vary depending on the cause of the condition. For iron deficiency anemia, the most common variety, doctors usually prescribe iron supplements as well as a diet rich in the foods mentioned above. Daily folic acid tablets and B12 shots—starting once every other day and transitioning to once a month—may also be prescribed to patients deficient in either vitamin. In cases when red blood cell and hemoglobin counts dip into dangerous territory, more drastic treatments like blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants may be necessary.

7 Terrifying Historical Remedies for Migraine Headaches

George Marks/Getty Images
George Marks/Getty Images

Migraines are more than just splitting headaches. Migraine symptoms, which affect about one in seven people worldwide, can include throbbing pain on one side of the head, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances called auras. Today, several classes of drugs are prescribed to either prevent migraine headaches from happening or halt them once they’ve started. But in previous centuries, migraine treatments weren’t so convenient—or effective.

1. Bloodletting

Whether by scalpel or by leeches, bloodletting was the most common remedy for migraine headaches (and many other ailments) before the advent of modern medicine. Throughout most of history, Western physicians subscribed to the humoral theory, in which human health was governed by four fluids (humors) that must be kept in balance. Sickness was explained as an imbalance of humors, and bloodletting was thought to rebalance the system. The methods varied, though. In the case of migraine headaches, the Greek physician Aretaeus suggested sticking a barbed goose feather up the unfortunate patient’s nose and prodding around until blood flowed.

Even as late as the 18th century, bloodletting was still believed to help migraines. Swiss physician Samuel Auguste Tissot, who was the first to describe migraines as a discrete medical condition in the 1770s, recommended bleeding, better hygiene and diet, and drugs including infusions of orange leaves and valerian.

2. Garlic

The 11th-century physician Abu al-Qasim suggested sticking a clove of garlic into the migraine headache sufferer’s temple. He offered a handy recipe:

“Take a garlic; peel and cut at both extremities. Make an incision with a large scalpel in the temple and keep under the skin a cavity wide enough to introduce the garlic and to conceal it completely. Apply compresses and tighten, let it remain about 15 hours, then remove the device. Extract the garlic, leave the wound for two or three days, then apply cotton soaked in butter until it suppurates.”

Once the wound started oozing—which was considered a good sign—the physician would cauterize the incision with a hot iron. Cauterization was meant to prevent infection, although modern research has shown that it actually lowers the threshold for bacterial infections.

3. Cupping

Cupping—inverting hot glass vessels on the patients’ body—was thought to perform the same function as bloodletting. Prominent Dutch physician Nicolaes Tulp, depicted in Rembrandt’s 1632 painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, treated a migraine sufferer by cupping. She soon recovered.

A substance called cantharidin, a potent blistering agent secreted by the Meloidae family of beetles, was also applied as part of the cupping and blistering process to draw out bad humors. Unfortunately, if the cantharidin was left on too long, it could be absorbed into the body and cause painful urination, gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction, and organ failure. (Perhaps unrelatedly, cantharidin was also used as an aphrodisiac.)

4. Trepanation

One of the oldest types of surgery, trepanation is the practice of cutting away part of the cranium and exposing brain tissue to treat injuries or chronic conditions like migraine headaches. The 16th-century Dutch physician Petrus Forestus, who meticulously recorded the ailments and treatments of his patients, performed trepanation on a person with incurable migraines. In the brain tissue he found something he called a “black worm.” According to a 2010 study by neurologist Peter J. Koehler, the mass may have been a chronic subdural hematoma—a collection of blood between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering—and a possible cause of the patient’s agony.

5. Dead Moles

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal, the leading ophthalmologist of the medieval Muslim world, described more than 130 eye diseases and treatments in his groundbreaking monograph Tadhkirat al-kaḥḥālīn (The Notebook of the Oculists). While his descriptions of ocular anatomy were sound, he also touched on remedies for headaches, and here his prescriptions seem more suspect. To treat migraines, he suggested tying a dead mole to one’s head.

6. Electric Fish

Long before scientists fully understood the principles of electricity, ancient doctors recommended it as a remedy for migraines. Scribonius Largus, the court physician for the Roman emperor Claudius, saw that the torpedo fish—also known as the electric ray, native to the Mediterranean Sea among other areas—had the power to shock anyone who touched it. Largus and other doctors prescribed the shocks as cures for headache, gout, and prolapsed anus.

In the mid-18th century, a Dutch journal reported that the electric eel, found in South America, emitted even stronger shocks than the Mediterranean fish and were used for head pain. One observer wrote that headache sufferers “put one of their hands on their head and the other on the fish, and thereby will be helped immediately, without exception.”

7. Mud Foot-Baths

Compared to expired rodents, warm foot-baths must have sounded positively decadent to those afflicted with extreme pain. Nineteenth-century physicians suggested that migraine sufferers take the waters at Marienbad (now Mariánské Lázně) and Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary), two spa towns in what is now the Czech Republic. While the mineral waters were useful for alleviating congestive headaches, mud foot-baths were believed to draw blood toward the feet and away from the head, calming the nervous system. “The foot-bath ought not to be taken too hot, and the feet should be rubbed one over the other while washing the mud off, and afterwards with a coarse towel. A brisk walk may be used to keep up the circulation,” suggested Prussian Army physician Apollinaris Victor Jagielski, M.D. in 1873.

Recall Alert: King Arthur Flour Sold at Aldi and Walmart Recalled Due to E. Coli Concerns

iStock/KenWiedemann
iStock/KenWiedemann

A new item has been pulled from supermarket shelves in light of an E. coli outbreak, NBC 12 reports. This time, the product being recalled is King Arthur flour, a popular brand sold at Aldi, Walmart, Target, and other stores nationwide.

The voluntarily product recall, announced by King Arthur Flour, Inc. and the FDA on Thursday, June 13, affects roughly 114,000 bags of unbleached all-purpose flour. The flour is made from wheat from the ADM Milling Company, which has been linked to an ongoing E. coli outbreak in the U.S. Though none of the cases reported so far have been traced back to King Arthur flour, the product is being taken off the market as a precaution.

Five-pound bags of unbleached all-purpose flour from specific lot codes and use-by dates are the only King Arthur products impacted by the recall. If you find King Arthur flour in the grocery store or in your pantry at home, check for this dates and numbers below the nutrition facts to see if it's been recalled.

Best used by 12/07/19 Lot: L18A07C
Best used by 12/08/19 Lots: L18A08A, L18A08B
Best used by 12/14/19 Lots: L18A14A, L18A14B, L18A14C

E. coli contamination is always a risk with flour, which is why raw cookie dough is still unsafe to eat even if it doesn't contain eggs. The CDC warns that even allowing children to play or craft with raw dough isn't a smart idea.

[h/t NBC 12]

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