A Chemical in Spider Venom Could Be a Key to Killing Skin Cancer Cells

Alan Couch, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Alan Couch, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Despite their formidable reputation in the eyes of arachnophobes, spiders contribute to human society in a number of positive ways. On a practical level, they can reduce the population of insects in your home by trapping them for meals. Outdoors, they keep pests from destroying gardens and crops, making sure we don't slip into a period of famine and anarchy. In the lab, scientists have identified a number of chemicals in their venom as possible building blocks for medicines treating everything from pain to muscular dystrophy.

That field of study has led to a promising discovery. In Australia, researchers have isolated one particular compound in a funnel-web spider's venom that can diminish skin cancer cells.

Scientists at QIMR Berghofer and the University of Queensland began studying the Australian funnel-web spider known as Hadronyche infensa after a similar Brazilian arachnid, Acanthoscurria gomesiana, was shown to carry a peptide in its venom called gomesin that has cancer-fighting properties. Identifying a similar peptide in the Australian spider, the researchers demonstrated that the chemical was effective in killing skin cancer cells while leaving healthy skin cells alone.

The peptide was tested on human melanoma cells, eradicating the majority of them. In mice, it also slowed the growth of the melanomas. The peptide was even effective in killing cells found in facial tumors of Tasmanian devils, a marsupial susceptible to an aggressive form of skin cancer transmittable through biting. The results were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

These peptides are able to be manipulated, taking on different properties as scientists alter amino acids to create new and potentially more potent versions. It’s hoped that this line of research will lead to the development of treatments for skin cancer in humans.

It's something to think about the next time you consider swatting a spider—though if you happen to reside in Australia and see the funnel-web variety, you might not have a choice. While there are 35 different species of funnel-webs of varying potency, some are so formidable that their fangs can pierce fingernails, and their venom is able to kill a human in less than 15 minutes.

[h/t New Atlas]

A Generic EpiPen Coming in Early 2019 Could Save You Money

Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Alex Wong/Getty Images

For an incredibly common, life-saving medication, EpiPens (epinephrine auto-injectors) are surprisingly difficult for many consumers to get ahold of. Their cost has skyrocketed in recent years from less than $100 for a pack of two to more than $600. They’ve gotten so expensive that some EMTs have resorted to using syringes to manually administer epinephrine rather than purchasing the standard auto-injectors, which are almost exclusively made by the pharmaceutical company Mylan. Generic options have been slow to come to market, but according to Business Insider, a recently approved EpiPen rival is coming in the first few months of 2019, and it could save consumers a significant chunk of change.

The drug’s developers have had an unusually hard time getting the new EpiPen alternative, called Symjepi, onto store shelves. The drug was approved in 2017, but the company, Adamis Pharmaceuticals, had trouble finding investors. Now, Novartis, the Swiss-based pharmaceutical giant that manufactures drugs like Ritalin, is releasing the drug through its Sandoz division (perhaps most famous for it role in discovering LSD in the 1930s).

Symjepi will cost $250 out-of-pocket for a pack of two doses. That’s 16.6 percent less than the Mylan-authorized generic EpiPen or Teva’s generic EpiPen, which both sell for $300. It differs a bit from its rivals, though, in that it’s a pre-filled, single-dose syringe rather than a spring-loaded auto-injector. Auto-injectors are plastic, pen-like devices that keep the needle shielded until the moment of injection, and are specifically designed to help make it easier for untrained (even squeamish) people to use in an emergency. With this version, patients will need to remove a needle cap and inject the needle. Just like the EpiPen, though, it’s designed to be injected in the upper thigh, through clothing if necessary.

If you have health insurance, the difference in cost may not matter as much for you as a consumer, depending on your plan. (I personally picked up a two-pack of Mylan-authorized generic Epipens at CVS recently for $0, using a manufacturer’s Epipen coupon to knock down what would have been a $10 copay.) But it will matter considerably for those with high-deductible plans and to insurers, which, when faced with high costs, eventually pass those costs on to the consumer either through higher co-pays or higher premiums. It also affects agencies that buy EpiPens for emergency use, like local fire departments. And since EpiPens expire after just a year, the costs add up.

However, there’s currently a shortage of EpiPens on the market, according to the FDA, making it more important than ever to have other epinephrine drugs available to those at risk for serious allergic reactions.

[h/t Business Insider]

Brain-Eating Amoeba Kills Seattle Woman Who Used Tap Water in Her Neti Pot

CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

If you use a neti pot to clear out your sinuses, there's one important rule you should always follow: Don't fill it with tap water. Doing so could land you a sinus infection, or worse, a potentially fatal disease caused by a brain-eating amoeba. Although the latter scenario is exceptionally rare, a 69-year-old woman in Seattle died from doing just that, The Seattle Times reports. Experts are also warning that these infections could become more common as temperatures in the northern hemisphere continue to rise.

Physicians at Seattle's Swedish Medical Center initially thought the woman had a brain tumor. She was brought into the emergency room following a seizure, and a CT scan of her brain seemed to reveal a tumor-like mass. The only other known symptom she had was a red sore on her nose, which was previously misdiagnosed as rosacea. When surgeons operated on her the following day, they noticed that "a section of her brain about the size of a golf ball was bloody mush," neurosurgeon Dr. Charles Cobbs told The Seattle Times. "There were these amoeba[e] all over the place just eating brain cells. We didn't have any clue what was going on, but when we got the actual tissue we could see it was the amoeba."

She died a month later of an infection called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), according to a recent case report published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases. The disease is caused by a single-celled amoeba called Balamuthia mandrillaris, and it's extremely deadly. Of the 109 cases between 1974 and 2016, 90 percent were fatal.

According to the FDA, some bacteria and amoebae in tap water are safe to swallow because acid in the stomach kills them. However, when they enter the nasal cavity, they can stay alive for long periods of time and travel up to the brain, where they start eating their way through tissue and cells. Another brain-eating amoeba called Naegleria fowleri can cause a similar disease, except it acts faster and can cause death in just a few days. Although it's also rare, it's usually found in warm freshwater, and infections start by getting contaminated water up one's nose while swimming or by using a nose irrigation device filled with tap water.

Dr. Cynthia Maree, an infectious disease doctor at the Swedish Medical Center, said the changing environment could facilitate the spread of these infections. "I think we are going to see a lot more infections that we see south (move) north, as we have a warming of our environment," Maree says. Researchers say these amoebae are still little-understood. Future studies would need to be conducted to learn more about the risk factors involved.

[h/t The Seattle Times]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER