All of Your Nemeses Probably Share This 'Dark' Personality Type

iStock/Evgeniy Anikeev
iStock/Evgeniy Anikeev

It can be difficult to articulate what exactly it is about one's roommate, or coworker, or best friend's boyfriend that makes them so unpleasant. Luckily, pinning down definitions for the "dark traits" that can compromise a person's moral character is its own area of research. A recent study on the subject suggests that spotting ethically bankrupt people may not be as complicated as we once thought. The findings suggest that someone who exhibits one dark trait is likely to have more of them.

For a series of studies, the results of which were published in the journal Psychological Review, psychologists from the University of Copenhagen and the University of Koblenz-Landau surveyed 2500 participants. They asked them how much they agreed with statements such as “It is sometimes worth a little suffering on my part to see others receive the punishment they deserve,” and “I know that I am special because everyone keeps telling me so.” These questions were meant to gauge the degree to which participants showed these nine personality traits with negative connotations:

  • Egoism: an excessive preoccupation with one's own advantage at the expense of others and the community

  • Machiavellianism: a manipulative, callous attitude and a belief that the ends justify the means

  • Moral disengagement: cognitive processing style that allows behaving unethically without feeling distress

  • Narcissism: excessive self-absorption, a sense of superiority, and an extreme need for attention from others

  • Psychological entitlement: a recurring belief that one is better than others and deserves better treatment

  • Psychopathy: lack of empathy and self-control, combined with impulsive behavior

  • Sadism: a desire to inflict mental or physical harm on others for one's own pleasure or to benefit oneself

  • Self-interest: a desire to further and highlight one's own social and financial status

  • Spitefulness: destructiveness and willingness to cause harm to others, even if one harms oneself in the process

If subjects exhibited one of the tendencies on this list, it usually wasn't their only questionable trait. The researchers found that someone who lacks empathy also tends to be manipulative and egotistical, suggesting that a dark personality is more than the result of a specific combination of traits. Rather, the traits are all symptoms of what the study authors describe as "the D-factor." According to a release from the University of Copenhagen, all of these unsavory behaviors stem from "the general tendency to maximize one’s individual utility—disregarding, accepting, or malevolently provoking disutility for others—accompanied by beliefs that serve as justifications."

That means people who are obsessed with only serving themselves and who don't mind, or might even enjoy, putting others down exhibit the D-factor. Many universally unacceptable behaviors—like violence, lying, stealing, discrimination—can be sorted under this umbrella.

Psychologists may be able to use the research to further study the cause of and relationships between malevolent behaviors in the future. The results could also be useful to anyone who wants to know which type of people to avoid.

Yes, You Have Too Many Tabs Open on Your Computer—and Your Brain is Probably to Blame

If you’re anything like me, you likely have dozens of tabs open at this very moment. Whether it’s news stories you mean to read later, podcast episodes you want to listen to when you have a chance, or just various email and social media accounts, your browser is probably cluttered with numerous, often unnecessary tabs—and your computer is working slower as a result. So, why do we leave so many tabs open? Metro recently provided some answers to this question, which we spotted via Travel + Leisure.

The key phrase to know, according to the Metro's Ellen Scott, is “task switching,” which is what our brains are really doing when we think we're multitasking. Research has found that humans can't really efficiently multitask at all—instead, our brains hop rapidly from one task to another, losing concentration every time we shift our attention. Opening a million tabs, it turns out, is often just a digital form of task switching.

It isn't just about feeling like we're getting things done. Keeping various tabs open also works as a protection against boredom, according to Metro. Having dozens of tabs open allows us to pretend we’re always doing something, or at least that we always have something available to do.

A screenshot of many tabs in a browser screen
This is too many tabs.
Screenshot, Shaunacy Ferro

It may also be driven by a fear of missing information—a kind of “Internet FOMO,” as Travel + Leisure explains it. We fear that we might miss an important update if we close out of our social media feed or email account or that news article, so we just never close anything.

But this can lead to information overload. Even when you think you're only focused on whatever you're doing in a single window, seeing all those open tabs in the corner of your eye takes up mental energy, distracting you from the task at hand. Based on studies of multitasking, this tendency to keep an overwhelming number of tabs open may actually be altering your brain. Some studies have found that "heavy media multitaskers"—like tab power users—may perform worse on various cognitive tests than people who don't try to consume media at such a frenzied pace.

More simply, it just might not be worth the bandwidth. Just like your brain, your browser and your computer can only handle so much information at a time. To optimize your browser's performance, Lifehacker suggests keeping only nine tabs open—at most—at one time. With nine or fewer tabs, you're able to see everything that's open at a glance, and you can use keyboard shortcuts to navigate between them. (On a Mac, you can press Command + No. 1 through No. 9 to switch between tabs; on a PC, it's Control + the number.)

Nine open tabs on a desktop browser
With nine or fewer tabs open, you can actually tell what each page is.
Screenshot, Shaunacy Ferro

That said, there are, obviously, situations in which one might need many tabs open at one time. Daria Kuss, a senior lecturer specializing in cyberpsychology at Nottingham Trent University, tells Metro that “there are two opposing reasons we keep loads of tabs open: to be efficient and ‘create a multi-source and multi-topic context for the task at hand.’” Right now, for example, I have six tabs open to refer to for the purposes of writing this story. Sometimes, there's just no avoiding tabs.

In the end, it's all about accepting our (and our computers') limitations. When in doubt, there’s no shame in shutting down those windows. If you really want to get back to them, they're all saved in your browser history. If you're a relentless tab-opener, there are also browser extensions like OneTab, which collapses all of your open tabs into a single window of links for you to return to later.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

Will the Sun Ever Stop Shining?

Viktor T. Toth:

The Sun will not stop shining for a very, very long time.

The Sun, along with the solar system, is approximately 4.5 billion years old. That is about one-third the age of the entire universe. For the next several billion years, the Sun is going to get brighter. Perhaps paradoxically, this will eventually result in a loss of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere, which is not good news; It will eventually lead to the death of plant life.

Within 2.5 to 3 billion years from now, the surface temperature of the Earth will exceed the boiling point of water everywhere. Within about about 4 to 5 billion years, the Earth will be in worse shape than Venus today, with most of the water gone, and the planet’s surface partially molten.

Eventually, the Sun will evolve into a red giant star, large enough to engulf the Earth. Its luminosity will be several thousand times its luminosity at present. Finally, with all its usable nuclear fuel exhausted and its outer layers ejected into space, the Sun’s core will settle down into the final stage of its evolution as a white dwarf. Such a star no longer produces energy through nuclear fusion, but it contains tremendous amounts of stored heat, in a very small volume (most of the mass of the Sun will be confined to a volume not much larger than the Earth). As such, it will cool very, very slowly.

It will take many more billions of years for the Sun to cool from an initial temperature of hundreds of thousands of degrees to its present-day temperature and below. But in the end, the remnant of the Sun will slowly fade from sight, becoming a brown dwarf: a cooling, dead remnant of a star.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.