20 Fun Facts About Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom

Gareth Rhodes 

Fortune and glory, kid, fortune and glory. Steven Spielberg’s Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom was released 30 years ago today. In honor of its three-decade anniversary of thrilling us (and grossing us out with monkey brains, ripped-out hearts, and black magic), here are 20 things you might not have known about the film. 

1. The first ideas for Indy II came from Raiders of the Lost Ark.

Two weeks after Raiders of the Lost Ark was released on June 1, 1981—and became an immediate success—director Steven Spielberg met with executive producer George Lucas to hash out ideas for a second installment. Lucas allegedly told Spielberg before Raiders was written that he had three story ideas for Indy, but Lucas was telling a little white lie—he had wanted to get Spielberg to sign on for potential sequels. 

So the first ideas Lucas presented for “Indy II” involved scenes that were cut from Raiders, including the mine car chase and the skydiving raft sequences. In Raiders, the mine car sequence would have taken place in the climax after the Ark is opened, and would have showed Indy and his companion, Marion Ravenwood, loading the Ark on a mine car to escape with the rest of the Nazis in pursuit. The raft sequence in Raiders would have taken place before Indy got to Nepal to meet Marion, and involved Indy using the raft as a parachute—except he would land in the snowy Himalayas and ride all the way down to Marion’s bar after the plane was sabotaged by the Nazis. Modified versions of both sequences ended up in Temple of Doom.

2. Other initial ideas were quickly discarded, but were still important.

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Initially, Spielberg wanted Indy’s love interest, Marion (played by Karen Allen), to come back for the second film; he wanted to feature her archeologist father, Abner Ravenwood, who was mentioned in Raiders. But Lucas and Spielberg ultimately decided that Indy’s companions should change from film to film, a nod to the ever-changing Bond girls in James Bond movies—a franchise that Spielberg originally wanted to be part of, until Lucas presented him with the idea of Indiana Jones in 1977—and Abner was left out. 

Lucas had other ideas that were pitched and discarded: One involved an opening sequence that featured Indy being chased on a motorcycle along the Great Wall of China. The Chinese government rejected the production’s request to shoot on the Great Wall, so the opening sequence location was rewritten as the Shanghai nightclub (which sharp-eyed fans will recognize as “Club Obi Wan”). In another nod to James Bond, the scene features Indy in a white tux.

Lucas also suggested that the second film take place in a haunted castle in Scotland, but Spielberg deemed the idea too similar to Poltergeist, the spooky 1982 horror film he wrote and produced while making E.TThe haunted castle was reworked into a demonic temple in India.

3. The thematic inspirations for the film were dark and very personal.

With a proposed plot involving child slaves, human sacrifice, and evil cults, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is decidedly darker in tone than its predecessor—and it was meant to be that way. Lucas wanted a downbeat mood similar to the one in his Star Wars sequel, The Empire Strikes Back. In retrospect, he and Spielberg attributed the extremely dark themes in Temple of Doom to their respective marriages that had broken up—Spielberg divorced actress Amy Irving and Lucas divorced film editor Marcia Lucas (née Griffin)—around the same time the movie was being developed. 

What they had in mind was so dark, in fact, that Raiders of the Lost Ark screenwriter Lawrence Kasdan turned down their offer to pen the second film. "I just thought it was horrible. It's so mean," Kasdan said later. "There's nothing pleasant about it. I think Temple of Doom represents a chaotic period in both their lives, and the movie is very ugly and mean-spirited.”

Even Lucas came to somewhat regret how dark their movie was, telling Empire magazine, "Part of it was I was going through a divorce, Steven had just broken up and we were not in a good mood, so we decided on something a little more edgy. It ended up darker than we thought it would be. Once we got out of our bad moods, which went on for a year or two, we kind of looked at it and went, ‘Mmmmm, we certainly took it to the extreme.’ But that's kind of what we wanted to do, for better or worse.”

4. The writers and filmmakers were inspired by classic Hollywood.

After Kasdan passed on the film, Lucas approached Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz—the husband and wife team who co-wrote Lucas’ 1973 film American Graffitito pen the screenplay for “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Death,” later changed to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Once they accepted the offer and were privy to Lucas and Spielberg’s direction for Indy’s second installment, the duo took primary inspiration for the story from the 1939 RKO film Gunga Din starring Cary Grant and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. In that film, three British army adventurers combat a murderous cult called the Thuggee in colonial India.

Later, when Spielberg and the screenwriters were having trouble coming up with an opening scene for the film, Lucas suggested they purloin a musical sequence for the opening from a script called Radioland Murders that he, Huyck, and Katz had been developing since the ‘70s (the film would eventually be released in 1994). According to Spielberg, "George's idea was to start the movie with a musical number. He wanted to do a Busby Berkeley dance number. At all our story meetings he would say, 'Hey, Steven, you always said you wanted to shoot musicals.' I thought, 'Yeah, that could be fun.'"

The filmmakers molded their new female lead, the primadonna lounge singer Willie Scott, after Katharine Hepburn’s performance in director John Huston’s The African Queen and Irene Dunne’s performance in Victor Fleming’s A Guy Named Joe (Spielberg would later remake this movie in 1989 and call it Always). For the humor in the famous dinner sequence, the filmmakers drew on Abbott & Costello and the series of films derived from The Thin Man.          

5. In keeping with tradition, pets were an important part of the process.

It's well documented that the inspiration for the “Indiana” in Indiana Jones’ name came from Lucas’ Alaskan Malamute (a fact that was cleverly made fun of at the end of the third installment of the series, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade). But when coming up with the names for characters in Temple of Doom, other people wanted to honor their pets as well. Willie Scott’s name came from Spielberg’s Cocker Spaniel Willie, while Short Round came from the name of Huyck’s Shetland Sheepdog—which was, in turn, named after a Korean orphan character in Samuel Fuller’s gritty 1951 Korean War film, The Steel Helmet.

Not all the names of the characters came from pets, however: The evil Thuggee priest “Mola Ram” is named after the 18th century Indian painter Mola Ram.

6. The actor who played Short Round was discovered by accident.

Spielberg and casting director Mike Fenton were having trouble finding the right young actor for Short Round, so they put out an open casting call at an elementary school in Los Angeles and eventually found actor Ke Huy Quan ... but not directly. Quan’s mother brought in his older brother to read for the part of Short Round, but during the screen test the younger Ke began telling his brother what to do, which caught the eye of producers Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall. They asked him to do his own taped audition for Spielberg. It was so good that they invited the youngster to audition with Indy himself, Harrison Ford.

Because the young Vietnamese would-be actor couldn’t read English very well, Spielberg decided to let him improvise during the audition—similar to the way he found young Henry Thomas for E.T.—telling him to play cards with Ford and gradually realize he had been cheated.

Spielberg said, “I just loved [Quan's] personality. I thought he was like a 50-year-old man trapped in a 12-year-old’s body.” Quan later explained why he was undaunted despite having no experience, saying, “I didn't know who Steven, George, or Harrison were. I hadn't seen Raiders Of The Lost Ark and I didn't even know this was a sequel. After the shoot, Steven screened all his movies for me.”

7. Spielberg used miniatures for pre-visualization.

For Raiders of the Lost Ark, Spielberg had many of the locations for the film’s more elaborate set pieces shrunk down to scale miniatures created by production designer Norman Reynolds so he could block out the shots before arriving on-set, allowing him to shoot fast and stay on budget for that film’s brisk three-month principal photography schedule. The strategy worked so well that he did it again on Temple of Doom.

Reynolds couldn’t return for the Temple of Doom because he was working on another Lucas production, Return of the Jedi, so Spielberg and new production designer Elliott Scott holed up in the St. James Club hotel in London for the five-month pre-production period. With them were miniatures of most of the major sets, including the spiked room, the cave where the children mine for the mysterious Sankara Stones, and the titular temple, and together they decided on the correct angles to shoot from to expedite Temple of Doom’s four-month principal photography schedule. Other sequences, such as the mine car chase carted over from Raiders, weren’t pre-visualized with miniatures because the logistics would be settled while visual effects company ILM created the scene with Spielberg.

8. All of the film’s locations were found in India—and then they couldn’t shoot there.

Producer Robert Watts and production designer Elliott Scott traveled to India to scout the interiors and exteriors for the film, which had a budget of $28 million. All of the exteriors—including the Maharajah’s palace, which was to be shot at an existing palace called Amer Fortand most of the interiors—including the City Palace in Jaipur, which would also stand in for the Maharajah’s palace—were found fairly quickly. But the local government rejected their permits because they found the script to be offensive to Indian culture.

Some deals were made: The production initially agreed to change the locations in the script to a principality on the border of India, and they wouldn’t use the word “maharajah.” But the Indian government balked and demanded final cut of the film in order to censor what they deemed unworthy, which forced Watts and Scott to pack up and leave.

Later, the team decided to shoot certain exteriors in Kandy, a Sri Lankan city, while others—most importantly, the Maharajah’s palace—would be shot on the Paramount backlot and expanded using matte paintings. Further interiors, like the temple itself, would be constructed on soundstages at Elstree Studios in London.

After its release, Temple of Doom was banned in India, but the ruling has since been rescinded.

9. Spielberg acted out the village shaman’s lines, and the actor repeated them right back.

J.D. Nanayakkara, the non-actor who played the shaman who implores Indy to save the enslaved village children in Temple of Doom, spoke only Sinhalese—and therefore couldn’t learn his lines from an English script. Instead, Spielberg fed him the lines phrase by phrase in English, and Nanayakkara repeated them the best he could. He copied Spielberg so closely that he even mimed some of the hand motions the director was doing off camera, including running his hand over his eyes in reference to the darkness brought upon the village.

10. Kate Capshaw’s priceless dress was eaten by an elephant on-set.

At first, actress Kate Capshaw balked at the idea of appearing in a big budget Indiana Jones movie. She instead wanted to focus on smaller art house films to be “a very serious actor studying in Manhattan.” Later, Capshaw admitted her fault in not wanting that type of exposure, saying, “I was not interested in doing a sequel. I expressed that to my agent, who, in hindsight, was very patient and tolerant of my judgment and arrogance.”

In part, Capshaw took the role to show off her singing and dancing expertise in the lavish opening number. She studied and rehearsed a solo tap dance routine with choreographer Danny Daniels for months before the shoot, but the red and gold sequined dress that costume designer Anthony Powell made especially for the film—which was sewn entirely with vintage period ‘20s and ‘30s sequins—was so form-fitting that Capshaw couldn’t physically tap dance in, and the solo routine was scrapped. Her hard work wasn't for nothing, though: Capsaw still sang the Cole Porter classic “Anything Goes” entirely in Mandarin.

Capshaw's costume had a wild time on set—in particular during one jungle scene that featured a hungry elephant. Willie, Indy, and Short Round are riding an elephant to Pankot Palace, and when they stop to make camp, Willie hangs her dress up to dry. In an unscripted moment, the elephant began eating the custom dress right off of a branch, tearing the entire back off the priceless costume. Powell, who later scrambled to restore the dress by hand, filled out the insurance claim on the garment by stating “Eaten by elephant.”

11. The bugs grossed everybody out.

For their second Indy movie, Spielberg and Lucas wanted to one-up the creepy-crawly Raiders scene with 10,000 snakes, and they did it with bugs. Lots of bugs. For the scene where the trio stumbles upon a cavern filled with countless insects on the way to the Temple of Doom, the production assembled 50,000 cockroaches and 30,000 beetles from nearby London bug farms.

Capshaw was so freaked out about her scene with the creepy crawlies that she admitted to taking a Valium beforehand just to calm down. To producer Frank Marshall, the bugs were more challenging than the snakes from the first movie. “You can arrange a pile of snakes. That's impossible with bugs," he said. "People were also much more scared of the insects. Every once in a while you'd hear this shriek when the bugs found their way on to the tap-dance rehearsal stage—a bad place for any bug to be.”

The earlier dinner scene that featured the characters reeling from an elaborate food spread with insects—among other gross-out faux delicacies—wasn’t as freaky to shoot. Though you couldn’t really tell onscreen, the group of beetles presented to the dinner guests on a platter were actually plastic, and the edible innards were custard. Similarly, the chilled monkey brains for dessert were made of custard with a raspberry sauce mixed in, and the eyes in the soup Willie attempts to eat were rubber eyes tacked to the bottom for Capshaw to stir up on cue.

12. The film features one of Spielberg’s personal favorite moments from his entire filmography.

Both Lucas and Spielberg obviously had a blast coming up with adventurous gags for their hero. The scene when the three main characters are on the way to the Temple and get stuck in the booby-trapped room with spikes coming from the ceiling and floor was among the first sequences the filmmakers came up with for Temple of Doom. According to Spielberg, “For me to be able to turn that idea into something with bugs and a little coda where Willie's butt hits the trigger mechanism so the whole thing begins again, and to have the last shot of Indy reaching in and grabbing his hat just before the secret slab of concrete closes ... that was my favorite thing to shoot on that entire production.”

13. Harrison Ford was seriously injured on set, but the production soldiered on.

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During production in Sri Lanka, Harrison Ford aggravated a disc in his spine while riding on an elephant, but the actor decided it wasn’t major and continued filming. Back in London while shooting the scene where a Thuggee ambushes Indy in his room at the palace, Ford inadvertently fell backwards onto the stunt man and slipped the disc in his back. He was sidelined and had to return to the U.S. for emergency surgery, leaving the entire production without its star for weeks.

Production immediately shut down for a week for insurance purposes, but the antsy Spielberg wanted to keep going. He convinced the Paramount brass that he could cleverly shoot around Ford to make up for lost time, so he used Ford’s stunt double Vic Armstrong—who bore a striking resemblance to the leading actor—to shoot the character from behind in the already-planned conveyor belt fight sequence between Indy and the main slave-master (played by Pat Roach, who also played the big Nazi mechanic Indy fights in Raiders). When Ford was fully recovered, Spielberg filmed the forward facing shots in the sequence, and the scene was seamlessly edited into the final cut with 80 percent Armstrong and 20 percent Ford.

Spielberg was also able to shoot the dance scenes for the opening sequence that didn’t include Kate Capshaw while Ford was recuperating.

14. The raft parachute sequence was real.

One of the major nitpicks about Temple of Doom over the years is that the scene where Indy, Willie, and Short Round leap out of a plane and use an inflatable raft as a parachute is overly absurd. What people don’t know is that the scene is real … kind of.

No, stunt men didn’t really jump out of a plane with just a raft to get them safely onto the ground, but the practical effect itself is real. In the early ‘80s, Lucasfilm’s old San Anselmo location was near a raft manufacturer. Since the filmmakers were having a tough time figuring how to logistically pull off the stunt, producer Frank Marshall went over and challenged the manufacturer to come up with a way to have the parachute effect play out practically in a single shot for the movie. The raft makers rigged up a pull system that inflated once the weighted raft—including three life-size dummies standing in for the actors—was tossed from a plane.

Marshall and the second unit on the production set up cameras at Mammoth Peak in California and had three stunt men heave the raft out of the tri-motor plane at just the right spot. “This thing came out and I'm watching it and it perfectly balances, unfolds right side up, the people are in it, it comes down and hits and bounces and they're weighted enough where it looks real and then slides down,” Marshall said. “We didn't have monitors or playback or anything. I said, ‘I think we got it.’ I looked at the three or four cameramen and they went (thumbs up). I said, ‘We're done!’ The shot that's in the movie is the first take. One shot.”

15. And so was the bridge sequence.

Location scouts had a bit of good luck when they found a spot 20 minutes outside of Kandy to shoot the rope bridge sequence for the climax of the film. A British company called Balfour Beatty was building a dam, which gave the production the perfect canyon. The company even helped them build the strong-but-unsturdy-looking rope bridge.

In order to get the shot they needed—which involved Indy cutting the ropes to snap the bridge in half with people still on it—mechanical effects supervisor George Gibbs found a French company called Pyromecca, who specialized in pyrotechnic releases for space capsules, to help them devise a way to cut the cable on the rope bridge without sound or smoke from the release. To pull it off, they made cable cutters strong enough to go through 19-millimeter cables without a sound. Hidden inside the rope was an explosive mechanism with a high tensile steel chisel to split the cables on demand.

To add to the realism of the shot, Spielberg had Gibbs build 16 mechanical dummies outfitted in Thuggee costumes that would wave their arms and kick their feet on cue once the main cables on the bridge snapped, sending them plummeting to the river below. Nine cameras were used to capture different angles for the shot that could only be done once. Luckily, it went off without a hitch.

16. The actor who played Mola Ram had a pretty busy schedule.

Paramount Pictures

Actor Amrish Puri was a huge star of Bollywood cinema up until his death in 2005. During the shooting of Temple of Doom he was one of the top actors in all of India, which made his shooting schedule a bit hectic. Puri was allegedly working on 18 other films at the same time while shooting his scenes for Temple of Doom, but they were able to get all of his scenes in chunks. Spielberg later said of Puri, “Amrish is my favorite villain—the best the world has ever produced and ever will!”

17. ILM used a little ingenuity and a trip to the supermarket for the FX in the mine car chase.

Temple of Doom Blu-ray

Spielberg shot parts of the mine car chase sequence on a set that included a limited series of tracks in order to get close-ups of Harrison Ford, Kate Capshaw, and Ke Huy Quan. Other than that, the entire sequence was created by Visual Effects Supervisor Dennis Muren and his team at Industrial Light and Magic using miniatures.

To get the tight shots of the racing mine cars, Muren devised a way to fix a Nikon still camera to the mini-rails behind models of Indy, Willie, and Short Round. Muren rigged the still camera with a small motor and a film magazine to run film through it (after all, this was the early ‘80s, and cameras like this couldn’t shoot video). To make the camera seem like it was rushing past at death-defying speeds, they used an old Hollywood trick and shot the film slowly at one frame-per-second, and eventually sped it back up during playback to the normal 24 frames-per-second.

To create the rock formations of the cave, Muren and his team went to a nearby supermarket and bought as many rolls of aluminum foil as they could. They spray-painted the foil brown and molded each panel to look like a craggy cavern around the miniatures. It worked so well that audiences don’t know the difference. 

18. The rough cut of 'Temple of Doom' was too fast.

Most rough cuts of films are excessive in length and have to be carefully whittled down in the editing room, but when Spielberg first screened the complete rough cut of The Temple of Doom for Lucas, they both agreed that it was too short. According to the filmmakers, the rough cut’s run time of 1 hour and 55 minutes went by so quickly and was so action packed that—in their opinion—it wouldn’t give the audience time to breathe.

Spielberg went back and ordered new exterior matte paintings to be done as interstitials between scenes. To him, they allowed an added beat to let the narrative rest before moving on again. One of these matte paintings can be seen when Short Round quickly peeks out of a window at Pankot Palace before Indy is ambushed in his room. The matte paintings tacked on three more minutes to the film and made the magic number of the final runtime 118 minutes. Spielberg later called the inserts an “oxygen supply for the audience.”

19. Ben Burtt went to Disneyland for the sound effects.

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Sound designer Ben Burtt has worked on every Indiana Jones movie and every Star Wars movie to date, and is responsible for some of the most iconic movie sounds ever, including the sound effects for the lightsaber.

For Temple of Doom, Burtt and his sound mixer Gary Summers faced a tough challenge in coming up with adequate sound effects for the mine car sequence. To get the correct screeches and clangs from railcars, they were granted unprecedented access to Disneyland after hours and the two rode and recorded every roller coaster in the park, free from the normal white noise and omnipresent music that runs during the day.

For additional sound effects—like the noises of insects in the bug scene—Burtt re-used the sounds of running his fingers through a cheese casserole made by his wife (which was used in Raiders as the sound of slithering snakes) and added the sounds of himself pulling the shells off of hard boiled eggs.

20. 'Temple of Doom' created the PG-13 rating.

Think about this: a movie that includes a man pulling the still-beating heart out of another very-much-alive man who is then lowered into a searing pool of lava to die is rated a family-friendly PG by the Motion Picture Association of America. Parents and audience members alike were taken aback by the violence in Spielberg’s second Indiana Jones film, but the violence and horrific aspects weren’t enough to warrant an R rating (one that would cripple a film that relies so heavily on its targeted child demographic).

Once a controversy about the violence in Temple of Doom and Gremlins (a film Spielberg executive produced) arose, Spielberg wrote to then-President of the MPAA Jack Valenti suggesting an in-between rating for movies of similar ilk. The director suggested four new potential examples, including “PG-13,” “PG-14,” “PG-2” or “R-13,” which would limit or allow certain audience members admittance between PG and R-rated films. Valenti soon enacted the new system, labeling director John Milius’ film Red Dawn with the first ever PG-13 rating.

Additional Sources: Indiana Jones blu-ray special features; J.W. Rinzler, The Complete Making of Indiana Jones.

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10 Scientific Benefits of Being a Dog Owner
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The bickering between cat people and dog people is ongoing and vicious, but in the end, we're all better off for loving a pet. But if anyone tries to poo-poo your pooch, know that there are some scientific reasons that they're man's best friend.

1. YOU GET SICK LESS OFTEN.

Dog snuggling on a bed with its person.
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If cleaning commercials are to be believed, humanity is in the midst of a war against germs—and we shouldn't stop until every single one is dead. In reality, the amount of disinfecting we do is making us sicker; since our bodies are exposed to a less diverse mix of germs, our entire microbiome is messed up. Fortunately, dogs are covered in germs! Having a dog in the house means more diverse bacteria enters the home and gets inside the occupants (one study found "dog-related biodiversity" is especially high on pillowcases). In turn, people with dogs seem to get ill less frequently and less severely than people—especially children—with cats or no pets.

2. YOU'RE MORE RESISTANT TO ALLERGIES.

Child and mother playing with a dog on a bed.
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While dog dander can be a trigger for people with allergies, growing up in a house with a dog makes children less likely to develop allergies over the course of their lives. And the benefits can start during gestation; a 2017 study published in the journal Microbiome found that a bacterial exchange happened between women who lived with pets (largely dogs) during pregnancy and their children, regardless of type of birth or whether the child was breastfed, and even if the pet was not in the home after the birth of the child. Those children tested had two bacteria, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira, that reduce the risk of common allergies, asthma, and obesity, and they were less likely to develop eczema.

3. YOU'LL HAVE BETTER HEART HEALTH.

Woman doing yoga with her dog.
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Everything about owning a dog seems to lend itself to better heart health. Just the act of petting a dog lowers heart rate and blood pressure. A 2017 Chinese study found a link between dog ownership and reduced risk of coronary artery disease, while other studies show pet owners have slightly lower cholesterol and are more likely to survive a heart attack.

4. YOU GET MORE EXERCISE.

Person running in field with a dog.
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While other pets have positive effects on your health as well, dogs have the added benefit of needing to be walked and played with numerous times a day. This means that many dog owners are getting 30 minutes of exercise a day, lowering their risk of cardiovascular disease.

5. YOU'LL BE HAPPIER.

Woman cuddling her dog.
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Dog owners are less likely to suffer from depression than non-pet owners. Even for those people who are clinically depressed, having a pet to take care of can help them out of a depressive episode. Since taking care of a dog requires a routine and forces you to stay at least a little active, dog owners are more likely to interact with others and have an increased sense of well-being while tending to their pet. The interaction with and love received from a dog can also help people stay positive. Even the mere act of looking at your pet increases the amount of oxytocin, the "feel good" chemical, in the brain.

6. YOU HAVE A MORE ACTIVE SOCIAL LIFE.

Large bulldog licking a laughing man.
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Not only does dog ownership indirectly tell others that you're trustworthy, your trusty companion can help facilitate friendships and social networks. A 2015 study published in PLOS One found that dogs can be both the catalyst for sparking new relationships and also the means for keeping social networks thriving. One study even showed that those with dogs also had closer and more supportive relationships with the people in their lives.

7. YOUR DOG MIGHT BE A CANCER DETECTOR.

Man high-fiving his dog.
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Your dog could save your life one day: It seems that our canine friends have the ability to smell cancer in the human body. Stories abound of owners whose dogs kept sniffing or licking a mole or lump on their body so they got it checked out, discovering it was cancerous. The anecdotal evidence has been backed up by scientific studies, and some dogs are now trained to detect cancer.

8. YOU'LL BE LESS STRESSED AT WORK.

Woman working on a computer while petting a dog.
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The benefits of bringing a dog to work are so increasingly obvious that more companies are catching on. Studies show that people who interact with a pet while working have lower stress levels throughout the day, while people who do not bring a pet see their stress levels increase over time. Dogs in the office also lead to people taking more breaks, to play with or walk the dog, which makes them more energized when they return to work. This, in turn, has been shown to lead to much greater productivity and job satisfaction.

9. YOU CAN FIND OUT MORE ABOUT YOUR PERSONALITY.

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The kind of dog you have says a lot about your personality. A study in England found a very clear correlation between people's personalities and what type of dogs they owned; for example, people who owned toy dogs tended to be more intelligent, while owners of utility dogs like Dalmatians and bulldogs were the most conscientious. Other studies have found that dog owners in general are more outgoing and friendly than cat owners.

10. YOUR KIDS WILL BE MORE EMPATHETIC.

A young boy having fun with his dog.
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Though one 2003 study found that there was no link between pet ownership and empathy in a group of children, a 2017 study of 1000 7- to 12-year-olds found that pet attachment of any kind encouraged compassion and positive attitudes toward animals, which promoted better well-being for both the child and the pet. Children with dogs scored the highest for pet attachment, and the study notes that "dogs may help children to regulate their emotions because they can trigger and respond to a child's attachment related behavior." And, of course, only one pet will happily play fetch with a toddler.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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16 Prehistoric Creatures You’ll See In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
Chris Pratt meets the vicious T. rex in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)
Chris Pratt meets the vicious T. rex in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)
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The sequel to 2015’s Jurassic World ups the ante with a huge roster of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles. While some are familiar favorites (see: T. rex), others have never been seen in a major motion picture before. Pull off your nostalgia goggles and let’s take a look at what modern science has to say about the long-gone animals of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

1. TYRANNOSAURUS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum Length: 40 feet

Name Means: “Tyrant lizard”

Apparently, the most popular dinosaur of all time wasn’t above cannibalism: Multiple Tyrannosaurus rex bones have bite marks on them that match the teeth of other tyrannosaurid species. Debate has arisen over the issue of T. rex plumage. University of Alberta paleontologist Scott Persons recently compared tiny skin impressions left behind by Tyrannosaurus and its close cousins Gorgosaurus, Daspletosaurus, and Tarbosaurus. These reveal that the dinos had pebbly scales, but the samples contain no evidence of feathers. Keep in mind though that the skin impressions only represent small patches of the dinosaurs’ tails, necks, abdomens, and pelvises—so Tyrannosaurus might’ve had feathers elsewhere on its body. For the record, Persons thinks the giant carnivore would still look “pretty cool and plenty scary” with a little fuzz. “[Nobody] ever complained that tigers weren’t scary, and they’re fluffy,” he said.

2. APATOSAURUS

Artistic interpretation of an individual of A. louisae arching its neck down to drink
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Lived: 155 to 150 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore.

Maximum length: 80 feet

Name means: “Deceptive lizard”

In 1879, an unidentified sauropod (a long-necked dinosaur) was found in Wyoming. At first, this creature was given the name Brontosaurus excelsus but in 1903, paleontologist Elmer Riggs rechristened it as Apatosaurus excelsus (the Apatosaurus had been described before the Brontosaurus, so the name had precedence). A few scientists now think the Brontosaurus and Apatosarus actually are distinct and the much better-known name ought to be reinstated for that particular group, but others disagree. Regardless, Apatosaurus was pretty awesome. Some of its bones were pneumatic and the body contained a number of air sacs. Such traits would’ve made the big plant-eater very lightweight for an animal of its size. Apatosaurus may have also been able to break the sound barrier by cracking its sinuous tail like a bullwhip.

3. TRICERATOPS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 29 feet

Name means: “Three-horned face”

Give credit where it’s due: Look at the baby Triceratops in Fallen Kingdom and you may notice that the horns above its eyes curve backward ever so slightly. This is scientifically accurate. The brow horns of Triceratops newborns were tiny bumps which bent backward during the adolescent years. Then they changed course and bowed forward while the animals matured. Puncture wounds and lesions on the skulls of adult Triceratops tell us these animals locked horns in head-to-head combat. Triceratops was constantly replacing its teeth, which were arranged in tight clusters and most likely used to shear through fibrous vegetation.

4. SINOCERATOPS

Lived: 75 to 66 million years ago in China

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 19 feet

Name means: “Chinese horned face”

A newcomer to the Jurassic Park films, Sinoceratops first came to light during a 2008 fossil-hunting excursion into China’s Shandong Province. It belongs to the same family as Triceratops and was the first member of this group to be found in Chinese rock. Small, forward-bending horns lined the top of its frill, which was proportionally smaller than that of Triceratops. A single cone-shaped horn sat over the nostrils.

5. ALLOSAURUS

Lived: 155.7 to 150 million years ago in North America and Portugal and possibly elsewhere

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 28 (or possibly 35) feet

Name means: “Different lizard”

In one of the trailers for Fallen Kingdom, a running Allosaurus falls flat on its face. The dinosaur was no stranger to injury in real life. Cracked ribs, broken arms, and badly-infected toes are just a few of the medical maladies that Allosaurus skeletons have been preserved with. Selected as Utah’s official state fossil in 1988, Allosaurus is one of the most commonly found predatory dinos in the American west. Strong neck muscles may have allowed the carnivore to disembowel prey by pulling its head backward in a falcon-esque tugging motion. And here’s something we’d really like to see on the silver screen: According to a 2015 study, Allosaurus could possibly open its jaws at a nightmarish 92-degree angle.

6. MOSASAURUS

Lived: 70 to 66 million years ago in Europe and North America

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 56 feet

Name means: “Lizard of the Meuse River” (It was first discovered along this European river in 1764.)

Mosasaurus wasn’t a dinosaur; it’s more closely related to snakes and monitor lizards than it is to any of the other creatures you’ll read about here. Both Jurassic World flicks show the marine reptile leaping high out of the water to snag unwary prey. According to mosasaur expert Michael J. Everhart though, these animals didn’t have the tail strength or speed to pull off such an athletic feat. Mosasaurus is the most famous member (and the namesake genus) of the mosasaur superfamily. Late in the age of dinosaurs, these were some of the ocean’s major predators. They probably swam like gigantic crocodiles, keeping their flippers pressed against the body. Fossil evidence tells us that mosasaurs gave birth to live young at sea and at least some of them had vertically-fluked tails.

7. PTERANODON

Lived: 88 to 80.5 million years ago in central North America

Diet: Carnivore (probable fishing specialist)

Maximum wingspan: 20 feet (or possibly 24 feet)

Name means: “Toothless wing”

Here’s another non-dinosaur for you. Good old Pteranodon was a kind of North American pterosaur. What’s that, you ask? Pterosaurs were flying reptiles that patrolled the skies from 228 to 66 million years ago. Long before birds or bats took to the air, pterosaurs became the first vertebrate animals to ever achieve powered flight. The good people of Kansas designated Pteranodon itself as one of their official state fossils in 2014. Back in this animal’s heyday, there was a vast inland sea which covered most of the Great Plains, splitting North America in two. Pteranodon may have behaved like a modern albatross, using its narrow wings to soar for vast distances on air currents above the ocean waves. The creatures were apparently keen on seafood: Pteranodon skeletons are sometimes found with masses of fish bones in their throats and stomachs. We may never know how they captured prey, but one idea can be dismissed outright: Not a single known pterosaur had opposable toes, so Pteranodon couldn’t have grabbed things with its feet like the genetically-engineered flyers in Jurassic World do.

8. CARNOTAURUS

Bryce Dallas Howard and Justice Smith are trapped by the Carnotaurus in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 72 to 69 million years ago in Argentina

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 25 feet

Name means: “Meat-eating bull"

Carnotaurus didn’t show up in the first four Jurassic Park movies, but Michael Crichton wrote the horned creature into his 1995 novel The Lost World. The book depicts Carnotaurus as a nocturnal hunter that can change colors like an overgrown cuttlefish. There’s no reason to put any stock in this idea, but the real Carnotaurus was not without its quirky attributes—including its forelimbs. While T. rex gets a lot of flack for its meager arms, those of Carnotaurus are proportionately smaller, and the Argentine dino didn’t even have any wrist bones. On the flip side, Carnotaurus’s strong legs and powerful tail would’ve made it a gifted sprinter. Skin impressions reveal that its back, neck, and tail were studded with bony knobs, much like the ones Carnotaurus shows off in Fallen Kingdom.

9. GALLIMIMUS

Lived: 70 million years ago in Mongolia

Diet: Probable omnivore

Maximum length: 20 feet

Name means: “Chicken mimic”

Gallimimus belongs to an ostrich-like family of dinosaurs known as the ornithomimids. Though it lacks plumage in the Jurassic movies, real ornithomimids were covered in fuzzy down as youngsters and the adults grew long feathers on their arms. Gallimimus and its brethren couldn’t fly, but their showy, wing-like forelimbs could’ve been used to help them attract mates. Ornithomimids compensated for their lack of teeth by swallowing rocks, which ground up food in the stomach. Exactly what they ate is unclear, though most paleontologists think the ostrich mimics were either omnivorous or herbivorous.

10. BRACHIOSAURUS

Lived: 155 to 140 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 72 feet

Name means: “Arm lizard”

Even though it’s poorly represented in the fossil record, Brachiosaurus is well-known to the general public. This is largely due to its breakout role in the first Jurassic Park movie. The Brachiosaurus in that classic film hold their elongated necks in an almost vertical position, and this depiction might not be too far off. A 2010 biomechanical analysis argued that browsing on treetops would’ve been a more energy-efficient option for Brachiosaurus-like sauropods than holding their necks horizontally and eating ground-level plants. It’s interesting to think about the behemoth’s cardiovascular system: In order to pump blood up that lengthy neck and into the head, Brachiosaurus may have required a gigantic heart weighing in the neighborhood of 880 pounds.

11. ANKYLOSAURUS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 21 feet

Name means: “Curved lizard”

We know this formidable animal had a backside covered in bony plates; yet because no one’s ever found a complete Ankylosaurus skeleton, scientists disagree about how the armor was arranged. The 19-inch-wide club on its tail was probably a weapon. Using CT scans and anatomical measurements, a Canadian research team estimated that a large Ankylosaurus club could strike its target with enough force to break bones. Evolution made some of the tail vertebrae in these dinosaurs stiff and inflexible so they could support their heavy clubs. A hammer needs its handle after all.

12. STYGIMOLOCH

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Probable herbivore

Maximum length: 10 feet

Name means: “Styx devil”

It’s kind of ironic that Stygimoloch is mentioned by name in Fallen Kingdom’s promo videos. Paleontologist John R. “Jack” Horner has worked as a consultant for all five Jurassic Park films. He thinks that Stygimoloch is nothing more than the juvenile version of the thick-headed dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus, which lived at the same time and place. (You may remember the latter’s cameo in 1997's The Lost World: Jurassic Park.) This would render the name Stygimoloch invalid. Horner’s argument is supported by the trademark feature of both dinos: the iconic domes on the top of their craniums. Stygimoloch’s skull bones were not fully fused together, suggesting the animal had a lot of growing to do. CT scans have also shown that Stygimoloch’s dome was significantly thinner than that of Pachycephalosaurus. Perhaps these dinos used their special skulls to flank each other—or maybe the thick noggins were designed for heavy-duty headbutts. For his part, Horner has proposed that these were used for identification.

13. STEGOSAURUS

Mounted skeleton of Stegosaurus stenops in right lateral view at the Natural History Museum, London.
Susannah Maidment et al. & Natural History Museum, London, CC BY 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

Lived: 155 to 150 million years ago in North America and Portugal

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 23 feet

Name means: “Roof lizard”

Nobody knows what to make of the bony plates on Stegosaurus’s back. If self-defense was their purpose, why do they project upward from the spine, leaving the flanks of this vegetarian wide open? And why do the plates of other spiky-tailed dinosaurs in its family have radically different shapes? One hypothesis is that these bizarre accessories were used to attract mates—much like the peacock’s gaudy tail feathers. Maybe they also helped the small-headed herbivores recognize other members of their own kind from afar. The quartet of spikes on Stegosaurus’s tail were almost certainly used to ward off attackers. Live Stegosaurus got plenty of mileage out of these weapons: One survey, which compared 51 individual spikes, reported that just under 10 percent had been broken and re-healed at the tip.

14. COMPSOGNATHUS

Lived: 150 million years ago in Germany and France

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: Four feet

Name means: “Elegant jaw”

Only two skeletons of this dinosaur have ever been discovered, both of which were found with the remains of tiny lizards tucked inside their rib cages. That’s a pretty far cry from the scene in The Lost World: Jurassic Park where a swarm of “Compies” gobble up the man who’s been tormenting them with a cattle prod. But we digress. Named in 1859, Compsognathus used to be the smallest type of non-avian dinosaur known to science. It no longer retains this title, as the creature would’ve dwarfed some more recently-discovered dinos like the 15-inch Mongolian Parvicursor.

15. BARYONYX

Bryce Dallas Howard and Justice Smith encounter the Baryonyx in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 130-125 million years ago in England, Spain, and Portugal

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 25 feet

Name means: “Heavy claw”

Sail-backed Spinosaurus was the main villain in 2001's Jurassic Park III—a casting choice that irked plenty of fans. Baryonyx was a close relative of this beast who now joins Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom’s Mesozoic ensemble. Preserved stomach contents have shown that Baryonyx ate fish as well as the herbivorous dinosaur Iguanodon. On each hand, Baryonyx had a 12-inch hooked claw that served an unknown purpose. (Artists like to imagine it as a fishing tool.) The animal’s conical teeth look well-equipped for grabbing hold of slippery prey. Despite the narrowness of its snout, Baryonyx’s jaws were able to withstand a great deal of bending and torsion.

16. VELOCIRAPTOR

Chris Pratt with a baby Velociraptor in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 85 to 70 million years ago in Mongolia and China

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 7 feet

Name means: “Swift thief”

Velociraptor stood less than two feet tall at the hip and weighed around 55 pounds. Michael Crichton’s description of the animal was inspired by its bigger cousin, Deinonychus. Even that dinosaur was smaller than the man-sized predators of Jurassic Park, though. Both Velociraptor and Deinonychus were dromaeosaurs: bird-like carnivores with bony rods in their tails and sickle-shaped toe claws. (When we say “bird-like,” we mean it: Dromaeosaurs are thought to be some of our feathered friends’ closest relatives. Many had plumage; Velociraptor itself came with sizable feathers on each arm.)

The notion that they hunted in packs can be traced back to the maverick paleontologist John Ostrom of Yale. During the 1960s, he worked at a Montana dig site where four Deinonychus were found around the body of a larger herbivore named Tenontosaurus. Ostrom’s belief that dromaeosaurs hunted in organized groups gained traction with scientists and novelists alike. A newer interpretation of the data is that the dinos lived alone and at most occasionally came together to mob vulnerable plant-eaters.

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