20 Killer Words Every True Crime Buff Should Know

iStock.com/PaulFleet
iStock.com/PaulFleet

Whether we're preparing ourselves for the worst or we just love a good mystery, many of us can't get enough true crime content. True crime intersects with different fields like law, medicine, and forensics—all of which have their own vocabularies that can be hard for people on the outside to decode. Before binging The Staircase or Making a Murderer, brush up on these important terms every true crime fan should be familiar with.

1. COLD CASE

In legalese, a cold case describes a crime that remains unsolved, but isn't being actively investigated due to lack of evidence. The murder of JonBenét Ramsey, the D.B. Cooper hijacking, and the Jack the Ripper killings are all famous examples of cold cases.

2. LATENT PRINT

Crime scene investigator dusting door for prints.
iStock.com/zoka74

A latent print is a fingerprint made of the sweat and oil from one's skin (rather than blood or something more visible). Crime scene investigators usually need powders or chemicals to identify this type of print.

3. BLOOD SPATTER

Blood spatter is the pattern of bloodstains left at a violent crime scene. It's such important evidence in murder cases that there's an entire area of forensics dedicated to studying it. In theory, by analyzing the pattern of blood stains in a crime scene, the investigator can determine important details about the crime committed. But in recent years blood spatter analysis has been criticized. A 2009 report declared that it can give useful information about certain aspects of a crime, but that “the uncertainties associated with bloodstain pattern analysis are enormous” and that “the opinions of bloodstain pattern analysts are more subjective than scientific.”

4. PETECHIAL HEMORRHAGING

Cause of death isn't always obvious in murder cases. When looking at a potential strangulation victim, investigators examine their eyes for petechial hemorrhaging, or the tiny red dots that appear as a result of bleeding beneath the skin. Petechial hemorrhaging isn't a sure sign that someone has been choked to death, but it is likely to appear when the blood vessels in someone's head have been subjected to severe pressure.

5. MASK OF SANITY

Ted Bundy, Charles Manson, John Wayne Gacy—these serial killers were famous not only for their crimes, but their deceptively charming dispositions. This is what crime experts refer to as the Mask of Sanity. Coined by psychiatrist Hervey M. Cleckley in his 1941 book, this describes the phenomena of psychopaths easily blending in with their peers because they don't typically suffer from more noticeable mental symptoms like hallucinations and delusions.

6. MACDONALD TRIAD

The phrase Macdonald Triad first appeared in a paper by J. M. Macdonald published in a 1963 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry. It refers to the three behaviors that, if exhibited in childhood, may indicate one's tendencies toward violence later in life. Those behaviors are animal cruelty, fire-starting, and chronic bed-wetting. While many prominent murderers have checked these boxes, experts today are skeptical of using this as a metric to identify future serial killers.

7. RIGOR MORTIS

Rigor mortis occurs when a body stiffens up a few hours after death as a result of calcium build-up in the joints and muscles. This can last a few days, and is one of the clues crime scene investigators use to determine when a murder took place.

8. ANGEL OF DEATH

"Angel of death" is the name given to medical professionals who intentionally kill their patients. In some cases the killer has convinced themselves they're helping the victim by choosing to end their life, which is why they're sometimes called "angels of mercy."

9. BLACK WIDOW

Female murderers are rare—they comprise just 15 percent of serial killers—but not unheard of. Women who commit murder are sometimes dubbed Black Widows after the spiders that devour their own mates after copulating. The moniker is usually reserved for a woman who targets people close to her, kills for personal gain, or uses her femininity to her advantage when committing the crime.

10. LUMINOL

Luminol reacting in glass.
deradrian, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Luminol is a chemical that emits a blue glow when mixed with a certain oxidizing agent. One of the substances that triggers this reaction is hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells. By spraying a violent crime scene with luminol, investigators can detect traces of blood that aren't visible to the naked eye.

11. GLASGOW SMILE

The Black Dahlia murderer mutilated Elizabeth Short before leaving her remains in a Los Angeles park in 1947. The wounds that would come to symbolize the case were two cuts connecting her ears to the corners of her mouth, giving her the appearance of a perpetual grin. Dubbed a Glasgow Smile because of its prevalent use among Scottish gangs in the 1920s and '30s, this mark has appeared in numerous murder cases since.

12. GUNSHOT RESIDUE

Gunshot residue (GSR) is made up of the propellant particles that are discharged during a gunshot. It often settles on the clothing of anyone who was within a few feet of a fired gun, and it can be an essential piece of evidence when connecting suspects to a crime.

13. BRAIN FINGERPRINTING

Recently featured in season 2 of Making a Murderer, brain fingerprinting is a relatively new practice in crime investigations. After a suspect is hooked up to a helmet that senses brain activity, they're given details about the alleged crime that only the perpetrator would know. If they recognize what's being described, the sensor is supposed to pick up the telltale electrical signals in their brain. While what research there is suggests that the technology may be more reliable than a polygraph test, there still haven't been enough studies to prove its validity.

14. JOHN/JANE DOE

In the world of crime, John or Jane Doe are the names given to a murder victim whose identity is being concealed from the public. These names are often used as placeholders in court cases.

15. MÜNCHAUSEN SYNDROME BY PROXY

Like Münchausen syndrome, people with Münchausen syndrome by proxy manufacture trauma to gain sympathy—but instead of harming themselves they choose people who are close to them as their victims. People with this condition might intentionally make their children sick or disabled, which sometimes leads to their death.

16. COPYCAT CRIME

A copycat crime occurs when the perpetrator is inspired by a different crime, whether it was depicted in a book, movie, or TV show or it happened in real-life. Investigators sometimes have trouble distinguishing between copycat killings and the acts of a single serial murderer.

17. TROPHY

Many serial killers collect "trophies" from their victims after committing a crime. These can be fairly innocuous, like jewelry and footwear, or as gruesome as body parts. Ed Gein—the real-life inspiration for the novel and movie Psycho—used the human souvenirs he kept from his murders to make clothing and furniture.

18. BALLISTICS

Gun at crime scene.
iStock.com/FireAtDusk

Ballistics is the study of the mechanics of firearms. In forensics, this science can help investigators identify gun deaths and determine where and how the weapon was used in a crime—and possibly who pulled the trigger. Though, in the past few years, the ability of ballistics to provide a definite answer has been called into question, with courts preferring "more likely than not" statements.

19. FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

One of the more unusual careers for someone who studies bugs is that of a forensic entomologist. These scientists look at how insects interact with crime scenes. Based on what type of bugs are hanging around a corpse and which stage of development they're in, a forensic entomologist can help investigators determine a time of death.

20. LOCARD'S EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE

Put simply, Locard's exchange principle is "with contact between two items, there will be an exchange." Twentieth-century forensic scientist Dr. Edmond Locard came up with this idea after observing that criminals will almost always bring something into the crime scene with them and leave something behind, providing valuable evidence to investigators.

DNA Links Polish Barber Aaron Kosminski to Jack the Ripper Murders, But Experts Are Skeptical

Express Newspapers/Getty Images
Express Newspapers/Getty Images

Many people have been suspected of being Jack the Ripper, from author Lewis Carroll to Liverpool cotton salesman James Maybrick, but the perpetrator of the grisly crimes that gripped Victorian London has never been identified. Now, one of the case's first suspects is back in the news. As Smithsonian reports, Aaron Kosminski, a barber from Poland, has been linked to the Jack the Ripper murders with DNA evidence—but experts are hesitant to call the case closed.

The new claim comes from data now published in the Journal of Forensic Science. Several years ago, Ripperologist Russell Edwards asked researchers from the University of Leeds and John Moores University in Liverpool to analyze a blood-stained silk shawl thought to have belonged to Ripper victim Catherine Eddowes. The item, which Edwards owns, has been a primary piece of evidence in the murder investigation for years. In 2014, Edwards published a book in which he claimed Aaron Kosminski's DNA had been found on the garment, but his results weren't published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Five years later, the researchers have released their findings. Using infrared and spectrophotometry technology, they confirmed the fabric was stained with blood and discovered a possible semen stain. They collected DNA fragments from the stain and compared them to DNA taken from a descendent of Eddowes and a descendent of Kosminski. The mitochondrial DNA (the DNA passed down from mother to offspring) extracted from the shawl contained matching profiles for both subjects.

Kosminski was a 23-year-old Polish barber living in London at the time of the Jack the Ripper murders. He was one of the first suspects identified by the London police, but there wasn't enough evidence to convict him in 1888.

Following the newest study, many Jack the Ripper experts are saying there still isn't enough evidence to definitively pin the murders on Kosminski. One of the main issues is that a mitochondrial DNA match isn't as conclusive as matches with other DNA; many people have the same mitochondrial DNA profile, even if they're not related, so the forensic tool is best used for ruling out suspects rather than confirming them.

The shawl at the center of the study is also controversial. It was supposedly picked up by a police officer at the scene of Eddowes's murder, but that version of the story has been disputed. The shawl's origin also been traced back to multiple eras, including the early 1800s and early 1900s, as well as different parts of Europe.

Due to many factors complicating the Jack the Ripper case, the murders may never be solved completely. The crimes spurred a flurry of hoax letters to the London Police department in the 1880s, and even the letters that were thought to be authentic, like the one that gave Jack the Ripper his nickname, may have been fabricated.

[h/t Smithsonian]

Last Surviving Person of Interest in Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Heist to Be Released From Prison

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

Almost exactly 29 years ago, two men disguised as police officers weaseled their way into Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and started removing prized artworks from the wall. They made off with 13 famous paintings and sculptures, representing a value of more than $500 million. It remains the largest property theft in U.S. history, but no one has ever been charged in connection with the heist.

Now, as Smithsonian reports, the last living person who may have first-hand knowledge about the heist will be released from prison this Sunday after serving 54 months for an unrelated crime. Robert (Bobby) Gentile, an 82-year-old mobster who was jailed for selling a gun to a known murderer, has been questioned by authorities in the past. In 2010, the wife of the late mobster Robert (Bobby) Guarente told investigators she had seen her husband give several of the artworks in question to Gentile—a good friend of Guarente’s—eight years prior.

A 2012 raid of Gentile’s home also revealed a list of black market prices for the stolen items. Previous testimony from other mob associates—coupled with the fact that Gentile had failed a polygraph test when he was questioned about the art heist—suggest Gentile might know more about the crime than he has let on. For his part, though, Gentile says he is innocent and knows nothing about the art or the heist.

The FBI announced in 2013 that it knew who was responsible for the museum heist, but would not reveal their names because they were dead. Still, the whereabouts of the artworks—including prized paintings by Rembrandt, Manet, Vermeer, and Degas—remain unknown. The museum is offering a $10 million reward to anyone who can provide information leading to “the recovery of all 13 works in good condition," according to the museum's website. A separate $100,000 reward will be provided for the return of an eagle finial that was used by Napoleon’s Imperial Guard.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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