Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Discovered on International Space Station Toilet

Antibiotic resistance isn’t just a problem on Earth. It’s happening in space, too. LiveScience reports that NASA scientists have found drug-resistant bacteria in samples from one of the space toilets on the International Space Station.

As part of a study published in the journal BMC Microbiology, scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory looked at waste samples taken from the ISS in 2015. They isolated five strains of Enterobacter bugandensis bacteria, sequencing their genomes and analyzing their susceptibility to antibiotics. They compared these space strains to strains found on Earth, including some that have been linked to patients in hospital settings.

Normally, because of the lack of interplanetary sewers, astronaut waste is simply flushed into space, where it will incinerate on its way back through Earth’s atmosphere. But for the sake of NASA’s ongoing catalog of microbes found on the ISS, some lucky astronaut got to swab the station’s toilet for samples. They also swabbed the station’s Advanced Resistive Exercise Device, one of the exercise machines astronauts use on the ISS to keep up muscle mass during long periods living in microgravity.

A toilet on the ISS
The space toilet where astronauts collected microbial swabs
Jack Fischer, NASA

Based on their similarity to bacteria strains taken from patients on Earth, the analysis found that the strains isolated from the ISS swabs have a 79 percent probability that they could cause disease in humans. They contained genes associated with antibiotic resistance and toxic compounds.

"Given the multi-drug resistance results for these ISS E. bugandensis genomes and the increased chance of pathogenicity we have identified, these species potentially pose important health considerations for future missions,” the study's lead author, Dr. Nitin Singh, said in a statement. “However, it is important to understand that the strains found on the ISS were not virulent, which means they are not an active threat to human health, but something to be monitored." That means that while astronauts don't need to worry about these bacteria just yet, antibiotic resistance is an issue that NASA will need to prepare for in the future.

[h/t LiveScience]

A Lunar Crash May Have Left Behind a Library of Human Civilization on the Moon

Matt Cardy, Getty Images
Matt Cardy, Getty Images

SpaceIL, the Israeli-based private space travel nonprofit backed by billionaire Morris Kahn, came up short in their attempt to land the first commercial payload ever delivered on the Moon. Their Beresheet lander crashed last Thursday, April 11, after a technical glitch prompted its engine to power off and then back on, causing it to come in too fast and strike the lunar surface.

While not ultimately successful, the voyage may have still managed to mark a milestone in the history of lunar exploration. The Arch Mission Foundation, which worked with SpaceIL to put a massive amount of information—including the entirety of Wikipedia—on board, announced this week that the digital library may have survived the impact. That would make it the first substantial repository of knowledge to occupy the Moon.

The data, which was dubbed the Lunar Library, holds an impressive wealth of material—the equivalent of roughly 30 million pages in all. In addition to Wikipedia, there are books selected by Project Gutenberg, 60,000 images, language keys, and a curated selection of music. All of this humanity was packed into 25 nickel discs that are each 40 microns thick. The entire library is roughly the size and shape of a DVD.

Arch Mission Foundation believes that the discs could have survived the impact based on what's known about its trajectory and the crash and is working to confirm its existence. Even if it didn't, there's still something to be said for the idea that "archaeological ruins" of human knowledge now exist there.

The Lunar Library wouldn't be the only human relic left behind. Alan Shepard, the fifth man ever to walk on the Moon in 1971, left golf balls after playing a lunar round. In 1969, the crew of Apollo 11 left a 1.5-inch silicon disk containing goodwill messages from prominent figures in 75 countries written microscopically.

SpaceIL intends to pursue a second lunar lander, with a launch date to be announced. While other countries have landed a vehicle on the Moon—the United States, China, and Russia—this would have marked the first time for a private entity.

[h/t Fast Company]

A Blue Moon—May's Flower Moon—Is Coming Next Month

Matt Cardy/Getty Images
Matt Cardy/Getty Images

Exactly how often is "once in a blue moon"? According to NASA, the celestial occurrence isn't especially rare: A blue moon happens about once every 2.5 years. The next blue moon will appear the night of May 18, 2019, and because the event marks the first full moon of May, it will also be a flower moon.

What Is a Blue Moon?

Instead of describing color, like a blood moon, the term blue moon is reserved for an additional full moon that appears within a certain window of time. There are two types of blue moons: monthly blue moons and seasonal blue moons. A monthly blue moon, the more popular of the two definitions, is the second full moon that occurs in a single calendar month. This usage is fairly recent, and likely originated from an error printed in a 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

A seasonal blue moon is the older meaning, and it describes the third moon in a season that has four full moons. Each season—winter, spring, summer, and fall—typically sees three full moons, and in the rare event there are four, the third is singled out as the anomaly. This is sometimes the preferred definition of astronomy-minded people because it's based on natural equinoxes and solstices rather than the Gregorian calendar.

When to See the Blue Flower Moon

The full moon set to light up the night sky in May will be a seasonal blue moon. The time of year it occurs—May—makes it a flower moon. The first full moon of each month has a special name: A worm moon is a full moon in April, and a wolf moon is a full moon in January.

To catch 2019's blue flower moon, look up the night of May 18. The Moon will be at its fullest when it's precisely at 180° ecliptic longitude opposite the Sun—which occurs at 5:11 p.m. ET on May 18.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER