Tampico Incident Brings U.S., Mexico to Brink of War

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

The First World War was an unprecedented catastrophe that killed millions and set the continent of Europe on the path to further calamity two decades later. But it didn’t come out of nowhere. With the centennial of the outbreak of hostilities coming up in August, Erik Sass will be looking back at the lead-up to the war, when seemingly minor moments of friction accumulated until the situation was ready to explode. He'll be covering those events 100 years after they occurred. This is the 111th installment in the series.

April 9, 1914: Tampico Incident Brings U.S., Mexico to Brink of War

Anyone who expresses amazement that China and Japan might come to blows over a couple of tiny, barren rocks would do well to consider the Tampico Incident, when the United States and Mexico almost went to war over nothing. Well, almost nothing.

By April 1914, the Mexican Revolution had degenerated into a civil war between multiple factions including the beleaguered federal government under Victoriano Huerta, peasant revolutionaries rallying to Emiliano Zapata, and the “Constitutionalists” led by Venustiano Carranza. On the east coast of Mexico, Carranza’s forces were laying siege to the port city of Tampico, in Tamaulipas state, which was held by a smaller force of federal troops as well as some state troops. Meanwhile U.S. President Woodrow Wilson dispatched a small naval force under Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo to protect American citizens and property, including investments in the local oil industry. Although the U.S. government refused to recognize Huerta’s regime, the American forces stayed out of the fight and the situation remained calm—at first. 

On April 9, 1914, the commander of the U.S.S. Dolphin sent nine sailors ashore in a whaleboat to pick up some cans of fuel oil from a warehouse in Tampico, as previously agreed with the Mexican federal commander. However, as the sailors were transferring the cans to the whaleboat, they were stopped by Tamaulipas state troops, who hadn’t been informed of the plan.

After a brief but tense armed standoff (naturally no one on either side spoke the other side’s language) the Mexican state troops arrested the U.S. sailors, including two who were ordered out of the whaleboat at gunpoint—technically, a violation of U.S. sovereignty, as naval vessels are considered national soil. The sailors were then paraded through the streets of Tampico to the headquarters of the federal commander, who recognized the mistake and ordered them released. Following a bit more confusion, and an official complaint by Mayo and the U.S. consul, the sailors were returned to the Dolphin with no harm done.

Or so it seemed. While the Mexican federal commander apologized for the mistake, he balked at Admiral Mayo’s demand that he raise the U.S. flag over Mexican soil for a 21-gun salute—an obvious affront to Mexican national pride—as restitution for the earlier alleged violation of U.S. sovereignty. Now, the seemingly minor incident started to spiral rapidly—and absurdly—out of control.

Back in Washington, D.C., President Wilson, who openly despised Huerta, claimed that the whole incident was part of a “pattern” of hostile and disrespectful behavior by Mexico, and repeated the demand for a salute to the U.S. flag. Huerta, who openly reciprocated Wilson’s feelings, of course refused, and Wilson in turn rejected Huerta’s counter-offer of a simultaneous salute by U.S. and Mexican troops.

Incredibly, the situation was about to get even worse, as Wilson ordered ships from the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific fleets to Mexican waters and asked Congress for permission to occupy a number of Mexico’s east coast ports, including the key city of Veracruz (but oddly enough not Tampico). On April 21, 1914, U.S. Marines landed in Veracruz and cleared Mexican forces from the city over the next few days, at a cost of 19 American and 150 Mexican dead. Meanwhile, on the west coast, U.S. ships made a show of force in the harbor of Mazatlan.

U.S. forces remained in Veracruz until November 1914, when the dispute was finally settled at the Niagara Falls Conference, but the Tampico Incident foreshadowed further American intervention in Mexico during the Punitive Expedition that attempted, unsuccessfully, to capture Pancho Villa from March 1916 to February 1917. Around this time, the continuing tensions seemed to offer Germany an opportunity to distract the U.S. and prevent it from joining the First World War by embroiling it in a war with Mexico instead, leading to the infamous Zimmerman Telegram—a ham-handed covert initiative that ended up backfiring disastrously.

See the previous installment or all entries.

The 10 Best Movies of 2018, According to Rotten Tomatoes

The Weinstein Company
The Weinstein Company

We're a few weeks into the new year, but it's not too late to catch up on the best movies of 2018. If you're looking for a place to start, why not check out the top 10 films most widely loved by critics last year, according to Rotten Tomatoes.

The list, reported by Cinema Blend, includes a mix of family flicks, action-packed blockbusters, and art house films. Marvel's Black Panther—which was a hit with both critics and moviegoers, and just became the first superhero movie to earn an Oscar nomination for Best Picture—tops the list as Rotten Tomatoes's best-reviewed movie of 2018 with a wide release. It's accompanied by two other superheroes movies: Incredibles 2 and Spider-Man: Into the Spiderverse (both of which earned Oscar nominations for Best Animated Film).

Last year proved that critics aren't prejudiced against sequels if they're well made, with Paddington 2 and Mission: Impossible - Fallout making the list along with the second Incredibles film. This list is limited to movies that had a wide release in 2018 (600 theaters or more), so some awards darlings like Netflix's Roma didn't make the cut. But there were a few indie hits that received wider showings and earned critical acclaim, including Bo Burnham's Eighth Grade and the Mister Rogers documentary Won't You Be My Neighbor?.

After checking out the full list below, you can start getting excited about the highly-anticipated films coming out in 2019.

1. Black Panther
2. Mission: Impossible - Fallout
3. BlacKkKlansman
4. Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse
5. A Star is Born
6. A Quiet Place
7. Paddington 2
8. Incredibles 2
9. Eighth Grade
10. Won't You Be My Neighbor

[h/t Cinema Blend]

Game of Thrones Star Sophie Turner Says Latest Teaser Has 'Nothing to Do' With Season 8

HBO
HBO

If you ever want to get lost down a Reddit rabbit hole, check out the Game of Thrones and Game of Thrones Theories subreddits. Since season 7 ended in August 2017, fans have been rabidly theorizing about what they believe will happen in the final season, even going so far as to comb through old episodes and interviews and re-read George RR Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire book series for any clues. Now that we've finally seen a few teasers for season 8, fans have begun analyzing even the tiniest details to see what sort of future they might hint at. There's just one problem: The promos apparently have nothing to do with the details of the final season.

Fansite Winter Is Coming recently resurfaced an interview with actress Sophie Turner, who plays Sansa Stark, from October 2018's New York Comic Con, in which she stated that the latest teaser—which features Sansa, Arya Stark, and Jon Snow coming face-to-face with statues of themselves—is actually irrelevant to the final season. According to Turner:

“We did this promo for season 8 where—I don’t know if I can say this, actually. Well, actually, no. It’s got nothing to do with the series; it’s just a promo. It was this big kind of statue of me, of Sansa, and I wanted to have it in the garden of my new house. But they obviously wouldn’t ship it from Belfast to New York, so …”

Since it debuted more than a week ago, the newest teaser has spawned a range of fan theories, from speculation that Bran Stark is either the Night King or the Three-Eyed Raven to Jon Snow being one of the series' few (or only) survivors.

Though it seemed clear that the teaser wasn't actual footage from season 8, fans were all banking on it meaning something about the series' final season. But the fact that Turner could talk about it without revealing any spoilers is pretty strong proof that it doesn’t include any hints about how it will all end. Which just goes to show that, like Jon Snow, we know nothing.

Game of Thrones returns for the final time on April 14, 2019.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER